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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jul.-Dec. 1881)"

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State Library. 



Extract from the Political Code. 

Skction 2296. Books may be taken from the Library 

by the DnH OF THK LvXilSI.ATlRK, IH'HINU TIIK SKSSlONS 

thkrkof, anil by other State officers at any time. 

Skc. 2298. The Controller, if notified by the Librarian 
that any otlicer has failed to return books taken by him 
within the time prescribed by the Rules, and after demand 
made, must not draw his warrant for the salary of such 
officer until the return is made, or three times the value 
of the books, or of any injuries thereto, has been paid to 
the Librarian. 

Sec. 2299. Every person who injures or fails to return 
any book taken is liable to the Librarian in three times 
the value thereof. 

No person shall take or detain from the General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
period than two weeks. Books of kf.ff.rf.nck sham, not bk 
takkn from thk Library at any timk. — [Extract from the 
Rules. 1 



49 The foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced, "«» 





Volume XXII.] SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 2, 1881. Number 1 



The Great Cotton Show of 1881. 

The engraving on this page presents a bird's- 
eye view of the ground where one of the most 
important industrial events of the decade will 
transpire. It gives a general view of the 
grounds and buildings which will be used in 
the International Cotton Exposition, which will 
open October 5th, and continue until December 
31, 1881. The scene is Oglethorpe Park, At- 
lanta, Georgia. 

It is eminently proper that there should be a 
great cotton exhibition in the United States, 
for cotton is one of the great staples of our 
country, and has done more, perhaps, than any 
other product to give us a high place both in 



ever held in the South, very properly derives 
its title from the leading Southern product — 
the staple which forms the nucleus of the wid- 
est range of Southern industry — but its scope is 
by no means confined to cotton and its anal- 
ogous interests. The schedule of articles shows 
that the various departments are so constituted 
as to offer the freest opportunity for general ex- 
hibition. The classification has been made 
with the greatest care and attention, so as to 
include, in the most satisfactory manner possi- 
ble, the prominent branches of industry without 
diminishing in any degree the pre-eminence of 
cotton and its accessories. Such changes or 
new features as may hereafter be suggested or 
may appear advisable or necessary for a more 
complete success will be incorporated. The 
Executive Committee desire, by every means 



The public will be enabled to see the cotton 
plant, from all parts of the world, in all stages 
of its culture, in well arranged plats, planted in 
successive seasons, with every variety of seeds; 
and, also, judge of the worth of the various fer- 
tilizers and systems of agriculture, as exhibited 
in the plats cultivated under the eye of a super- 
intendent, by various contestants for large pre- 
miums. Seed has already been forwarded from 
California and planted on the exposition 
grounds. 

Very liberal preparations have been made for 
the exhibition of all classes of machinery, in 
operation, and for the display of manufactures 
and natural products. Arrangements have 
been made for the transportation of articles for 
the exposition from all parts of the country at 
half rates, if returned by the same route, and 



Complete Harvesters. 

This year bids fair to decide many practical 
points concerning the combined headers and 
separators of which several kinds have gained 
access to our harvest fields. They are seen of 
course only in the great valleys of our State, 
where the immense expanses of grain per- 
mit their working, and where, if they prove to 
be successful pecuniarily and mechanically, they 
may solve the problem of cheap grain growing. 
Outside of this State and inside of it, except in 
the valleys aforesaid, these machines are only 
known by hearsay. They are large contri- 
vances of course, headers and threshing 
machines combined, which cut the standing 
grain and discharge it in sacks, as they 




THE INTERNATIONAL COTTON EXPOSITION, TO BE HELDJIN OGLETHORPE PARK, ATLANTA, GEORGIA. 



the direction of production and manufacture. 
It is excellent, too, that the South, just enter- 
ing upon her new life as a promising field for 
industry and investment, should have the op- 
portunity to unite a world's representatives 
within her borders, there to behold the best a 
world can do in the production of textiles and 
in the invention of machinery to transform 
them to meet the needs of humanity. We 
count it fortunate in every way that a 
grand cotton exposition should have been 
thought of, and hope it may prove a 
notable success in every way. The fair was first 
proposed at a meeting of Northern and South- 
ern business men, held in Atlanta in October, 
1880, and organized in December, and has re- 
ceived the popular and financial endorsement of 
the leading cities of the country, and is already 
widely celebrated for it3 importance throughout 
Europe, South America, etc. Its affairs are 
managed under an abundant guarantee fund, in 
such a manner as to assure to all visitors and 
exhibitors that their interests will be satisfac- 
torily supervised. 

The exposition, being the first, world's fair 



in their power, to foster and promote through 
this exposition the varied industrial interests of 
the country. 

The rules to govern the exposition give evi- 
dence of an impartial plan of management. 
There are no private interests to subserve in 
any way, and the undertaking is in no sense 
a private enterprise or speculation. The ar- 
rangements that have already been consummat- 
ed are of such a nature as to fully justify the 
Executive Committee in confidently assuring 
the people that it will be equal in variety and 
magnitude and in its great leading department 
superior, in point of interest and attraction, to 
most expositions that have preceded it. 

The principal building was devised for and 
has been adopted as a model cotton mill, and 
it will be seen is of such form and construction 
that space may be added for either department, 
according to the demand, up to the last mo- 
ment. A number of annexes for special pur- 
poses will be erected, in addition to the large 
buildings now on the grounds, which will be 
utilized for the various purposes of the exposi- 
tion. 



for their removal from the depots to the exhibi- 
tion buildings at Oglethorpe Park with safety 
and at low rates. Arrangements for reduced 
rates of fare have been made with the railroad 
and steamship companies. The exposition will 
be held at the season of year when the South, 
particularly the mountainous region surround- 
ing Atlanta, presents its grandest aspect and 
becomes a delightful resort for the people of the 
Eastern, Central and Western States. 

The exhibition will be held in Atlanta, the 
principal city in Georgia, which, though des- 
troyed during the war, has recuperated wonder- 
fully since, and is now one of the leading cities 
of the South. The principal officers of the ex- 
position are: Hon. J. E. Brown, Pres.; S. M. 
Inman, Treas. ; J. W. Ryckman, Sec'y, and H. 
I. Kimball, ex-Comissioner and Director of all. 



The Prince of Wales has subscribed 100 guin- 
eas to the Beaconsfield memorial. The admir- 
ers of the late ex-Premeir hope that this will en- 
courage public subscriptions, which flow in 
lowly, and come mostly from conservatives. 



pass along over the field. Last year there 
were marvelously small figures given as the 
cost of sacking an acre of wheat, but we 
are not aware that systematic tests were made 
of the grain-saving qualities as compared with 
the old style of harvesting. It was reported to 
us last winter that a very heavy growth of vol- 
unteer showed that much grain had been scat- 
tered. This is a point which should be tested 
systematically, and we are glad to know that 
this will be done this year. Dr. Glenn, the 
famous grain grower of Colusa oounty, is testing 
the Centennial harvester, which was one of the 
first brought out by the inventor, and the Chico 
Record says that several men from that vicinity 
who visited the machine at work on Glenn's 
ranch pronounced it working to a charm, but 
just how much it will harvest, thresh and sack 
in a day has not yet been tested. It is reported 
that Dr. Glenn intends running it a couple of 
weeks, and then average the amount of labor 
performed with other methods of heading and 
threshing. We would suggest also that an average 
per acre of similar grain harvested in this and in 
the old way should be ascertained if possible, 



2 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[July 2, 1881. 



The Peach. 

The following paper was read by Leonard 
Coates, of Yountville, at the June meeting of 
the Horticultural Society: 

Although it would not be altogether uninter- 
esting or uninstructive to trace the history of 
the peach in America, and more particularly on 
our own coast, yet we have time for but little 
outside of what is strictly practical. The peach 
will grow and produce fruit, such as it is, upon 
any kind of soil, and of course all who have a 
small orchard will plant a few trees, but it is 
the culture of the peach considered commer- 
cially, and as an industry to which more at- 
tention should be given, that we would speak 
of more expressly. Our reasons for this are 
obvious and various. First, a general awaken- 
ing to the fact that we must consider the San 
Francisco market secondarily, and must aim to 
produce those fruits which can be marketable 
in the Eastern States and in Europe. To do 
this we should give especial attention to those 
varieties which may be canned or dried to ad- 
vantage. 

Secondly, the partial, and, in some cases, 
almost entire failure of the peach crop in the 
South Western and Southern States for the last 
two years, and the rapid decay and premature 
death of many of the trees, owing chiefly to the 
prevalence of the "yellows," a disease as yet 
unknown in California. Thirdly, the adapta- 
bility of so many thousands of acres of cheap 
foothill lands in our State to the culture and 
perfect maturation of this hitherto somewhat 
neglected fruit. 

Soil and Location. 

The deep, sandy loam, or sedimentary de- 
posit bordering the creek beds of our warm 
valleys is of course preferable, not only for the 
peach, but for most fruits. It will not 
only produce fruit of the finest quality, but the 
trees grown therein are naturally longer lived, 
owing to the great depth of soil. But this land 
is generally held at a high figure, aud not, 
therefore, obtainable for the man of small means, 
and it is, of course, comparatively limited in 
extent. The peach, however, will thrive lux- 
uriantly, and mature its fruit to perfection on 
land within the reach of all — land that can be 
bought at from ?5 to $50 per acre, according 
to its being improved or unimproved, and its 
comparative nearness to a town or railroad. 
I refer to the "foothill lands of California." 
This term is becoming rather stereotyped, aud 
is also rather indefinite, but it is generally 
understood to refer to the low and easily-tilled 
hills fringing our innumerable valleys, and re- 
clining at the base of the higher ranges of 
mountains. 

The soil varies greatly, and that selected 
should be of a free, loose nature and as deep as 
possible; those elopes, however, in which the 
seepage is great during the spring months 
should be avoided. To rind these foothill lauds 
I would recommend the use of a saddle horse 
instead of a real estate agent. I have myself 
seen thousands of acres of • u.:h in Solano, Napa, 
Sonoma and Contra Costa counties; and, upon 
inquiry, find that some portions are for sale at 
an average of, say §25 per acre, some soon will 
be, being heavily mortgaged, and other large 
tracts belong to large land owners and are not 
to be bought. The prevalence of spring frosts 
would be an objection, but this and otherpoints 
may be gathered from old settlers in the neigh- 
borhood of a given locality. 

The peach is the stock most generally used 
on which to bud the peach, but we would 
strongly recommend the hard-shell almond. It 
is by some objected to, because it will not stand 
so much water about the roots, but who would 
think of planting a peach orchard in land that 
was not well drained, either naturally or arti- 
ficially ? On the authority of Dr. Strentzel, 
the prach is thriftier, and suffers less from curl- 
leaf when budded on the almond, and I have 
myself seen most flattering results when this 
stock is used, and any one who has taken up a 
eeedling almond, or peach budded on to it, 
must have noticed the remarkable vigor of the 
roots, and the great holt they have in the 
ground. When the peach Btock is used, th« 
pitts should be selected, and not obtained from 
a heterogeneous collection; thus, some advise 
the exclusive use of the seed of the straw- 
berry variety, while others prefer some of the 
late, yellow kinds, as the Smock's free. 

The distance apart at which to plant the 
peach is an important point. This tree matures 
its fruit very early, bears enormously, and 
draws upon the strength of the soil more, I 
think, than any other fruit tree, and yet it is 
the common custom to give them only l(i ft. in 
the orchard, and frequently less. They should 
not be ltsa than 24 ft. apart, unless planted in 
the quincunx form, when trees which live to a 
great age — such as olives, walnuts, pecans, etc. 
— are set out at 30 or 35 ft., with alternate rows 
of peaches between them, which will be 
taken up in 10 or 15 years, the other trees then 
requiring the whole of the ground. No fruit will 
repay so much for the expense and trouble of 
manuring well as the peach. Indeed, to con- 
tinue, year after year, to gather enormous crops 
of fruit, without a marked deterioration of 
quality, manuring must be resorted to. Don't 
spread it over the ground leaving it exposed to 
the evaporating influences of the sun and air, 



but cover it np that the various gases may be 
retained, many of which are soluble in water, 
and will be washed into the soil by the early 
wint. t rains. 

Pruninpf. 

During the first and second years the trees 
should be cut back sufficiently to strengthen 
the main limbs, and the amount to be cut off 
must be according to the growth. The peach 
will often bear a fair crop the second year from 
planting, and as soon a3 a full crop of fruit is 
well set, and the time has passed by when frosts 
may be expected, thinning should be commenced 
and carried on with as much system and dispatch 
as possible. The larger varieties should be al- 
lowed eight inches between each peach, and the 
smaller not less than six. The fruit should be 
picked off, and not knocked off with a pole, as 
is sometimes done. This extra labor may seem 
tedious, but every one who has done it once, 
will thin his peaches every year that the crop 
is set full. The peach requires a totally differ- 
ent method of treatment after it commences to 
bear than the apple or pear, for, as it bears 
only on one-year-old wood, the fruit buds 
for the coming season being formed while 
the fruit is still on the tree, cutting back 
must be more severe, as the growth of now 
wood diminishes. Not more than five or six 
fruit buds should be left on a shoot, and if 
the fruit all sets, it must be also thinned 
as before stated. The trees should bo trained 
low and their vigor eqcouraged by permitting a 
reasonable amount of young shoots to grow 
around the lower part of the main limbs. 
When this method is continued systematically 
every Beason, the trees will boar large crops of 
fruit, of good quality, for many years. When 
they are allowed to over-bear for one or two 
seasons, the fruit will decrease in size, and soon 
become almost worthless; the trees will be en- 
feebled, and in consequence, very liable to be 
attacked by disease. The only thing to be 
done in this case is to cut off the whole top of 
the tree, allowing it to form a new head. I 
have seen old peach orchards thus renovated, 
and the results are often very flattering, but it 
is far better not to allow them to get into snch 
a condition when this desperate remedy is nec- 
essary. 

The Diseases 

The peach is subject to in California are, hap- 
pily, not of a very serious nature. That is, 
they may be counteracted by planting the 
proper varieties, and in a suitable locality. In 
this connection we can but genera ize. The in- 
tending peach grower must consult the nursery- 
man or orchardist who resides in the neighbor- 
hood in which he intends to plant. The white 
mildew has been spreading to rather an alarm- 
ing extent of late years in the Sacramento and 
Santa Clara valleys, and some other sections of 
the State. It is confined moro particularly to 
certain varieties, which the nurserymen should 
discontinue to propagate. On the first appear- 
ance of this mildew, which not only injures the 
leaves, but causes the fruit to be covered with 
unsightly blotches, rendering it unfit for 
market, bluestone should be applied to the roots, 
and sprinkled on the leaves. When an orchard 
is badly affected by it the best thing to do is to 
dig the trees up. The peach is a sensitive tree, 
and will not recover when once a disease has 
taken firmly hold of it. Those varieties which 
are destitute of glands on the petiole or leaf- 
stalk may be put down as very liable to be at- 
tacked by mildew; but I am inclined to think 
that this disease is contagious to some extent, 
like the "yellows," which is playing such havoc 
in the peach orchards of the States east of the 
Rocky mountains. 

The Curl-leaf 
Is more general in California, and is the worst 
evil with which we have to contend in the cul- 
tivation of the peach. Opinions concerning its 
cause and remedy are extremely different, not 
to say conflicting. Discussions are constantly 
taking place in all sections of country through- 
out the^ Union where this fruit is raised. 
It is not^ however, in the midst of a heated ar- 
gument, or when we are striving to demonstrate 
a pet theory, that we can arrive at satisfactory and 
lasting conclusions. It is not, in our opinion, 
any more logical to state thatthe disease Known 
as consumption, in the human family, is caused 
by sitting near an open window, than it is to 
assert that curl-leaf is caused by wet soil. Con- 
sumption is sometimes hereditaiy, but its first 
causes are multitudinous — so with the curl-leaf. 
It would also be equally illogical to say that 
not to sit near an open window was the remedy 
for consumption as to say that planting in dry 
soil would cure the curl-leaf. We believe that 
in many cases, though not invariably, the cause 
to be a too great How of sap at one time; more, 
in fact, than can be elaborated by the leaves; 
at other times a sudden check to the flow of the 
sap, owing co a cold wind or rainstorm. A slight 
modification of this theory — equally true in 
some instances — is that in dry weather evapora- 
tion of the leaves is rapid, and the surplus sap 
will be worked off in this way, while in cool, 
cloudy weather, it is but feeble, and the leaves 
are overcharged. Curl-leaf is also sometimes 
caused by insects, and in this case is not by any 
means confined to the peach. 

A fungus is by some assigned as the canse, 
but this cannot be so, as was shown by Mr. 
Rivers, the Curator of Museum at Berkeley, in 
a communication to the ROBal Press. 

The fungus often visible on the trees is, he 
shows us, but supplementary to various condi- 
tions necessary to its growth, viz. : "diseased 
matter and vapor." (Rural Press, May 14, 
1881.) 



It is as difficult to particularize concerning the 
remedy for, as it is the cause of, this disease. 
We cannot give a list of varieties exempt from 
it, which would be applicable to the State, or 
even to a county, though some have presumed 
to do so. There are, it is true, many varieties 
less subject to it than others, among which we 
may mention Early Crawford, Hale's Early, 
Foster, Salway, Alexander, Susquehanna, and 
others, but we have noticed frequently that 
some which suffer from it almost every year in 
some localities, in others are invariably free 
from it. Seedlings are noticeably liable to curl, 
which may be from one of two causes, viz : the 
early starting of the sap in the spring, or, if the 
tree has never been moved, the great moisture 
and possible sourness about the bottom of the 
tap root. We would recommend that orchard- 
ists buy no trees unless they are assured by the 
nurseryman, whom they know to be an honor- 
able man, that they are worked on stock grown 
from good, selected seed, and would also sug- 
gest a more extensive trial of the hard-shell 
almond for a stock. Dr. Strentzel has had 
many years' experience with trees on this stock, 
and the results are most gratifying. I have 
myself budded the peach on the almond, and 
think very highly of it, finding no fault with it 
whatever, thus far. 

In conclusion, we would ask that the peach 
be allowed to take a more prominent place 
among our marketable fruits. It is an abun- 
dant bearer, and if well cared for, and properly 
handled and maiketed, will yield large returns 
to the acre. At three years old it will bear 
about 50 pounds to the tree, increasing enor- 
mously year by year, especially if given plenty 
of room, not less than 24 ft., instead of being 
overcrowded by being allowed only 16 ft. from 
tree to tree. In warm, interior valleys, it 
would be well to plant some early varieties 
for the San Francisco or local market. 
Amongst these the Alexandria ranks high, 
being a handsome, well - flavored fruit, 
and generally free from disease. I have fruited 
this season Brice's Early June and Gov. Gar- 
land, gathering the first in Napa valley on June 
13tb, the second four days later. This will 
make Brice's to be ten days earlier than Alex- 
ander or Amsden. The main varieties to be 
grown should, however, be the large, yellow 
freestones, which are mostly in demand at the 
canneries. Some good white peaches and a 
few varieties of the best clings should also be 
planted. 

We would urge the starting of local canneries 
in every locality where sufficient fruit is raised. 
The concentration of these establishments in 
San Francisco or Oakland is greatly to be 
deprecated. If the canners will persist 
in putting up the unsalable, nnripe, and 
over-ripe trash that accumulates in the San 
Francisco market, the glory that circles about 
the name of California fruits throughout the 
world will be dimmed — nay, it will be turned 
into a "hissing and a bye- word." It rests with 
the canners. Let them refuse to take, even 
at a gift, any fruit that is not in a proper 
condition ; but this is with many fruits — 
the peach for instance — impossible where they 
have to be shipped a hundred or more 
miles. But the fraud ends not here. All 
kinds of plums — good, bad or indifferent — 
if of a green or yellow color, are labeled "yellow 
egg." Peaches of every description are canned 
and sent into market as "Morris Whites" or 
"Crawfords," and so on through the whole 
category of fruits and vegetables, Let ns hope 
that this short-sighted policy will soon come to 
an end. No part of the globe can produce finer 
peaches than California; the large orchards of 
the Southwestern and Southern States are be- 
coming incurably diseased, and the trees are 
dying out; cur Golden State is looked to — may 
it not be looked to in vain! 

Plants Worth Trying in California. 

The following is Part III of the report of H. 
Behr and W. G. Klee, to the State Horticultu- 
ral Society, of plants mentioned in Baron Von 
'Mueller's "Select Plants," and which are 
deemed worthy of trial in this State. This 
branch of the report was presented at the June 
meeting: 

Bamboos: .Under this head may be inclnded 
all tree-like grasses, but especially those of a 
very hard and tough nature. Of the vast num- 
ber of bamboos found in America, Africa and 
Asia, we find some 80 different species men- 
tioned as likely to succeed in sub-tropical coun- 
tries. We shall mention but a few, not be- 
cause we think them little likely to succeed or 
of small importance; on the contrary wo sub- 
scribe fully to the eloquent plea of Ferd. V. 
Mueller, wherein he calls attention to their great 
usefulness for a multitude of purposes, and we 
believe that their importance can hardly be 
overestimated for treeless countries, where along 
the irrigating ditches they should be planted in 
every available spot. Our reason for naming 
but few is that the botanical names are gener- 
ally not known in the countries where they 
are mostly cultivated, except in botanical gar- 
dens and their immediate surroundings. This 
is shown by the fact that even the government 
importations of last year are wanting in correct 
names. To give, therefore, a number of botani- 
cal names, would be of little benefit to most 
people here who have no means of procuring 
bamboo except by getting them from the na- 
tives and under the local name of the country, 
be it Mexico, South America, China, Japan or 
India. 



Arundinaria falcata: Is the Ringal or Nigala 
bamboo; a native of the Himalaya mountains; 
found at an elevation of from 3,500 to 10,000 
ft.; it rises to the hight of 40 ft., with canes, 
however, of but four inches in diameter. The 
canes are strong and durable, and may be util- 
ized for a variety oi purposes. In the Garden 
of Economic Plants in Berkeley there is a plant 
of this species, raised from seed, but 18 monthB 
old that has in three weeks made canes nearly 
six ft. long, and that without much moisture. 
This bamboo is besides perfectly hardy, even 
where it is beaten down with snow every win- 
ter. It is, furthermore, easy to increase by di- 
vision and cuttings. 

Dendrocalaraus strictus: Recommended as re- 
sisting great heat and cold; also for growing on 
dryer ground than bamboos generally; attain- 
ing a hight of 100 ft. Its strength aud solidity 
make it very valuable. It is found in India, 
specially in Bengal. Seeds, donated by Baron 
Ferd. V. Mueller to the University Gardens, 
seem to require great heat to germinate. 

Bambusa vulgaris: Is the large unarmed 
bamboo of Bengal; grows to the hight of 70 
ft. It is, however, less hardy than any of the 
first named, thongh it will resist occasional frost, 
and might no doubt find many localities in the 
State to suit its requirements. 

Phyllostacbys nigra: From China and Japan; 
is a very hardy, black-stemmed species, growing 
to the hight of 25 ft. It is utilized for chairs 
and walking-sticks, as the canes are nearly 
solid. 

In connection with these few named species, 
we must mention that in the Gardens of Econ- 
omic Plants in Berkeley are now growing five 
distinct species, derived from various sources, 
none of whioh we have been able to determine 
the botanical name of. Three of these were 
imported by the Agricultural Department, and 
named Bambusa metake, B. moso, B. tadalce. 
None of these are real botanical names accord- 
ing to the best authority consulted on the sub- 
ject (Gen. Munro's Monograph of the Bamboos), 
except perhaps B. metake, which, however, does 
not answer to the specimen on hand. All these 
are doing well. A fourth kind is the so-oalled 
moso, a slender species of rapid growth in 
Japan, utilized as greens, like asparagus. A 
fifth is a direot importation from Choo-foo, 
China, planted right from a tub into the gar- 
den. It sent forth shoots that in less than 
three weeks have grown six ft. This species 
may possibly be bambusa vulgaris. 

Before leaving the bamboos, we desire to re- 
peat that we have the greatest appreciation of 
the importance of the bamboo for California, 
and would be very grateful for any information 
and local experience in regard to these plants. 

Botmeria nivea: The ramie. Although no 
machine, as yet, has solved the difficulty in re- 
gard to the preparation of this fiber plant, it is 
gratifying to know that it is perfectly hardy and 
well adapted to a greater part of California, as 
experiments in various parts of California have 
proved. As a paper plant it might, perhaps, 
find favor, until the inventive genius of the 
Yankee has solved the difficult problem of con- 
structing a ramie fiber machine. 

Bo»meriatenacissima: Is, according to French 
and German seedsmen, the most valuable fiber 
plant, much superior to nivea; this, however, 
is contradicted by the report of the Washington 
Agricultural Department, which says that the 
two are identical for all practical purposes. 

Buxus semper virens: The tree box.' As the 
boxwood is in constant demand and its supply 
in Asia Minor becoming scanty, it is to be hoped 
that some one will undertake the planting of it, 
which, perhaps, will be an investment, slow in 
its returns, but likely to be a sure and profit- 
able one in the end. 

Chrysanthemum (Pyrethrum) Roseum and 
Carnenm : The insect powder plants. As the 
cultivation of the Pyrethrum cinerarit folium, 
or Dalmation feverfew, has been started on a 
large scale, it deserves notice, that besides the 
named species, there are five others that are 
tftilized for this purpose, viz.: tenui/blium, 
Wilde no wii, persicum, corymbosum, macrophyU 
lum; and though some have settled on the Dal- 
matian, others may be equal, or; perhaps, better 
suited to some localities than others. The dif- 
ficulty that has been -experienced in getting 
seeds of the various kinds is now passed, as 
Prof. Riley has sent seeds of roseum, to several 
places in the State, and the Stockton firm 
have decided to sell their seed of cinerariefolium. 

Diascorea, Yam: Diascorea hastifolia is na- 
tive of Western Australia ; is recommended as 
very hardy. D. japonica, the Japanese, and D. 
glabra (Batatas), deserve trial. The litter has 
lately been distributed by the San Francisco 
Bulletin. Diascorea alata, the Uvi yam, is a 
species that hails from the South Sea islands, 
but has been grown successfully in New Zea- 
land, and would most likely flourish in parts of 
California, where too early night frosts do not 
occur. 

Stillingia sebifera(euphorbiaceae): The tallow 
tree of China; has been naturalized in some of 
the Southern States, and is probably perfectly 
hardy in the greater part of this State. A vege- 
table tallow is derived from the coating of the 
seeds ; hence the name. 

Fatsia (Aralia) papyrifera: Is planted for 
ornament, and seemB perfectly hardy from San 
Francisco southward; as a source of the beauti- 
ful rice paper it might perhaps find more exten- 
sive use; it is the pith that is utilized. 

Fourcroya longa-va: Is a near relation of the 
Century plant (Agave Americana), from the 
high mountains of Mexico, at an elevation of 
10,000 ft. It reaches gigantic size, with a stem 
50 ft. high, and a panicle of flowers about 40 ft. 



July 2, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PBESS, 



3 



The fiber obtained from this, as well as from 
the perhaps, less hardy F. gigantea, is very 
strong. 

Guizotia oleifera: From India and perhaps 
Abyssinia, is the source of the Ramtil oil, util- 
ized like the Bene oil (sesamum), for culinary 
purposes as well as in various industries. It is 
a yellow-flowered, coarse looking composite 
herb, that seems perfectly adapted to the bay 
climate, maturing in Berkeley good seed, where 
the season is too cold for the Bene. The seeds 
of this plant are also known as Niger seeds in 
the London market. 

Indigo: The various species of Indigo, Indigo 
pera, Anil and Tinctoria, are doubtless well 
adapted to the southern part of the State as far 
as heat is concerned, but with irrigation and 
consequent additional labor it is perhaps a great 
question whether it could be produced at a 
figure low enough for competition. 

Jub*i spectabilis: The Coquito of Chile, is 
one of the hardiest palms. In its native home 
it is utilized for the production of a syrup for 
which the tree is regularly tapped. It is said 
to be very productive. The young plant resem- 
bles closely the date-palm. 

Kentia sapida: The Nika palm of New Zeal- 
and Chatham islands, is a beautiful palm yet 
hardly known in this country. The unex- 
panded flower stalks are used as palm cabbage. 

Liquidamber Formoseana: From China, gives 
a species of sweet gum utilized for feeding a 
kind of silkworm. 

Liquidamber orientalis: From Asia Minor, 
yields the vanilla-scented liquid storax, prized 
in perfumery. 

Maouttia Puya: Is a stingless nettle like the 
Ramie, utilized for its fine fiber. It is an In- 
dian plant found as high as 4,000 ft. elevation. 

Maranta arundinacea: Is the true arrowroot of 
commerce. The culture of this plant is com- 
paratively easy. It has, as far as we are aware, 
been cultivated with success in Fresno county. 

Nicotiana persica: The shiraz tobacco, is 
recommended as adapted for more moist and 
cool climate. 

Plectocomia Himalayensi: Is one of the hard- 
iest rattan palms. 

Pogostemon patchouli: A labiate (mint-like) 
herb that produces the patchouli so much used 
as a perfume. It deserves notice that the seeds 
of Hibiscus Abelmoschus (Abefmoschus by 
the Germans) has been introduced to this coun- 
try, the Department of Agriculture having 
twice received seed of this from two different 
sources. The true patchouli is a native of the 
mountains of India. 

Quercus Aegilops from S. Europe: Is a nearly 
evergreen oak, the fruit of which is available for 
dying and tanning ; the cups are called valenia, 
while the unripe acorns are called camata; 
ripe, they may be eaten. The tree is further- 
more a fine avenue tree. 

Pueraria tuberosa: From S. Asia, is a tall, 
woody climber belonging to the pea family 
(Leguminosce), the tubers of which are long, 
and rich in starch; it is perhaps the same spe- 
cies as P. Hieboldili, that in Japan furnishes 
a superior starch. This plant has been tried 
with success in the Garden of Economic Plants, 
in Berkeley, where it grows without irrigation, 
sending out vines 12 to 15 ft. long in a few 
months. 

Quillaya Saponaria (Rosaceae): The Spanish 
bark or soap-bark of Chile, is the product of this 
tree. It reaches an enormous size. Seeds are very 
light aud apt to be abortive; due care should be 
taken to have them perfectly ripe for shipment, 
or they will not keep. 

Rhamnus chlorophorus (Rhamnaceat) Buck- 
thorn family: From the bark of this Chinese 
tree is a very superior green color derived, util- 
ized particularly for silk. R. utilis is another 
species used for the same purpose. The dye 
from these trees is called Lokao. 

Rhus vernicifera terebinthaceae: Is a medium 
Bize tree of Japan, yielding the true Japan var- 
nish. This as well as its close relation Rhus 
succedanea, aie both well adapted to the cli- 
mate around the bay, as trees grown in Berke- 
ley show. 

Rhus Coriaria: The tanner's sumach, is a 
south European species, the foliage of which is 
extremely rioh in tannin, and in great demand. 
This species can doubtless be grown with suc- 
cess on dry ground, as the plant not alone pre- 
fers it, but its product here is superior. The 
attention should be called to properties of the 
native California sumach that are very rich in 
tannin — Rhus integrifolia especially, an ever- 
green species abundant on the southern coast. 
The poison oak (R. diversiloba), might no doubt 
also produce a fine varnish, if the way of hand- 
ling it with impunity was studied out. 

Salix purpurea: From Europe and Asia ; is 
one of the better Osier willows. This species, 
as well as the real Osier, 8. viminalis and S. 
triandra, should be planted along water courses, 
instead of the native more or less brittle species. 
Cuttings of these could, in proper season, be 
shipped with the greatest safety. 

Stipa tenacissima: A grass found in South 
Europe and North Africa, known as the Esparto, 
or Atocha. Its principal use, of late, has been 
for the manufacture of paper, but as it is con- 
tent to live in dryest spots near the desert, it 
may prove valuable as a forage plant. The 
plant deserves special trial. 

Vahea florid a: A native of West Africa, but 
found up to 2,500 ft. elevation. Is a beautiful 
climber, with white, fragrant flowers, the plant 
yielding caoutchouc. 



Mayor Kalloch has returned to San Fran- 
cisco from his Eastern trip, and announces that 
he is a candidate for re-election. 



Short Horn Notes. 

Among the recent sales of Short Horns in 
the U. S. are two to which we wish to give 
some particulars. A draft of 55 head from the 
Bow Park herd (Canada) was sold at Waukegan, 
111., on the 13th of April, when the 55 animals 
sold for an average of $516.35. Although a 
few animals of Booth blood are bred at Bow 
Park, the greater portion of the herd is made 
up of animals of pure Bates blood and such as 
have several crosses of Bates bulls on pedigrees 
with a good sound foundation. 

The highest-priced animal in the sale was 
•'Duchess of Oxford, 21st," sold for $4,200; 
"Duke of Oxford, 46th," sold for $2,350. The 
next highest-priced cow was "Kirklevington 
Duchess, 26th," who sold for $2,550 to H. L. 
Stout, Dubuque, Iowa, he being the purchaser 
of "Duke of Oxford, 46th," also of "Duchess of 
Barrington, 10th," at $1,810. 

The next highest prices paid were for two 
Kirklevington bulls, that sold for $1,760 and 
$1,000 respectively. 

"Duchess of Springwood, 6th" (of the Craggs 
family), sold for $1,075 to H. L. Stout. The 
only other animal that sold as high as $1,000 — 
Mr. Stout being the purchaser at that figure — 
was the yearling heifer "Roan Duchess, 23d," 
of the family known by that name in this 
country, but, perhaps, better known in Eng- 
land as "Blanches," from being descendants of 
"Blanche," by "Belvedere" (1706). "Roan Duke, 
7th" (of the same family), sold for $510; "Dukes 
of Barrington, 11th and 12th," sold, re- 
spectively, for $550 and $475 each. 

At the sale of Avery & Murphy, and others, 
held at Port Huron, Mich., on the 18th and 
19th of May, 122 animals sold for $72,010, an 
average of $590.25. Of this sale, the Live Stock 
Journal, to which we are indebted for list of 
prices, remarks: "With the exception of the 
sale made by Messrs. Cochrane & Cannon, at 
Dexter Park, June 30, 1880, when the average 
was $900, the Port B uron sale was the best 
since Messrs. Meredith & Son sold at Dexter 
Park, May 11, 1877, and made an average of 
$612 on 38 animals." 

As in the Bow Park sale, we shall merely 
enumerate a few of the leading prices, with the 
averages of some of the best families, as we 
prefer encouraging people to look upward and 
onward, at the best side of things rather than at 
the worst, to get the best they can, in cattle, to 
begin with, and keep on improving with the 
best bulls they can either breed or purchase. 

At the Port Huron sale were four Duchesses, 
sold at an average of $5,645, one being sold as 
a doubtful breeder for $3,000. The two-year- 
old bull, "3d Grand Duke of Airdrie," sold for 
$1,720, and the nine-year-old "23d Duke of Air- 
drie," for $1,050. "Marquis of Oxford," four 
years old, brought $1,500. "Wild Eyes of Vine- 
wood " was purchased by T. C. Anderson for 
$2,900, who also bought her yearling daughter 
for $2,000, and her three-months-old heifer calf 
for $710. 

Two cows and two yearling heifers of the Kirk- 
levington family sold for an average of $1,134, 
and two bulls for $710 and $610 respectively. 
"Princess Maud 2d," and her C. C. (of the Place 
family), sold for $1,305. 

Nine Rose of Sharon cows and heifers made an 
average of $592.50; one yearling bull $600, and 
a bull calf $300. Such cattle as the Rose of 
Sharons are not bad property to own, neither 
would a lot of Victorias, such as Mr. Sanborn 
sold nine head of, cows and heifers, for an 
average of $390. 50 each, and one bull, "Victoria 
Duke 4th," for $400. We have named the high- 
est prices realized at the above sales, and the 
number of animals sold to show that there was 
no large number of very high priced animals to 
make up the high averages obtained at both the 
sales. 

This is a healthy outlook for Short Horn 
breeders, who are aiming at breeding for useful 
animals, rather than for making the appear- 
ance of a pedigree on paper the main object of 
their breeding. According to the information 
gathered from the most reliable sources, it is 
quite evident that the demand is more than 
ever for bulls of a useful character, strong, 
thick fleshed, robust animals, showing unmis- 
takable signs of havdy constitution and great 
thriving qualities, good wrestlers, as T. L. Mil- 
ler, or some other upholder of the Hereford 
breed, puts it; however, let us hope that Short 
Horn breeders have become fully alive to the 
necessities of the day, with a full determina- 
tion that no other breed of cattle whatever, 
shall take the leading place already held by the 
Short Horn breed, for, has not the general farm- 
ing community long ago declared that they are 
the best cattle for the general farmer ? Here- 
tofore they have spread more rapidly than all 
other breeds put together, and we are quite 
confident that they will hereafter, if possible, 
even more than of old, maintain their well mer- 
ited popularity for general usefulness, as a 
breed of cattle, by their real merits, as brought 
out and developed by the best and most success- 
ful breeders of their kind. 



Large numbers of cattle have been starved 
to death in New Brunswick and northern 
Maine on account of scarcity of hay. 



SlfEEf \UO WoOL. 



Sheep in California and Elsewhere. 

Editors Press : — I have to-day very pleas- 
antly interviewed Mr. Jenkins, an ex-legislator 
from this district. He is an extensive rancher 
and sheep raiser. I learned of him several 
ideas concerning wool-growing in [[Nebraska, 
California and Australia, which I think cannot 
fail to interest at least a portion of your read- 
ers. He has traveled largely and is very ob- 
serving and inquiring, remembering all he hears 
and sees. The sheep here are not as yet graded 
as finely as in California. This is accounted 
for from the fact that woolgrowing is a com- 
paratively new vocation; the sheep have been 
brought from all parts of the Union, east, west, 
north and south. When sheep men will take 
the proper steps toward improving their grades, 
it is thought that just as fine a quality of 
wool can be grown here as in California. 

A great share of the sheep raised in Nebraska 
are a mixture of the Cotswold and Leicester- 
shire, while farther south, in Kansas, Texas and 
New Mexico are the Spanish Merino and Mex- 
ican. The latter are better adapted to a warm 
climate, produce finer wool and are more val- 
uable in every way. The climate of California 
is well adapted to a cross between the Spanish 
Merino and Mexicans. I should be much 
pleased if someone would speak more definitely 
than I am able in explanation of the fact that 
wool brings nearly 50% more in California than 
here although it must be shipped some 2,000 
miles farther. The only causes which I am 
now able to give for it are as follows: The 
wool of California is of a somewhat finer grade, 
can be bought in larger quantities and at a con- 
sequent less expense. 

For a man who wishes to engage quite exten- 
sively in sheep raising, California is the better 
country; for the same labor and capital will 
care for a much larger amount of sheep than a 
like investment in Nebraska. The winters are 
such that not more than one-half the labor and 
expense are required in caring for them. If a 
person is able to run but a small band, he may 
do as well here. 

Grading Wool in Australia. 

Mr. Jenkins mentioned three or four points 
of particular interest in regard to wool-growing 
in Austialia. There each wool-grower hires a 
wool-sorter to come to his ranch and sort his 
clip of wool, fleece by fleece. There is a regu- 
lar system of grading established throughout 
the country. The wool- sorter, as soon as he 
has sorted the wool, bales it and marks upon 
each bale the grade to which it belongs. 
The buyers depend mostly upon this grading, in 
their purchases. There is such a difference in 
price that each man exerts himself in im- 
proving, as much as possible, his grade of wool. 
In Australia it is an acknowledged fact that 
the nature of the vegetation and also the com- 
position of the soil have much to do in the pro- 
duction of coarse or fine wool. Reason leads 
me to judge that such must also be the case on 
the Pacific coast. If so, it is very important 
that one should assure himself, before procuring 
a range, that the herbage is of as fine and tender 
a nature as possible, and that the soil is of a 
volcanic or sandstone nature, rather than lime- 
stone. 

Treatment for Scab. 

In regard to treatment for scab in Australia 
compared with California, there they trust to 
no wholesale preparation, but choose to prepare 
their own. They use the essence of tobacco, 
together with sulphur and carbolic acid, the 
quantity of each depending upon the condition 
of the sheep. In using any of the patent com- 
pounds, the ingredients are mixed in certain 
proportions, and it must be thus used notwith- 
standing the fact that the different stages of the 
disease require different proportions. 

In Australia, there are "State Scab In- 
spectors," who are sent out among sheep ranches 
to see that the law in regard to this disease is 
fully carried out. This law requires that every 
man who discovers any indication of scab 
shall notify all wool-growers within a certain 
distance of him that the disease is gaining a 
footing among his sheep and that he shall post 
notices in public places, making known the 
fact. The same law requires that every sign 
of r the disease shall be stamped out in- 
side of 90 days. If it can be done in no other 
way, the sheep thus afflicted must be 'killed. 
The time is coming when such a law will neces- 
sarily be enacted in California. Wool-growers 
are, a great many of them, altogether too care- 
less in this matter. The State Legislature, in- 
stead of spending the time allotted them for 
passing laws relating to this and other points 
of equal interest to the general welfare of the 
State, throw away their time in fighting over 
the Debris Bill, etc. The time, no doubt, is 
coming when California will wake more fully 
to the true interests of her producers and adopt 
every appliance for their success. 

S. A. S. 

Geneva, Nebraska. 
♦ 

Wool Sorters' Disease. — For some time past 
considerable discussion has arisen in the manu- 
facturing districts of England over a malady called 
wool sorter's disease. Mr. Roberts, the medical 
officer of health for the district of the Keighley 
Local Board, treats at considerable length in 



bis annual report for 1£80 of the nature and 
preventives of this disease. In summing up 
from the report it is recommended that the fol- 
lowing precautions be taken without fail by 
wool sorters: "(1) Wool sorters not to sort dan- 
gerous wools when they have any sore places or 
cracks on their hands or fingers; (2) to be care- 
ful not to wipe or rub their faces with their 
hands while sorting, especially if they have any 
cracks or pimples on the face or lips; (3) to 
wash their hands before eating, and to take 
neither food nor drink into the room where the 
wool is being sorted." The sorting room, he 
adds, ought to be well ventilated, to be swept 
regularly, and to have the walls and ceilings 
whitewashed twice a year. 



piSCICllLjJr\E. 



Trout Ponds. 

Editors Press : — Within th ree miles of Nevada 
City an old-time miner is hard at work, utilizing 
the free waste water from springs and tunnels. 
The conformation of the ground favors the con- 
struction of lakelets and reservoirs, at trifling out- 
lay of labor and money. The overflow passes 
by three gates through wire screens, falling 
upon rock, and at present is conducted away 
through side ditches into a natural water chan- 
nel. About midway the length of the lakelet, 
a little island with young trees remains. Some- 
time it will have a rustic summer-house, and 
beds of bright flowers. This will create a de- 
sire to row, and necessitate a boat. This in turn 
will be a home attraction and amusement to 
each member of the family. 

At one of the side gates the proprietor has 
constructed a feeding place 10 ft. in diameter, 
from which the water can be drawn. This he 
says will enable him at pleasure to assort, 
count or divide the fish. In this are little 
piles of smooth, white rocks. The baby fish 
were evidently familiar with the presence of 
their friend the owner, and in large numbers 
were waiting to be fed. He dropped clabbered 
milk into the still water upon the rock piles, 
luatantly, from the shady nooks they came by 
the thousand, until the water was thick with 
them. At our slightest movement, even at a 
shadow on the water, they would scatter, fright- 
ened away, as rapidly as they came. The banks 
about the feeding place are semi-circular and 
terraced one above the other. These are to 
have the sides sodded, and the walks graveled. 
To accommodate the friends who may, as we 
did, seek the place to learn the habits of the 
speckled beauties, benches are to be placed 
there. The stock is young, consisting of 2,000 
land-locked salmon and 8,000 trout. The own- 
er says that in three months those that came to 
the feeding places have grown from the length 
of a grain of barley to two inches. At sundown, 
small as they are, their leaping out of the wa- 
ter after insects is a lively and interesting 
sight. 

As rapidly as possible the series of excava- 
tions will be continued to make room for the 
increasingly large family. The intention is to 
have nine of these narrow deep lakelets, fed by 
pure spring water. The capacity of each to be 
from 8,000 to 10,000 fish. These lakelets are 
independent of natural water courses and hence 
not Liable to be washed out by spring floods. 
The gentleman has the help of two half-grown 
lads. The work is all done by hand, with aid 
of pick, shovel, amd wheel-barrow. 

There is a possibility of fountains and a 
deer park. A long side hill containing 
40 or 50 acres overlooking this series of 
lakelets can easily be fenced for that pur- 
pose. Magnificent forest trees and clumps 
of lilacs are scattered over it. The sparkling 
waters can be conducted in an open ditch along 
the highest line of this hill, and then be piped 
across to the lower hill for domestic and irri- 
gating purposes. To date, not a drop of water 
has been carried on to the garden, but young 
fruit trees and small fruits are growing thriftily 
within a shadow length of pine trees 100 ft. 
high. 

A four-roomed, two-story house last spring 
took the place of the miner's cabin. Wife and 
children, books and magazines and refinements 
have come from town to share the ambition and 
give light and love to the willing worker. 
These people have a U. S. title to the land, but 
have very little money. How they manage to 
make expenses we will tell in our next. 

Mrs. C. F. Young. 

Nevada City, Cal. 



Sugar from Rags. — Brooklyn, N. Y., it 
seems, does not enjoy a monopoly m the manu- 
facture of sugar from rags, as recently described 
in their columns. We learn from a European 
journal that this manufacture is now carried on 
upon a large scale in Germany. A German fac- 
tory is regularly engaged in business, treating 
the rags first by sulphuric acid so as to convert 
them into dextrine. The dextrine is bleached, 
by means of milk of lime, and then submitted 
to a new sulphuric acid bath stronger than the 
first, after which, being transformed into crys- 
tals of glucose, it can be employed in jellies 
and confections. The glucose which is obtained 
by this process can be sold very cheaply, and 
it resembles chemically that which is derived 
from grapes. The attention of the German 
government has been called to the danger, in a 
hygienic point of view, which may arise from 
the use of this article. 



4 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[July 2, 1881. 




The Grange and Co-operation. 



There exists now, and did at the time the 
Grange was organized, immense combinations, 
which, by a system of co-operation, are enabled 
to control the price paid for and sold for, and 
manipulate every minutia of trade, transporta- 
tion and distribution of the world's products 
with perfect ease and harmony. 

These are great examples of co-operation, to 
which no one would object if they, did not di- 
gress from their own legitimate spheres of ac- 
tion. But all experience proves that where the 
power of co-operation is applied by one great 
class, all other classes in any way connected 
with them must apply the same power, or else 
the natural laws are subverted into personal uses. 

The farmer, as a class, is connected with all 
other classes, while all classes but the farmers 
are applying this great power of co-operation, 
which as a natural sequence operates to their 
gain and the detriment of the farmer. 

These combinations are dividing the profits 
on the farmer's labor among themselves as may 
suit their interests or fancy. This is co-opera- 
tion used for oppression, but nevertheless proves 
that it posesses a power when applied to any 
enterprise. The founders of the Grange were 
fully aware the great natural law of "demand 
and supply" was crippled by the co-operation 
of boards of trade and corporate associations, 
and wisely determined to make the Grange the 
means of placing the producer on an equal foot- 
ing with those who were controlling both con- 
sumption and production, by ottering them an 
organization througli which as perfect and com- 
plete a system of co-operation may be operated 
as has been by corporations and stock com- 
panies, boards of trade and exchanges, for 
many years. 

The Grange, therefore, is a co-operative as 
well as a social institution. It could not be 
less and accomplish anything of importance. 
No social, educational, or business enterprise 
can be successfully prosecuted without co-opera- 
tion. Aside from the Grange, to-day the farm- 
ers of America have absolutely no organization 
or means of applying the power of co-operation. 

The benefits which have been and are being 
obtained in this way is no proportion of the 
/cal and lidelity to the principles as actually 
shown by our members. But enough has been 
accomplished that if the Grange was to be in- 
stantly exterminated, the farmers of the coun- 
try would be amply repaid for all time and 
labor in the work. 



Bringing in the Youth. 

A letter from Mrs. Frisbie to the Patron 
shows how the subordinate Granges can be 
built up by leading in the young men and maid- 
ens under the new provisions of the constitu- 
tion. The lesson is applicable everywhere. We 
quote: At no time within the last live years 
has this Grange shown a greater degree of pros- 
perity than at present. The first degree was 
conferred on a class of 10. No initiation has 
taken place for a period of two years. The 
well-filled hall of interested members testified 
to their keen relish of old-time ceremonies. 
Yuba City Grange was organized eight years 
ago, having at one time a membership of 11'); 
but names have dropped from the list from 
various causes, until we number but 53, a faith- 
ful few, resolved to uphold the pledge to the 
last. But now the circle widens by the ad- 
mission of the little ones of eight years ago, 
now upon the threshold of the active warfare 
with life, its duties and its responsibilities. 
Freshened by a genuine acquaintance with na- 
ture, equipped with energy and enthusiasm, 
our promising boys and girls will ably advance 
the interests and buoy the purposes of this 
ennobling cause; and however fortune may 
individualize their natural gifts, and their 
avocation incline to separate ways, they will 
always love the Order, and devotion will long 
linger with its baud of faithful adherents. We 
have uttered many a sensible protest that our 
meetings were uninteresting, very pointless 
and dull. To remedy this we have formed 
programmes to vary the exercises, including 
songs, essays, recitations and select reading. 
This soon awakens a warm interest. It seems 
to be the one touch needful to give zest to our 
meetings and to bring dilatory GrangerB back 
into the fold. 

The Grange as an Educator. 

The Grange is a silent but efficient educator, 
intellectually and otherwise. It gathers up for 
its members all of the stores of experience of its 
members in their agricultural line. The social 
amenites and the lessons of higher morals are 
taught in its deliberations. A profitable spirit 
of enterprise is fostered. Intellectual truths of 
the first magnitude are disseminated; social 
and political economy are made plain and 
familiar. The narrow limits of ordinary prac- 
tical life are enlarged, while broader and 
healthier views are inculcated. The members 
are made familiar with the methods of legisla- 
tion and prepared for the more important duties 
of life — the vital relations of producer and con- 



sumer are more clearly defined, and farmers are 
to comprehend the fact, and rejoice in it that 
they are farmers. There is no one, who has 
for a few years been a true Patron, and attended 
faithfully to his obligation, but what will fully 
endorse what we say. The Grange is an educa- 
tor and a thorough one. It has shown its stu- 
dents where agriculturists have suffered waste 
in time and substance, and teaches how to 
avoid them. Are you willing to abandon an in- 
stitution which has done so much for you? — 
Iowa Grange Visitor. 

Resolutions of Respect. 

Grand Island Graxqk, Colusa county, lias adopted 
resolutions of respect to the memory of a beloved sister, 
Louisa M. Totman, wife of Bro. J. R. Totman.— [Mrs. H. 
D. Strother, Mrs. H. Davis, Mrs. P. Earp, Committee. 



CALIFORNIA. 

BUTTE. 

Northern Oranges. National, June 25: 
Through the kindness- of Mr. Ketchum, who 
keeps the toll-bridge at Bidwell's Bar, w e were 
recently enabled to try the oranges from the 
celebrated orange tree in his garden. This tree 
was brought from Sacramento to the Bar in 
1856, by Judge Lewis, and planted there, and 
is probably the oldest orange tree in the north- 
ern part of the State. The fruit is delicious, 
and proves that the foothills in that neighbor- 
hood will, in a few years, produce as fine 
oranges as can be found in the world. 
COLUSA. 

Ho! for Colusa Plains.— Colusa Sun, June 
25: The threshing outfit of Messrs. Decker & 
King passed through town this morning, says 
the Chico Record of Wednesday, en routo for 
the plains of Colusa county, to work in the 
vicinity of Willows. The engine and separator 
was accompanied by a dining car 30 ft. in 
length, with a store-room as a back action, and 
long rack and troughs mounted on a wagon, 
which will perform the office of a stable. The 
outfit is the most complete of any that will be 
put in the field this season, and has been ar- 
ranged with all the conveniences that will add 
to the comfort of the attending workmen. The 
work on the plains will continue about three 
months. 

The Goose Land.— There is a large body of 
land just south of Willows, so flat that the 
water did not drain off of it, and it became 
chilled and baked to such an extent as to be 
thought worthless. N. D. Hideout, of Marys- 
ville, purchased a large body of this land and 
put Sir. G. W. Hoag to farming it. To make 
a success he put exactly the right man ahold of 
it. Lige Hart, of the Willows Journal, took 
a ride over this land with Mr. Hoag, last week, 
and says of it: It always seemed a pity that so 
much land should be a waste and unfit for 
farming purposes. It has been but a few years 
ago, however, since nearly all the land within a 
radius of 20 miles of Willows was idle, and 
looked upon as unfit for agricultural purposes 
as the "goose land" above referred to, and upon 
which we found such a splendid crop of wheat 
last Monday. Land from which some of the 
best farms of Colusa county was selected, was, 
15 or 20 years ago, regarded as absolutely 
worthless, and many of the early settlers, who 
could have made themselves independently 
rich by taking up large bodies of it, did not 
consider it worth the trouble of surveying. But 
now "old timers" see what a change time has 
wrought. Some of these very same lands are 
now worth $50 per acre, about $49 50 more 
than the pioneers would have given for it dur- 
ing the early settlements of the county. The 
same is true even to-day with many concerning 
the "goose land" which Mr. Hoag is farming. 
We have heard men — experienced agricultural- 
ists — say that farming this land was equal to 
throwing so much money into the river. It 
could never produce a crop, and any man who 
would farm it would be a bankrupt in a few 
years, it made no difference how much capital 
he had access to. This assertion will not by 
any means be borne out by the appearance of 
things on the "goose land" this year. On the 
contrary, a finer crop of wheat we have never 
seen than is now being harvested on this land. 
It is true that the straw is short, but the mass 
of well-filled heads is there, and heads are what 
are wanted. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Favorable Weather.— Gazette, June 25: 
The wheat is now reaching maturity through 
the central section of the county, and heading 
operations upon it have already commenced to 
some extent. The highly favorable weather of 
the past six weeks will greatly enhance the 
yield, but, for the section, it will hardly reach 
an aggregate of more than half the crop of last 
year, and, with the make up from the tine yield 
in the eastern section, it is doubtful if the 
entire crop of the county will go beyond |half 
the measure of last year's. 

In Midst op.Hakvest.— Antioch Ledger, June 
25: Headers, reapers, separators, steam thresh- 
ers, horses and men are to be seen on all sides 
as one passes up the valley. The work of har- 
vesting goes bravely on. As far as reported 
the yield of wheat will be fully aB large as nas 
been anticipated in this section of the county. 
The improved machinery and especially the 
culinary department which has now become a 
fixture to the best machines, is greatly appreci- 
ated by the house-wife who formerly was com- 



pelled to prepare meals for a large number of 
men, and this over hot stoves during the warm- 
est season of the year. Now the cook accom- 
panies and becomes an important part of the 
outfit. The present price of wheat is not en- 
couraging to the producer and hence all who 
are able, will make an effort to hold for a better 
market. 

EL DORADO. 

The Fair.— Republican, June 23: The Board 
of Directors and the various committees of the 
El Dorado Agricultural Association have at last 
completed every arrangement for the holding of 
the next annual fair, which takes place in this 
city on the 7th to 10th inclusive, of September. 
The premium list will be ready to place in the 
hands of those desiring within a week, and it 
is to be hoped that every farmer in the District 
will take sufficient interest in it to peruse it 
thoroughly, and make up his mind to be a com- 
petitor for some of the prizes. 
LAKE. 

Editors Press:— Farmers complain of pros- 
pective short crops. On much of the low, wet 
land in Big valley the season delayed planting. 
Farther up, grain is veiy thin on the ground, 
and heads are not generally tine. Considerable 
hay is cut which would not have paid for grain. 
Corn is good. Hops will be fine. Many grapes 
have been planted, and quite a number are ex- 
pecting to plant. — Cor. 
LOS ANGELES 

Strawberries. — Anaheim Gazette, June 25: 
Mr. Hinde has given a great deal of attention 
to the culture of strawberries, with a view to 
ascertaining what varieties were best adapted to 
this climate. His experiments have led him 
to the conclusion that the varieties known as 
the Cumberland Triumph and Forest Rose grow 
to the greatest perfection, bear more profusely 
and withstand drouth better than other kinds. 
We saw samples of both kinds, and they are 
certainly larger and finer looking berries than 
any we ever saw in this country. The plants 
are now blooming for the third time this year, 
and by keeping the runners pinched off it is 
possible they can be made to bear throughout 
the year. Those who intend to cultivate 
strawberries should investigate the merits of 
the varieties named. 

Importing Stock. — Express: Mr. William 
Niles, during his recent visit to the northern 
part of the State, purchased five thoroughbred 
Jersey cows, a bull of the same breed and a 
Durham cow, which he has brought to Los 
Angeles. 

SACRAMENTO. 

Fruit Shipments. — Bee: Large quantities 
of fruit are at present being shipped from Sac- 
ramento to the East, and the several dealers in 
the city are kept busy night and day preparing 
it for transportation. A large number of boys 
are employed in wrapping the fruit with pa- 
pers, to keep it from bruising while in transit, 
and the industry is far in excess of last year at 
a corresponding time. Lyon & Co. to-day 
shipped a carload of assorted fruit put np in 
what is known as the Dietz packing, a recently 
patented preparation which is said to be a suc- 
cess. M. T. Brewer & Co. sent forward some 
eight carloads during the past week. 
SANTA EARBARA. 

Bee Notes. — C. La Salle in Lompoc Record: 
The weather in the early part of the season was 
cold and unfavorable for the honey crop. 
Weather warm and pleasant to-day; extracted 
800 tt>3. honey. The bees made a grand rush 
for the mountain shrubbery, twelve thousand 
strong, creating a solid roar, which sounded 
like business. They are working on sage, bear- 
berry and alfalfa, all of which are excellent 
honey plants. The alfalfa i8 a small mountain 
shrub, covered with little yellow flowers, and 
produces a good quality of honey for three 
months in the year. Quite a number of new 
apiaries are starting this season. I am glad to 
see it, for the day is not far distant when Lom- 
poc and vicinity will have two or three hun- 
dred apiaries, which, in a good year will pro- 
duce a larger income than all her hogs and 
grain. Think of it. The land which produces 
nearly all of the best honey in California is not 
worth two cents an acre for anything else. San 
Deigo with her timberless mountains covered 
for miles with white sage, was a dreary waste 
until Harbson set a few swarms of bees at their 
feet. To-day his honey is known in almost 
every market in the world. He buys lumber 
by the cargo to carry on the business. White 
sage is an annual quite different to the button 
sage we have here, although honey from both 
are of about the same quality. 

Mammoth Strawberries. — Press: From 
Messrs. Shepard Bros, we are in receipt of some 
of the largest and finest strawberries we have 
seen in Santa Barbara county. Twenty berries 
fill an ordinary box, more than full. They were 
raised near the Rincon canyon, Carpenteria, and 
are known as Monarch of the West. The half 
acre of vines from which they were produced 
were Bet out only last fall, and yet they yield 
300 boxes per week. These he will readily re- 
tail at 20 cents a box, which makes them aver- 
age almost a cent a piece. Next year the Shep- 
ard Bros, propose to* set out some 1 hi or five 
acres of this variety of strawberry, and will be 
able to fully supply the demand. The flavor is 
apparently as delicate and dilicious as that of 
any to be found in the market. 

Grain. — Gilroy Advocate, June 25: We have 
traveled over this end of Santa Clara valley aud 
talked with judgeB who have nothing to gain 
by misrepresentation on the crop prospect. The 
general opinion is that we shall not have more 



than half of an average crop. The deluge at 
the early part of the season drowned the pros- 
pect of an ordinarv harvest. We' are pleased 
however that the kernel is well filled, the heads 
large, although the straw is light, the quality 
of the grain will be exceptionally good. It is 
rather a hard matter for a farmer to meet the 
caprices of nature in the diversity of seasons, 
but this year many have well filled barns from 
the abundance of the former season. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Success Without Water. — Riverside Press, 
June 25: Mr. A M. Aplin has a large orchard 
of 4,000 trees on the north fork of the Santa 
Ana river ditch near the head of the ditch, and 
owns an abundant water right. His soil is 
composed of decomposed granite and is there- 
fore loose. He has 1,000 peach, apricot and 
nectarine trees now in bearing. Although he 
has an abundant supply of water he uses none. 
He finds that his vines and stone fruit all do 
well without irrigation, but that apples, pears 
and citrus fruits need some irrigation. He 
claims to have a very dry soil so far as surface 
water is concerned, as none would probably be 
found under 100 ft. and it might be several hun- 
dred ft. below the surface. 

The Honey Crop. — Mr. A. M. Aplin has 
just completed the examination of the princi- 
pal apiaries of this valley, examining 2,400 
hives. He finds that the surplus honey crop at 
the present time is a fraction less than 25 lbs. 
to the hive, while the yield ought to amount to 
200 lbs. to the hive. This shows but one-eighth 
of a crop, which is selling at but five to six 
cents per pound. 

SANTA CLARA. 

Editors Press : One has to go from home to 
learn how highly the Rural Press is appre- 
ciated. Here, in this farming community, we 
find it is thoroughly read and greatly prized. 
The articles on silk culture are read with inter- 
est. The unexpected rains in the early part of 
this month, though injurious to the hay, were 
beneficial to the grapevines, which are largely 
cultivated here. The South Pacific railroad has 
opened a rich agricultural portion of our State, 
and farmers of means are settling here bringing 
with them the wealth and culture of our older 
Eastern States. The price of land is rapidly 
increasing. The mountain sides abound with 
beautiful ferns, among which are the Aspidium 
rigklum, PterisandGi/mnogrammc Triangularis. 
Sulphur and soda springs are found, but thus 
far nothing of value in these mountains ridges 
to entice adventurers. "Good honest toil," 
and bountiful crops" are the pass- words here. — 
Andre, Alma. 

The San Jose Canneries. — Herald: There 
are two factories in which are employed in the 
busiest season about 600 hands — men, women 
and girls. For apricots, they pay from $70 to 
$80 per ton ; cherries, $100 to $120 per ton ; 
peaches, $40 to $60 per ton ; pears, $40 to $50 ; 
plums, $40 to $60 ; grapes, $30 to $40 ; straw- 
berries, about $120 per ton. These fruits are 
brought from all parts of the State. The greater 
part comes from Alameda county. They ob- 
tain about one-fifth of their fruit in Santa Clara 
county. Much of it is obtained from Vacaville 
and the Sacramento valley. Last year the San 
Jose Fruit Packing factory put up 1,000,000 
cans of fruit ; 150 tons of jelly, and 150 tons of 
preserves, besides jams, dried fruit and vegeta- 
bles, etc. The principal market for all this 
fruit is in Europe and the large cities of 
the Eastern States. The fruits most desir- 
able for canning are the early and late yellow 
Crawford and white and yellow clingstone 
peaches ; the Moorpark and Royal apricots ; 
the Bartlett pear ; Greengage and Egg plums ; 
the Napoleon and Great Bigereau cherries ; 
Black cherries are not desirable to can. Of the 
grapes used, the Muscat is the principal vari- 
ety for canning. It takes 40,0O0tbs of fruit to 
run this factory one day, and the proprietors 
say there is no danger of over-stocking with 
fruit if orchardista will raiso the kinds nsed for 
canning. This factory has taken gold medals 
in London and in the World's exhibition in 
Australia. The Golden Gate factory employs 
from 250 to 400 hands, and last year put up 
500,000 cans of fruit, although this year they 
expect to double the amount. They use daily 
15 barrels of sugar of the best brand for making 
syrups. The tin shop where their cans are 
made is connected with the factory. 

Horticultural Commissioners. — Herald, 
June 20: The Board of Horticural Commission- 
ers met Saturday at 10 a. m. S. F. Chapin 
was elected President, and D. C. Vestal Secre- 
tary. Lots were drawn and D. C. Vestal drew 
for the short term, Horace Wilson for the mid- 
dle term, and S. F. Chapin for the long term. 
On motion, the county was districted thus: 
Drawing a line east of the Twelve Mile House, 
on the Monterey road, all south of that line 
forming District No. 3; then taking the Alviso 
road along First street, and the Monterey road 
to the Twelve Mile House, all east of that line 
being District No. 1, and all west, District No. 
2. D. C. Vestal was named for No. I, Chapin 
for No. 2, and Wilson for No. 3. Adjourned 
until next Saturday at 10 a. m. 

SOLANO. 

Heald's GrapeStemmer. — Vallejo Chronicle: 
The grape crusher and stemmer for which John 
L. Heald hits recently secured a patent, is 
principally useful in preparing grapes for wine 
making. It consists of a pair of oorrugated or 
fluted crushing rollers, which run together and 
are driven by suitable gearing; these rollers be- 
ing provided with an attachment, by which 
they are separated and thrown out of gear when- 



July 2, 1881J 



THE PJLCIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



5 



ever any hard substance or body which could 
injure them passes through. Below these roll- 
ers is a cylindrical case having its lower part 
perforated, and having a shaft extending longi- 
tudidally through it, so as to form a spiral ex- 
tending from end to end, the object of which is 
to pres3 the grape pomace through the perfor- 
ated bottom of the cylinder, and to carry the 
stems and worthless portion out of the cylinder. 
Below this cylinder is an inclined grating, upon 
which the pomace falls, and from the lower end 
of which it is delivered into the cars, to be 
carried to the press, a hinged, movable gate con- 
trolling its discharge. The grapes, either loose 
or iu boxes, are placed upon a peculiarly con- 
structed elevator, the whole forming a very 
effective apparatus for the purpose. 

Dietz's Fruit Preserver. — Solano Repub- 
lican: George A. Dietz, the inventor and pat- 
entee of a new process for preserving fresh fruit 
from decay, so that it can be shipped east by 
slow freight and sold off as the demand is ma^le 
for it, without being compelled to sacrifice it 
for fear of loss, has associated Messrs. Lyons 
and Korns, of Vacaville, with him in the enter- 
prise, and they have put up a small packing 
house, including a furnace, for making the 
carbonized bran, which is the preservative 
agent. They have made experimental ship- 
ments of small quantities to various points in 
the East, and Saturday they will send a car- 
load. 

SONOMA. 

White Australian Wheat. — Santa Rosa 
Democrat: Mention has heretofore been made 
of the extra fine wheat raised this season by 
Mr. W. G. Arnold, on his farm two miles above 
Mark West Springs. But samples of his White 
Australian wheat now to be seen in the Demo- 
crat office, are well worthy of more special men- 
tion. Some of the heads are seven inches in 
length and bear 113 grains of sound wheat. 
The average in the bunch is 93 grains per head, 
and the yield per acre is likely to be not less 
than 45 bushels — in portions up to 50. 

Outlook. — Peteluma Courier, June 22: The 
late sown grain is still promising, especially so 
between this city and the coast. The yield 
generally will not be large, but considerably 
more than was anticipated prior to the recent 
rains. The potato, corn and other vegetable 
crops are looking tine. The fruit prospects are 
very bright. There will be an abundance of 
grapes, apples, plums and other fruit grown in 
this section, excepting pears. The dairy season, 
one of the best we have ever had, is about 
over. Extra cows for next season are already 
being inquired for, and stock-buyers say the 
dairy business will be largely increased. Our 
farmers are beginning to learn that grain alone 
is wearing out their lands, and does not pay. 
They will, in future, raise more stock and have 
a greater variety of marketable produce. The 
raising of horses, mules, cattle, sheep, hogs and 
children will all pay, provided they are of the 
best stock and well fed and taken care of. The 
wool clip has been extra good and the sheep are 
in fine condition. With our corn, wool, wine, 
hay, good stock, poultry, eggs, butter, cheese, 
potatoes and fine crop of fruits, Sonoma county 
has no reason to complain for a partial failure 
of the small grain crops. 

Editors Press:— Grain crops are very light. 
On some fields the yield is estimated as about 
one-fourth of last year. All grain is poor, 
and fears are entertained that corn will prove 
sick also. Hops are looking well and promise a 
good yield. Very many grapes have been set 
this season, but are growing only passably well. 
Too large a number of would-be vineyardists 
delayed setting till almost too late, and the 
weather has not been favorable for good growth. 
Still the acerage has been daily increased, and 
will probably be still further augmented next 
fall and spring. The owner of 140 acres near 
Sonoma states that he cleared over $10,000 last 
season by manufacturing wine at 25 cents per 
gallon. Another cleared $4,600 from 30 acres. 
— Cor. 

STANISLAUS. 

Combined Harvester. — News, June 24: On 
Saturday last we accepted another invitation of 
Mr. P. H. Ross to visit the harvest fields. Our 
mission this time was to see the Hawsier com- 
bined header and thresher. The machine was 
at Mr. David Curtiss' farm, some eight miles 
from town. We found Mr. Curtiss hard at 
work, just about ready to make a trial in the 
field. He had at the time but 10 head of ani- 
mals attached to the machine, but expects, 
when regularly engaged, to work 16. The 
Hawsier is different from the Centennial or 
Rice combined header-thresher. In the Haw- 
sier the horses work in front with the heading 
part of the machine in the grain. The grain 
separator is immediately to the rear of the draft, 
and rests on two low rudders or flange wheels 
at the front, with a large iron master wheel 
farther back, and to which is attached the mo- 
tive power of the separator. A similar, but 
much lighter wheel in construction, holds up 
and controls the header. The axle, or main 
shaft, of the main wheel is about 2$ inches in 
diameter. The master wheel is about 16 inches 
in width, the better to keep it from settling too 
deep into the plowed ground, and is probably 
four ft. in hight. The flange wheels at front 
resting slightly on the ground, together with 
lighter V-shaped flanges on the large wheels, 
prevent the machine from sliding sideways 
while in motion. The grain, after being cut by 
the header, is carried by means of drapers to the 
cylinder of the separator, and then conveyed to 
the side to the sacking spout. This last part of 



the machine, the conveying of the grain after 
its separation from the straw to the sack holder, 
had not been properly adjusted, and from this 
simple defect the machine was compelled to lay 
up for repairs. We understand that Mr. Haw- 
sier is successfully running one of those ma- 
chines on his own farm. There are also two at 
work on the West Side. The gentlemen who 
have purchased them in this vicinity are prac- 
tical farmers and feel saDguine that they will 
prove successful. 

NEVADA. 

Floriculture in Virginia City. — Chronicle: 
The cultivation of shrubs, plants and flowers 
in this city has turned out to be a grand suc- 
cess. Every woman, by the judicious expendi- 
ture of at least $1.50 in springtime, can convert 
her domicile for the whole summer into an 
earthly paradise. Outdoor plants, and even ex- 
otics, thrive marvelously along the base of 
Mount Davidson, formerly only a land upon 
which Nature never smiled, and whose only out- 
look was upon rugged peaks and barren wastes. 
All of the transformation is due to the presence 
of the gracious water from the Sierras. Pass 
through whatever quarter of the city you will, 
the same delightful surroundings are beheld. 
From the window of every house where resides 
a lady of refined feelings, you will see the gera- 
niums, fuchsias and petunias blossoming in the 
greatest profusion. One Jady on North C street 
has a rose bush climbing up the side of her 
house, which it is estimated will produce at 
least 20,000 roses. Far down Washington 
street, on the north side, is a small plot of 
ground in front of a residence covered with low 
bush roses that make one's eyes ache with envy 
to behold. Corning up the street as far as Gus 
Ash's, the same delightful spectacle is repeated. 
And, in like manner, all over the city there is 
to be seen the same glorious manifestation of 
the beautiful in nature. Those who take the 
pains to produce these gratifying results, are 
entitled to the heartiest thanks, even of the 
nameless passer-by, who, perhaps, hds no home 
or cottage roof to shelter his head. 



A Californian in Texas. 

Editors Press: — Having been interested in lands and 
stock in this State for Bix years, 1 have become sufficient- 
ly acquainted with the country to unhesita'ingly say that 
the advantages now oflered in Texas cannot be equaled on 
the American continent. The soil H varied, and like in 
California, varies from a deep black loam and adobe to a 
rich chocolate or red sandy loam, all of which is carpeted 
with a spontaneous growth of nutritious and perennial 
grasses, only equaled by the far-famed Kentucky blue 
grass, upon which hundreds of thousands of cattlo and 
sheep range and fatten for all the markets of the United 
States and even Europe, without any extra feeding save 
what nature provides, winter and summer. While this 
may be the present paradise for stock men, it is also offer- 
ing immense inducements to the tiller of the soil. It has 
been already well demonstrated that all the small grains 
can be grown here to good profit, and it is a matter of 
statistical history that Texas now produces about one- 
fifth of all the cotton produced in the United States. 
Urapes of several different kinds and of immense size grow 
spontaneously, some along the streams and others out on 
the high dry prairies amongst the post oaks— being con- 
clusive evidence that the cultivated varieties need only to 
be tried to be a success. Indeed there is scarcely any 
product grown in California with success but what, I 
think, can be produced to a profit here if the same energy 
and ability be applied. 

To-day there are more railroads building in Texas than 
any State of the Union, and the rich virgin lands that are 
now on the market at 50 cts. to $5 per acre (owing to loca- 
tion and improvement), will as surely advance to 820, $50, 
and $100 per acre as they have done in California during 
the past 16 or 20 years, and now is the time to invest. Law 
and order, life and property, are as much respected 
here as in any of the Western States, and notwithstanding 
you hear it from all parts of the country that Texas is 
the most insecure place to live on earth, such statements 
are only made by persons who do not know what they are 
talking about, and if they will lay prejudice aside, and 
take a "Palace car" and ride into San Antonio, and then 
look the country over, they will be satisfied that life and 
property are more respected here than in any town in the 
State of California, or any other State. 

Owing to the immense drives of cattle, and shipping by 
rail of all kinds of stock, the supply is short, and there 
being so many new comers, who are stocking either pur- 
chased or leased lands, the price has been kept very high. 
Dry cows are scarce at $14 to $16, and cows with calves by 
their side range from $15 to $20 per head. Sheep range 
from $1.50 to $1 75 for Mexican ewes to $2.75 and $4 for 
graded and fine Merino ewes. Muttons $1. 50 to $2 50 with 
fleece off. 

To all persons wishing to invest in Texas land, I would 
advise them to come and see for themselves. Theie are 
a vast amount of land warrants or land certificates on the 
market, and can be bought here or at Austin, of reliable 
agents or bankers, at $35 to $45 for a 640 acre certificate, 
or warrant, but the public domain is so near all located, 
that but little desirable land can be had now, and when 
one counts the expense and trouble of getting these war- 
rants located, he will always do better to purchase the 
land already located, and for which he can get good 
title. 

But, Mr. Editor, I must stop, not but what there is 
much more to say in favor of this heretofore much 
abused State, but 1 may have a word or two to say here- 
after. I will enclose you a brief advertisement of lands 
that I can sell, and trust some of our clear-headed and far- 
seeing Californians will invest some of their surplus 
means and reap the reward. Letters addressed either to 
San Antonio or Frio Town, Texas, will reach me. 

Jambs M. Thompson. 

[Mr. Thompson is a well-known resident of 
Napa county, and he writes that a large dele- 
gation of Napa people, including George Linn, 
Henry Fowler, W.j A. Trubody, A. D. Engsby 
& Bro., John Clyman, Mr. Booth, Mr. Nord- 
hoff, A. G. Clark and others, have visited him 
on his Texas land. — Eds. Press.] 



The Springs in Lake county, and else- 
where generally, are well patronized this year. 
A pleasant party, as usual at this season, are 
enjoying themselves at Anderson Springs. A 
new log cabin, neatly and uniquely constructed 
and finished, by Mr. Partriquin, one of the pro- 
prietors, is an improvement added to the place 
during the year. The puffing geyser steam 
baths and the refreshing cold sulphur spring 
are still leading attractions. 



Steam Wagons. 

Steam wagons are slowly g lining entrance to 
industrial use on this coast. In Nevada, they 
are employed for heavy freighting, and in this 
State they are being Urged as well fitted for 
hauling grain to the river landings. There are 
many favorable conditions for the use of steam 
wagons on this coast. The long, dry season, 
during which most of the hauling has to be 
done, ensures a hard road bed and none of the 
vexation of mud, as in countries where summer 
showers are frequent. Another great advan- 
tage's the almost dead level and exceedingly 
easy grades which characterize our valley road- 
ways. True there is high fuel and sometimes 
scarcity of water which must be counted on the 
other side of the equation. However, the 
steam wagons are going to have thorough trial, 
in bauds of those who believe in them, and this 
will demonstrate their success or failure. The 
Colusa Sun, which has an open eye for all im- 
provements likely to advance the producing in- 
terests, says: 

After all his ex perhnents, Captain Roberts, of the San 
Joaquin Co., is still an enthusiast about his steam wagon 
enterprise. We had a conversation with him sometime 
ago, and he thinks that roads suitable for his wagon can 
be built very cheaply. While the wagons run, and pull 
very heavy loadson common roads, he thinks of digging 
two small graded ditches and filling with gravel, which 
will pack as hard as iron, and give a solid road for each of 
the broad wheels, and for the wagon wheels that follow 
with the loads. The Chico Enterprise, of Tuesday, has 
an item to the effect that this *'steam wago** has been 
thoroughly overhauled and improved at the Union Iron 
Works, Sacramento, and on a recent trial worked satisfac- 
torily. Its weight is 17 or 18 tons, and it is calculated to 
haul 50 tons of grain at each trip. It will be taken to the 
Upper Sacramento valley in a day or two, and will en- 
gage in grain hauling between Riceville and Mcintosh's 
Landing.*' Capt. Roberts will, if this one shall prove the 
success he anticipates, put on wagons to run to all the 
principal landings on the river, and thus cross-section the 
entire Sacramento valley. He will h ive in effect a freight 
railroad across the valley, from foothill to river, every 8 or 
10 miles. We sincerely hope that the wagons may prove 
successful, as it would be one of the grandest things for 
the Sacramento valley that could be imagined; that is, 
always provided we can keep the navigation of the river 
from being destroyed. 

Yes; and the last proviso is most important. 
We can ill afford to be-mud our rivers or neg- 
lect our ocean facilities. Our prosperity de- 
pends upon keeping all avenues open and then 
pushing our varied products into all parts of 
the world. 



Mt. Diablo. 

Editors Press: To the lover of nature there 
is probably not another place in the vioinity of 
San Francisco which offers more inducements 
to visit than Mt. Diablo. This famous mount- 
ain, about which so much has been told and 
written, is within easy reach of the people of 
this city, and is gradually becoming one of the 
most popular and desirable resorts offered to 
those in search of rest or pleasure. There are 
two regular stage lines to the mountain- — one 
from Oakland, and the other from Haywards. 
The distance being so short, it makes just a 
pretty drive to start from Oakland with a horse 
and buggy about midday, drive along leisurely 
through Lafayette, Walnut Creek, Alamo and 
Danville to the foot of the mountain, passing 
through the celebrated Colton ranch, up a beau- 
tiful winding road to the hotel near the sum- 
mit, arriving there in time for supper. 

Oue of the most interesting features to wit- 
ness is the sunrise, a scene far beyond descrip- 
tion in the limited space here occupied, but 
when once viewed almost causes the heart to 
cease beating, and the mind receives such an 
impression as will last the remainder of a life- 
time. To see old Sol get up from behind the 
high barricade formed by the snow-capped 
Sierra Nevadas is really a grand affair. As the 
day grows brighter, the surrounding country 
comes into view like a splendid panorama. 
After looking at the towns, rivers, foothills and 
distant mountains until the feeling of wonder 
has somewhat abated, the attention of the vis- 
itor becomes fully occupied with the many at- 
tractions found about the mountain. Curious 
natural formations may be seen in abundance, 
some of which are worthy of the most attentive 
study. For the geologist and botanist no bet- 
ter field could be found, and no one can visit 
the place without feeling well repaid for the 
time so very pleasantly passed. 

Before closing this sketch a word of praise 
can be sincerely expressed in favor of Mr. E. K. 
Wood, the proprietor of the Mt. Diablo hotel. 
This gentleman, assisted by his son, Mr. E. F. 
Wood, does everything to make a stay at the 
mountain agreeable, and they are both remem- 
bered by all visitors as being among the most 
genial and hospitable hotel- keepers on the Pa- 
cific coast. F. A. B. 

San Francisco, June 27, 1881. 



To Test Quality of Glue. — Dry glue steeped 
in cold water absorbs different quantities of 
water, according to the quality of the glue. 
From careful experiments with dry glue im- 
mersed for 24 hours in water, at 60° Fahr. , and 
thereby transformed into a jelly, it was found 
that the finest ordinary glue, or that made from 
white bones, absorbs 12 times its weight of wa- 
ter in 24 hours; from dark bones, the glue ab- 
sorbs nine times its weight of water, while the 
ordinary glue, made from animal refuse, absorbs 
but three to five times its weight of water. 



News In Briet 

The emigration from Denmark this year is 
estimated at 70,000. 

The iron foundry and machine shop at Yreka 
were destroyed by fire Saturday. 

The track of the Southern Pacific is now laid 
22 miles east of El Paso, Texas. 

There is a prospect that a Signal Service sta- 
tion will be placed on Mount San Bernardino. 

The troubles between the Italians and French 
still continue, and serious results are not im- 
probable. 

The Richmond and Alleghany, Atlantic and 
Northwestern and Ohio Central railroads have 
consolidated. 

At rifle practice the regulars of the Presidio 
defeated a picked team, Saturday, at 200, 500 
and 600 yards. 

An investigation into the affairs of the State 
Prison at Sin Quentin is to be had, at the re- 
quest of Warden Ames. 

Rev. Father Hudson, of Gilroy, was at- 
tacked by a shark while bathing at Santa Cruz, 
Saturday, and severely bitten. 

A fire occurred in the San Quentin prison in 
the California Door Co.'s dry-house on the 25th 
ult. Not much damage was done. 

Some tribes in Tunis, near Sfax, have cut the 
telegraph lines and assumed a defiant attitude 
against the Bey. Europeans are panic-stricken. 

Careful inquiry by The Age of Steel, pub- 
lished in St. Louis, refutes the statement that 
there is an over-production of pig iron in this 
country. 

The Sonora railway, Mexico, resumes track- 
laying on the 1st of July. There are now about 
20,000 ties on hand, and 40,000 more are shortly 
expected. 

The Oreal Eastern, after having caused 
heavy loss to every one who owned her, is to 
be offered for sale at auction . It is worse than 
a white elephant. 

Saturday evening a heavy atorm of wind, rain 
and hail wrecked the Union Pacific round 
house at North Platte, Neb., badly damaging 
four engines and killing one man. 

Two hundred men and 40 teams are engaged 
grading on the narrow-gauge railroad south of 
Brownsville, Oregon. A party of engineers are 
now locating a road south toward Cjburg. 

Count Ionatieff, Russian Minister of the 
Interior, will propose to.the Council of the Em- 
porer a reduction of between 150,000,000 and 
200,000,000 roubles in the military ,expendi- 
tures. 

F. J. M. Braga, Secretary of the Portuguese 
Benevolent Society, has absconded with $100,- 
000 of money not his. He had been a trusted 
depositary, evidently; in all, some 250 people 
had given him money and valuables. 

The case of Architect Clifford against Archi- 
tect Drake, to recover $50,000 for derogatory 
statements, by which Clifford claims he lost his 
position as architect of the new City Hall at 
San Francisco, is now on trial atJChicago. 

The new wharf at Pismo has been com- 
menced. All the material necessary is now on 
the ground, and the contractor claims that he 
will be able to load vessels at it by^the 15th of 
August. The length of the wharf is to be 1,450 
ft. 

The Veterans' Home Association is making 
active exertions to establish a j substantial and 
comfortable home for the wounded and disabled 
veterans of the Mexican and Union wars. A 
suitable location will be selected for a perma- 
nent institution. 

Last Friday night a whole train on the 
Morels Railroad, Mexico, tumbled down into 
the San Antonio river, near Cuantla, on 
account of the downfall of a stone bridge. 
Nearly 200 persons were killed and a great 
many wounded, most of the victims being sol- 
diers. 

The latest news from the scene of the Dotorel 
catastrophe is, that the diver who examined 
the wreck has been shipped to England to 
make a verbal report to the authorities. There 
were persons in England who, two months ago, 
believed that the explosion was the result of a 
Fenian plot. 

Vice President Huntington, Manager 
Towne and Freight Agent Stubbs, of the South- 
ern Pacific, have held a conference with Presi- 
dent Coolidge and the directors of the Santa Fe 
road, to try to prevail on the latter not to build 
through Southeastern Arizona to a junction 
with the Sonora road. 

Col. Hurlburt's railroad surveying party 
are engaged in surveying around Big Bend, 
Cow creek, Jackson county, Oregon. The best 
grade that could be found through the canyon 
was 110 ft. to the mile, and one bridge to be 
built on the route will have to be 615 ft. high, 
or it will be necessary to make a number of tun- 
nels. 

There are a number of styles of combined 
harvesters now at work in the San Joaquin val- 
ley. Some of them we have mentioned . and de- 
scribed in former issues of the Press. The 
reader will find still another described this 
week in our "Agricultural Notes" under Merced 
county. 

The tapping of Eagle lake is an enterprise 
that bids fair now to become accomplished, and 
will be one of vast interest to Lassen county. 
This enterprise, which will require the running 
of some 9,000 ft. of tunnel, or open a cut and a 
Hume 17 miles long, will irrigate and open up 
for settlement about 100,000 acres of as fine 
agricultural lands as there is in this valley, but 
which now is almost worthless, being covered 
with a growth of sagebrush. 



b' 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PRESS 



[July 2, 1881. 




Our Country. 



I dreamed the spirit of the Century 

Lifted her face and form above the mists 

That long had hid her cradled infancy; 

And, like a summer sun no cloud resists, 

Smiled on America, and said: 

"The errors of the past are dying Of are dead. 

I see them trooping, a funeral train 

Of shadows, into Chaos, whence they came 

Let there be light I" Then morn began to flame 

In rose and gold on mountain and on plain; 

And in the soul of man another morn 

Of faith, of knowledge and of hope seemed born, 

That stilled the tumult of thought's weary strife 

With prophecy of all-pervading life. 

Then, as I marveled at thi& vision strange 

And mused upon these strong, prophetic words, 

Hethought the winter passed with sudden chango, 

And all the air was full of summer birds. 

Yet, as when one is roused too soon from sleep, 

A drowsy mood did o'er my senses creep; 

And step by Btep into a shifting throng 

Of dreams I slid again, and slumbered deep and long. 

Then, once again that voice of calm command 

And hope still seemed to speak to all the land; 

"The evil of the Past shall pass away, 

Of all that was, the good alone shall stay. 

Yet, step by Btep, its kingdom shall be built, 

And slowly, step by step, retreating guilt 

And misery shall move outwaid from the heart 

That beats at the firm center ot the race; 

And t bat grand truth therein secures it place 

Beyond all accident and flaw — 

The immutable reality of law. 

Through whose bright revelation man shall see 

One bond eternal bind all things that be 

In earth and Heaven, in Nature and the soul, 

In one divine, indissoluble whole. 

Then shall tho true, the beautiful, the good, 

Unite the world in human brotherhood; 

And science and religion, clasping hands, 

Kule, of their natural right, the enfranchised lands." 

I woke, and knew alas! 'twas but a dream. 

A dream; and yet, ye mighty Powers that sway 

The tides of life, may not some little stream 

From loftier regions of the soul to-day 

On our beloved land descend ? 

Some guardian spirit on her steps attond ? 

Some vision from the ideal life, 

Whose beauty and whose truth shall shame the base 

And sordid aims that threaten our disgrace? 

Shall lift America above the strife 

Of faction and the groveling tricks 

Of party passion, and its politics! 

Shall we not hope upon ttrs glorious day 

That called our Country into birth 

And placed her, by the prophecies of earth, 

Freest and foremost in the proud array 

Of nations, that on her a light may fall 

That shall direct her steps when duties call, 

And Honor bids her stand erect 

In well-earned plumes and armor decked— 

Her starry flag as in the old time unfurled 

Without a stain before the gazing world? 

Aye, not in vain hath been our bitter trial, 

Our dear bought victories, that our land might be 

Forever One— united, Btrong, and free. 

Not now sha'l we behold the base denial 

Of all she was and all she yet may be. 

Thine, O my Country ! thine a grand career 

The age to come shall see ! 

We trust thee as we aye have trusted thee 

On thiB thy bright and joyous jubilee. 

How can we look upon thy face and fear? 

We see alone thy glorious destiny ! 

— C. P. Cranch. 



A Woman's Victory. 

Across the river there lives a woman who has 
been twice married but is now a widow. 
She has one child of her first husband and 
two of her second husband to support. 
When the latter died he was in debt by 
an endorsement for §1,000, and among his as- 
sets was a second mortgage on a small farm 
which it would not pay to take owing to the 
size of the first mortgage. How the wife man- 
aged to work things when thrown on her own 
resources makes quite a story of feminine New 
England enterprise. Take, for example, the 
case of the worthless second mortgage. The 
owner of the farm had abandoned the prop- 
erty, and the holder of the first mortgage, real- 
izing that some day he would get it, thought it 
wise to begin early, and so planted a crop on 
the land in the spring. The plucky widow, 
however, finding it would take him several 
months to foreclose, got from the owner a deed 
of the land. Then she went and ploughed un- 
der the first mortgage man's crop and set the 
fields herself to tobacco. The other party was 
powerless until the machinery of the law had 
foreclosed his bond, and, before that time, the 
widow had cut and removed her tobacco, and 
was just so much in. By pluck and activity, 
working hard herself, she got along, supported 
herself and family, and, little by little, reduced 
the face of the $1,000 debt, which was in the 
form of a mortgage on her farm, and was held 
by a trustee, and so could not morally be com- 
promised by him. Finally by her own labors 
she cleared the whole farm of debt and wiped 
the mortgage all cff. This perhaps all answers 
the question whether farms can be made to pay 
in Connecticut. To finish the story it may be 
added that the husband left no will, and con- 
sequently the farm, now that she has paid for 
it, does not belong to her, but his children, and 
for all her labor she has no ownership. The 
law is rather qneer in its working some times. 
— Hartford Letter to Springfield Republican. 



The New Declaration. 

That is a critical hour for any country or na- 
tion when the people become so absorbed in 
money-making or money-getting as to tire of 
keeping e'en liberty's feast, and to insist that 
they are persecuted if compelled to merely lis- 
ten to their forefathers' declaration of rights. 
It is time for earnest action on the part of pa- 
triots when such conditions exist — time for 
mothers to re- consecrate their sons to liberty 
and to teach their daughters anew the sig- 
nificance of the words freedom and native 
land. 

With the ocean's broad highway atYutter 
with the white wings of the fleets hurrying 
into this free haven with the thousands of 
earth's oppreseed, it is time for action on the 
part of patriots. Schools must be organized, 
the press re-consecrated, a love of liberty and 
loyalty developed, or we cannot successfully 
solve the intricate problem awaiting solution. 
And if American men, with all their splendid 
powers, deliberately choose to ignore this royal 
opportunity and continue their wrangle for offi- 
cial honors and spoils, then, in the sacred name 
of liberty, I call upon the mothers and daugh- 
ters "to speak to the people that they go for- 
ward." 

Colonel T. W. Higginson, one of the knightly 
heroes of this present, thus voiced a text for us 
oa Decoration day: 

Courage is flrgt and last of what wo need, 
To mold a nation for triumphal sway; 

All else is empty air, 

A promise vainly fair, 
Like the bright beauty of the ocean spray. 
Tossed up toward heaven, but never roaching there. 
Not in the past, but in the future, we 
Must seek the mastery 

Of fate and fortune, thought and word and deed. 

The past is on its starry track, 

We would not win it back. 
Gone, gone for aye, the little Puritan homos; 
Gone the beleaguered town, from out whose spires 
Flashed forth the warning tires, 
Telling the Cambridge rustics "Percy comes;" 
And gone those later days of grief and shame, 
When slavery changed our courthouse to a jail. 
And blood drops Btained its threshold. Now we hail. 

After the long affray, 
A time of calmer order, wider aim. 
More mingled races, manhood's larger fame, 
A city's broader sweep, the Boston of to-day. 

Or, to change the last line, 
A country's broader sweep, the Union of to-day. 

Yes, we hail this time of calmer order as the 
fitting hour of woman's era — the time for the 
warrior to stand with lance at rest, and rever- 
ently watch the teacher complete the work al- 
ready well begun. 

The holy mother hour in the national home- 
stead, when the children shall forget the fric- 
tion of the day, and .i- k for guidance and instruc- 
tion from mother. 

Would that in every hamlet, village, and 
neighborhood some representative woman would 
arrange that the grown-up boys should receive 
at least one hour's instruction from their moth- 
ers, so that the approaching national ,fete day 
should receive universal recognition. Let the 
hosts of foreigners crowding to our shores be 
met at the threshold with a welcome, and also 
an earnest lesson from the newer catechism of 
liberty. Oh, that the blindly selfish world 
might be taught one lesson of the unity of hu- 
manity. Made to comprehend that no one can 
obtain complete freedom, so long as there is 
one weary, oppressed, tempted, or wronged 
human being crouching neath our flag. Nei- 
ther will the theory of a republican form of 
government ever be tested until every human 
being of mature age and sound judgment 
has a right to self-government and self-pro- 
tection. 

Truly, courage is what we need. The high- 
est, loftiest courage known to the weak, the 
courage of devotion to an abstract idea, courage 
to face the ridicule of friends, to face the 
treacherous fire of prejudice, courage to speak 
truth to a world that is an unwilling and impa- 
tient listener. 

Aye, courage to be often misjudged and mis- 
understood by the very people one would die 
for. Aye, the courage of a sensitive, loving 
soul to brave the loneliness of greatness. Aye, 
but would it not require greater courage for a 
truly royal soul, to be untrue to one's self, false 
to the truth, traitor to the world's peerless 
possibility — a noble character ? 

Hence if the recreant sons of a patriot ances- 
try protest against the old-fashioned declara- 
tion of independence of the forefathers, let the 
mothers give to the world a new declaration. — 
Mrs. Harbert, in Inter-Ocean. 



Discouraging Boys Smoking. — Since the or- 
dinance prohibiting smoking by boys on the 
streets, and selling of tobacco to those under 1G 
years of age, has been enforced in Santa Cruz, 
cigarrette smoking has almost entirely disap- 
peared from view. It is a fact that many 
youngsters smoke just for the "manliness" of 
the act, and do so publicly, with a pride, eo 
long as the old man ain't in sight. The ordi- 
nance nips this youthful pride and incentive, 
and when banished to the rear to smoke, the 
boy can't see the "manliness" of the act so 
clearly, and so cares much less about it. This 
town should have just such an ordinance, and 
parents should ask for it. The boys themselves 
will be very thankful for the interference in a 
few years, if not now, and will then recognize 
the wisdom of the act. — San Mateo Journal. 



Ourselves and Self-control. 

[Written for the Rcral Press by Fbmotd.) 
Sound the trumpet long and loud, bid reason 
act. Enough, enough of troubles dire, raise 
the standard higher, higher. Mind is lazy, weak 
and foolish; mind is slothful dull and mulish. 
Mind was made for noble work; mind, thou 
must no longer shirk. 

There's much to do, and much thou'lt rue, 
unless thou wake and from thee shake those 
clogs that pull thee down into the mire. 

Work; man, woman, and make the most of 
holy talents trusted to thee. 

This is an age of high ambition that must not 
be smothered; but let your will, or reason, 
sternly guide your aspirations. 

Wife, do not think you must be weak, be- 
cause for man you are only help-mate. Be 
strong, grow strong, and with God's help, show 
to the world that now the time has come when 
passions dark and inclinations strong must bow 
to thine own will. Not worldly self; but thy 
immortal nature, which is a dim reflex of God 
the Father. The possibilities of tho human 
mind have never yet been fathomed. We do 
not cease to grow (if well), until we cease to 
act. Our intellects do not grow strong, and 
quick, and grasping, 'cept by continued prac- 
tice. Shake off all clogs. Face facts, small or 
great, and your mind will see the truth, then 
act as you know you t ought to act. 

Watch, look and never rest content. The 
mind so easy slips into old ruts. Do not trust 
your inclination or desiie. If ever you know 
that strong feeling is overcoming reason, then 
stop — yon are in danger. Wait till you are 
master of the situation. Oh, this work of rul- 
ing self — the hardest work we find to do — but it 
can be done. Shall we not all try ? 

Self, down, down, down ! I'm master now. 

I'll chafe thee, annoy thee, and fret thee ; 
I'll worry, despise, and reject thee, 
Unless to my will thou humbly bow. 
Self, thou art mine— 
I am not thine; 
My Will is king, 
Let poets sing 
That a beautiful time is near. 
That a peaceful time will soon be here 
If one and all 
Will bid self fall 
And crown the Will or Reason 
Monarch of the season. 

Soquel, Santa Cruz Co., Ca)., June 13, 1881. 

The Words of Washington. 

At the laying of the cornerstone of the Cap- 
itol at Washington, by Washington himself, he 
used the following grand words that should be 
heard and heeded in these days: "Ye men of 
this generation, I rejoice and thank (rod for 
being able to see that our labors and toils and 
sacrifices were not in vain. You are prosper- 
ous, you are grateful, the fire of liberty burns 
brightly and steadily in your hearts, while 
duty and law restrain it from bursting forth 
in wild destructive conflagration. Cherish lib- 
erty as you love it; cherish its securities as 
you wish to preserve it. Maintain the Consti- 
tution which we labored so painfully to estab- 
lish, and which has been to you such a source of 
inestimable blessings. Preserve the union of 
the States, cemented as it was by our prayers, 
our tears and our blood. Be true to God, to 
your country and to your duty. So shall the 
whole Eastern world follow the morning sun 
to contemplate you as a nation; so shall all gen- 
erations honor you as they honor us; so shall 
that Almighty Power which so graciously pro- 
tected us, and which now protects you, shower 
its everlasting blessings upon you and your pos- 
terity." 

The Rural in New York State. — There 
are many Californians who subscribe for the 
Rural Press and have the paper sent directly 
to their old homes at the East, to keep the good 
people informed of the progress of California 
agriculture, etc. Among these is a prominent 
resident of San Francisco, whose old home was 
in Onondaga county, New York. The paper 
was stopped by a mistake for a time and then 
renewed, and its re-arrival called forth the fol- 
lowing allusion to the Press, which we are 
proud to reproduce: 

"I want 'o express to you our thanks for that 
which we have missed these past months— our table 
guest from the Pacific aide. A quartette of these longed- 
for visitors came to us last month, which received a very 
warm welcome. Eagerly, and I may say exulting!}', did I 
bid them occupy the front of reading table. Father 
had said we would be minus the Rural this year, while I 
had kept up tho looking and real longing, hoping their 
coming would soon appear. Here they now are, with 
their peaceful, quiet, rare literary attainment, greeting us 
with an added luster of good things, as tho pages are 
larger and more of them. Thanks, for the papers we 
missed so much, with more for those to come, as we are 
sure of a year's recoption." 

Girls at Football. — Twenty-two young 
women, eleven of them English and eleven 
Scotch, played an international game of football 
in England. The teams appeared in a costume 
essentially similar to that worn by male foot- 
ball players, consisting of jerseys, knicker- 
bockers, stockings, boots, and a "cowl," with 
a sort of sash depending from the waist— the 
Scotch teams wearing blue jerseys and red 
sashes, and the English, red jerseys and blue 
sashes. Most of the players were well built, 
athletic looking girls, and the teams looked ex- 
ceedingly picturesque in their bright and taste- 
fully arranged costumes. Some retained such 
feminine ornaments as frilling, bracelets, etc., 
but others, with arms bare to the shoulder, en- 
tered into the game with all the enthusiasm of 
boys. The Scotch lassies won. 



"Going to California." 

The glamour about going to California is still 
something like it was in '49. Staid old fellows 
back yonder are pulling up stakes and severing 
the ties of a lifetime to come here; some for a 
milder climate; others because they adventured 
in the mines in flush times, and foolishly think 
they will somehow find their lost youth and 
strength of long ago. Ex- Congressmen, ex- 
members of the Legislatures of their States, and 
ex-county officers, are thick as. leaves in Yal- 
latnbrosa. We just met one who was County 
Recorder and Sheriff in Iowa. He owned the 
best farm in his ctfunty and a fine house in 
town. Then he pulled out and landed here 
where he purchased a nice farm which, in an 
evil hour, he traded for mining stock. Others 
more lucky, and less confiding, are content 
to refrain from such investments, and accom- 
modate themselves to the order of things pre- 
vailing. Another who made a fortune sufficient 
for his old age in milling; who was often honored 
by his people in being sent to the Assembly and 
Senate as their representative, is enjoying the 
quiet evening of a long life in Santa Rosa. One 
more ex-member of tho Legislature of a West- 
ern State may, at times, be seen hauling gravel, 
wood, or jobbing aiound with a team. Another 
prominent business man in an Eastern city re- 
moved here a few years ago, bringiug ample 
capital to maintain him anil his family in com- 
fort the rest of his days, but thinking ho saw a 
chance to increase it by mining stock invest- 
ments he hazarded it with that den cf thieves, 
the San Francisco Stock Board, and lost. He 
is now a poor man unable to take care of his 
family, though living in the hope of better days 
coming, when fortune, with a turn of the wheel, 
may bring some of his ventures uppermost. 

It is a favorite spot for professional men. 
The longing for something new, the hunger for 
excitement, fed by mauy agio wiDgstory, sounding 
like Sinbad, the Sailor, and the fabulous riches 
gathered, in the stories of the Aarabian Nights, 
contributed toward bringing all olasseB here, 
long after the gold mines ceased to yield more 
than the slenderest returns for daily labor. Men, 
eminent in all the walks of life, have found by 
sad experience, that the means for living are as 
hard to gather here as anywhere else. We 
know a retired army officer who thought $40,000 
fortune enongh to warrant him, in time of peace, 
to settle down in San Francisco for tho enjoy- 
ment of his future days. He has neither wife 
nor child, and his wants are few and simple. 
But five years passed amid the whirl and excite- 
ment of booming stocks and the devices of cap- 
pers, let bim down to bed rock. He is now 
drudging at poor pay to earn his bread. And 
yet this is as good a country as any for a man, 
with means enough to buy land, to make a live- 
lihood, if he will work and beware of specula- 
tion. — Santa Rota Republican. 



Floral Exchange. 

Editors Press: — I would like to enter the 
Floral Exchange. I have, to exchange, seels of 
double variegated pink, phlox (pink, red and 
rosy lilac), hollyhock (pink, white and red), 
mignonette (Parson's new white), sweet peas 
(two colors), pansy and violet, Madeira vine, 
flags, myrtle (variegated and common), hop 
vine, white moss and monthly ro9e. — Katk M. 
Brown, San Benito, Cal. 

The Mistake of Mothers. — Thousands of 
mothers slave, grow prematurely old, forget and 
neglect their own accomplishments, and drag 
themselves about as mere appendages, some- 
thing between a nurse and a housekeeper to a 
daughter too young to realize or appreciate the 
sacrifices made for her. It is every person's 
business to make morally, mentally, physically, 
all of themselves possible, and this settling 
down at 35 and 40 into an old woman and tak- 
ing a back seat that the daughters may shine is 
a mistake, and defeats the very end sought. 
There's often altogether too much done for 
children, and the chief result is that of making 
them helpless, dependent creatures. Mothers 
to-day are Baying, "I don't care for myself now, 
so that Effie or Nettie get their full quota of 
accomplishments," when, if that mother went 
on building herself up on the basis of her own 
matured experience, and ceased to sink and 
absorb herself so completely in Effie and Nettie 
the world with which she came in contact 
might be profited. Society needs matured 
women as live, potent factors, and the shining 
should not be left entirely to fledglings. Were 
there time and space a word would be said here 
in this matter for the old man, too, though he 
is more apt to take care of himself. 

Light and Life. — This is the name of a col- 
lection of newhymns and tunes for Sundayschool 
meetings, prayer meetings, praise meetings 
and revival meetings, edited by R. M. 
Mcintosh, published by Oliver Ditson & Co. 
Mr. Mcintosh announces himself as editor 
of this pretty collection, of which he fur- 
nishes quite a number of the tunes, the rest 
being contributions from writers of well ap- 
proved musical and poetic talent. The publish- 
ers have ventured on very light-colored paper 
for the covers, whioh finely sets off the neat pic- 
ture title; this representing a stirring scene in 
the South Seas, where the missionary ship, which 
seems to come out of the rising sun, is bring- 
ing all sorts of good things, and among them, 
the Sunday school, to the eager islanders among 
their palm trees. 



July 2, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



7 




The Fifer of Lexington. 

A Fourth of July Sketch. 

Lexington ! Concord ! What American boy 
or girl has not heard of these two little villages 
in Massachusetts, where the first blow was 
struck for Independence, and where the hot 
flames of the Revolution first burst out, on the 
19th, of April, 1776 ! One of my first pilgrim- 
ages was to these villages. 

It was a bright, sunny morning in October, 
1848, when I traveled by railway from Boston 
to Concord, a distance of 17 miles northwest of 
the New England capital. There I spent an 
hour with Maj. Barrett and his wife, who "saw 
the British scamper," and had lived together 
almost 60 years. The Major was hale at 87, 
and his wife, almost as old, seemed as nimble 
of foot as a matron in middle life. She was a 
vivacious little woman, well formed, and re- 
tained traces of the beauty of her girlhood. 

After visiting the place of the skirmish at 
Concord, I rode in a private vehicle to Lexing- 
ton, six miles eastward, though a picturesque 
and fertile country, and entered the famous vil- 
lage at the Green, whereon that skirmish oc- 
curred, and where a commemorative monument 
now stands. After a brief interview with two 
or three aged persons there, we drove to the 
house of Jonathan Harrington in East Lexing- 
ton, who, a lad 17 years old, had opened the 
ball of the Revolution on the memorable April 
morning with the war-notes of the shrill fife. 

As we halted before the house of Mr. Har- 
rington, at a little past noon, we saw an old 
man wielding an axe vigorously in splitting fire- 
wood in his yard. I entered the gate and in- 
troduced myself and my errand. The old man 
was the venerable fifer. 

"Come in and rest yourself," he said kindly, 
as he led the way into the house. 

Although he was then past 90 years of age, 
he appeared no older than many men at 70. 
His form was nearly erect, his voice was firm, 
his complexion was fair, bis placid face was 
lighted by mild blue eyes and had but few deep 
wrinkles, and his hair, not all white, was very 
abundant. I took a seat on a chintz-covered 
lounge, and he sat in a rocking chair. 

"I have come," I said, "to make some inqui- 
ries about the battle of Lexington." 

"It wasn't a battle," he answered; "only a 
skirmish." 

"It was a sharp one," I said. 

"Yes, pretty sharp, pretty sharp," he re- 
plied, thoughtfully. "Eight fine young men 
out of a hundred men were killed; two of them 
my blood-relations." 

"I understand you played the fife on that 
morning," I said. 

"As well as I could," he replied. "I taught 
myself to play the year before, when the minute- 
men were training; and I was the only person 
in Lexington who knew how to fife. That 
ain't saying much, though, for then there were 
only eight or ten houses in the village besides 
the meeting-house." 

"Did you belong to the minute-men?" I 
asked. 

"I was a minute-boy. They asked me to fife, 
to help Joe Burton make music with his drum 
for Capt. Parker's company. Poor Joe! his 
drumhead was smashed, and he lost a little 
finger in the fight. Captain Parker's company 
was drilled the night before the fight, for Sol 
Brown, our nearest neighbor, came from Bos- 
ton at sunset, and said he had seen nine British 
soldiers in overcoats walking toward Lexington. 
Sam Adams and John Hancock were at Parson 
Clark's house, where Dorothy Quincy, Han- 
cock's sweetheart was staying. Gage wanted to 
catch and hang 'em, and it was believed the 
soldiers Sol had seen had been sent out to catch 
'em that night. A guard of eight men, under 
Sergeant Munroe (who kept a tavern here) was 
stationed around Parson Clark's house. A lit- 
tle past midnight, Paul Revere — you've heard 
of Paul Revere — came riding like mad from Cam- 
bridge, his horse all afoam, for the weather was 
uncommonly warm. He told Munroe he wanted 
to see Hancock. 'He didn't want to be dis- 
turbed by noise,' said the sergeant. 'Noise!' 
said Revere; 'you'll have noise enough soon, for 
the regulars are coming!' Hancock heard him, 
and opening a window, called out, 'Revere, I 
know you; come in.' He went into the house 
a moment, then came out, mounted bis horse, 
and started on a gallop toward Concord. Very 
soon everybody in Lexiogton was astir." 

"Were you on duty then ?" I inquired. 

"No," he said. "I went to bed at 11 o'clock 
and, as all boys should do, slept soundly. My 
mother (who was a Dunster, and one of the 
most patriotic women of the time) called out to 
me at 3 o'clock: 'Johnathan! Johnathan! get 
up! The regulars are coming, and something 
must be done!' I dressed quickly, slung my 
light gun over my shoulder, took my fife from 
a chair, and hurried to the parade near the 
meeting-house, where about 50 men had gath- 
ered, and others were arriving every minute. 
By 4 o'clock a 100 men were there. We did 
not wait long wondering whether the regulars 
were really coming, for a man dashed up to Cap- 
tain Parker and told him they were close by. 
The Captain immediately ordered Joe to beat 
the drum, and I fifed with all my might. 
Alarm guns were instantly fired to call distant 
minute-men to duty. Lights were now seen 
moving in all the houses. Daylight came at 
half-past four o'clock. Just then the regulars, 



who had heard the drum-beat, rushed toward 
us, and their leader shouted, 'Disperse, you 
rebels!' We stood still. He repeated the or- 
der with an oath, fired his pistol, and ordered 
his men to shoot. Only a few obeyed. Nobody 
was hurt, and we supposed their guns were 
loaded only with powder. We had been or- 
dered not to fire first, and so we stood still. 
The angry leader of the regulars then gave an- 
other order for them to fire, when a volley 
killed or wounded several of our company. See- 
ing the regulars endeavoring to surround U3, 
Captain Parker ordered us to retreat. As we 
fled, some shots were sent back. Joe and I 
climbed a fence near by. Climbing over, Joe 
fell upon a heap of stones and crushed in his 
drum-head. His hand was bleeding badly, and 
he found a bullet had carried off a part of his 
little finger. Eight of our men had lost their 
lives." 

" Where were Adams and Hancock all this 
time ? " I inquired. 

"Not far off," he replied. "When the first 
shots were heard, they were advised to fly to a 
place of safety, for their lives were too valuable 
to the public to be lost. At first they refused to 
go, but were finally persuaded, and retired to a 
thick- wooded hill not far off. Dorothy Quincy 
went with her lover. They were married in the 
fall. It is said Sam Adams, hearing the firing 
on the Green, exclaimed: 'What a glorious 
morning for America is this !' I have no doubt 
he said so, for it was just like him." 

"You said two of your blood relations per- 
ished in that fight," 1 observed. 

" Yes," he replied; "they were Jonathan and 
Caleb Harrington. Caleb, and Joe Comer, who 
lived a mile from Lexington, had gone into the 
meeting-house to get some powder stored in 
the loft. They had taken it to the gallery when 
the British reached the meeting-houBe. They 
flew to the door, and started on a run for the 



Concord, the quicksilver was 85* in the shade, 
and the door-yards were bright with dandelions. 
The minute-men made it hotter than that — full 
100 in the shade — for the British before they 
got back to Cambridge that evening." 

"Did you serve in the army afterward ?" I 
inquired. 

"No," he said; "father went to the war, and 
I 'staid at home to help mother take care of 
things, for I was the oldest boy. I played the 
fife sometimes after that when the young men 
in the neighborhood were training for the 
fight." 

By permission of Mr. Harrington I drew a 
likeness of him sitting in his rocking-chair; and 
under it he wrote, with a trembling hand, 
which he attributed to the use of the ax that 
morning: 

JONATHAN HARRINGTON, 
Aged 90, the 8th July, 1848. 

His brother Charles, two years younger than 
he, came in before I bad finished the sketch. I 
could not but look with wonder and reverence 
upon these strong old men — children of one 
mother, who had borne three sons and five 
daughters — who were nearly grown to manhood 
when the old war for Independence broke out. 
I bade them farewell, received from the old 
fifer the benediction "God bless you ! " went 
back to the village green, sketched the monu- 
ment, and called upon their kinsman, Abijah 
Harrington, who was a lad 14 years of age at 
the time of the skirmish. He saw nearly all of 
the fight. He had two brothers in it, and had 
been sent by his mother, trembling on account 
of her sons, to watch the fray at a safe distance, 
and obtain for her information concerning her 
brave boys. 

From Mr. Harrington's I went to the house 
of Parson Clark, where I found Mrs. Margaret 
Chandler, a remarkably intelligent old lady, 




HOW TH<S FARM BOYS CELEBRATED. 



company. Caleb was shot dead at the west end 
of the meeting-house, but Joe, though wounded, 
escaped. Jonathan had stood his ground with 
the rest. His house was near the meeting-house. 
He was in front of his own house when the regu- 
lars fired the third time. He was shot in the 
breast and fell. His wife, Ruth, stood looking 
out of the window, with their only child, nine 
years old, by her side. She saw her husband 
fall and ran out to help him. He raised up, 
stretched his arms toward her, fell again, and 
was dead before she could get to him. Oh ! it 
was too cruel, too cruel ! " 

"There were brave men in that little band of 
patriots," I remarked. 

"Brave men!" said the old man, his mild eyes 
beaming with unusual luster, "braver men 
never lived. Not one of them left his post 
until Captain Parker, seeing it was useless to 
fight against so many regulars, told them to 
disperse. There was one man who wouldn't go 
even then. It was Jonas Parker of this town. 
He lived near Parson Clark's. He had said he 
would never run from an enemy, and he didn't. 
He had loaded his musket, put his hat, contain- 
ing powder, wadding and bullets, between his 
feet, and so faced the regulars. At the second 
fire he was wounded and fell on his knees. 
Then he fired his gun; and though he was dying, 
he reached for another charge in his hat, when 
a big red-coat killed him with a bayonet on the 
very spot where Jonas first stood. Wasn't that 
pluck ?" 

"Rare pluck," I answered. "The names of 
such men should never be forgotten." 

"They never will be," replied the old patriot, 
excitedly. "Their names are cut deep in mar- 
ble on the little monument down yonder on 
the Green — Robert Munroe, Jonas Parker, 
Samuel Hadley, Jonathan Harrington, Jr., 
Isaac Muzzy, Caleb Harrington, John Brown 
and Asahel Porter. Should the marble perish, 
their names are cut deeper in the memory of 
Americans." 

"You said it was a warm night when Paul 
Revere rode from Cambridge to Lexington," I 
said. 

"Yes," he replied; "it was a very early 
spring. Young leaves appeared on the 1st of 
April. The grass on the village green was so 
tall on the morning of the 19th that it waved in 
the light wind that was blowing. At noon 
that day, when the British were driven from 



then 83 years of age. She had lived in that 
house ever since the Revolution, had a clear 
recollection of events at Lexington on the 
memorable April morning, and gave me a ver- 
sion of the escape of Adams and Hancock 
somewhat different from that given me by the 
venerable fifer. A few more words about the 
latter: 

On the 75th anniversary of the affair at Lex- 
ington and Concord (1850) Jonathan Harring- 
ton was invited to participate with his fellow- 
citizens in the proceedings of the day. In the 
procession was a carriage containing Jonathan, 
aged 92; his brother Charles, aged 90; Amos 
Baker, aged 94; Thomas Hill, aged 92, and Dr. 
Preston, aged 84. Jonathan gave as a toast at 
dinner: "The 19th of April, 1775. All who 
remember that day will support the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. " 

Tne Hon. Edward Everett made a speech on 
the occasion, in which he remarked that "it 
pleased his heart to see these venerable men 
beside him, and he was very much pleased to 
assist Mr. Jonathan Harrington to put on his 
top coat a few minutes ago. In doing so he 
was ready to say with David, 'Very pleasant 
art thou .to me, my brother Jonathan?' " 

Late in March, 1854, when he was almost 96 
years of age, Jonathan Harrington died, and was 
buried with public honors. In the funeral 
procession was a large body of military as an 
escort, and the hearse was followed by the 
committee of arrangements, the Governor of 
Massachusetts, the Lieutenant-Governor and 
Council, and a vast multitude of citizens gath- 
ered from the neighboring towns. After im- 
pressive religious services in the church at 
Lexington, his remains were deposited in the 
family tomb. 

Sacred be the memory of the Fifer of Lex- 
infiton! — B. J. Lossing, in Harper's Younn Peo- 
ple. 



Esyic Eg© 



Healthfalness of Emit. 

Fresh, ripe, perfect, raw fruit is safe and 
healthful at all seasons of the year, and amid 
the ravages of disease, whether epidemic, en- 
demic or sporadic, general, special or local. 
Under proper restrictions as to quantity, such 
fruit as named will cure a diarrhoea, aid in re- 
moving a cold, colic, fever or any other disease 
whose treatment requires the bowels to be kept 
freely open; for this effect, fresh, ripe fruit is 
acknowledged to have; but to be used advan- 
tageously in health and disease, the following 
rules are imperative: 

1. Fruit should be eaten ripe, raw, fresh and 
perfect. 

2. It should be eaten in moderation. 

3. It should be eaten not later than four 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

4. No water or fluid of any description should 
be swallowed within an hour after eating fruit. 

5. To have its full beneficial effect, nothing 
else should be eaten at the time the fruit is 
taken. 

It is to the neglect of these observances that 
erroneous impressions prevail in many families, 
and to an extent, too, in some instances, that 
the most luscious peach, or apple, or bunch of 
grapes, is regarded as that much embodied 
cholera and death. When will men learn to be 
observant and reflective? — Journal of Health. 

Buttermilk as Summer Food, Drink and 
Medicine. — A Detroit physician asserts that 
for a hot-weather drink nothing equals butter- 
milk. It is, he says, "both drink and food, 
and for the laborer is the best known. It sup- 
ports the system, and even in fever will cool 
the stomach admirably. It is also a most val- 
uable domestic remedy. It will cure dysentery 
as well and more quickly than any other remedy 
known. Dysentery is really a constipation, and 
is the opposite of diarrhoea. It is inflammation 
of the bowels with congestion of the ' portal 
circulation' — the circulation of blood through 
the bowels and liver. It is a disease always 
prevalent in the summer and autumn. From 
considerable observation I feel warranted in 
saying that buttermilk, drunk moderately, will 
cure every case of it — certainly when taken in 
the early stages. " 

Fine Sweet Rusks. — S if ten two tablespoon- 
fuls of butter in a bowl, whisk two tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, three eggs and flavoring to your 
taste (lemon generally), together with a pint 
of milk, add to your butter in the bowl two 
quarts of flour with four teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder sifted in it, then add milk, eggs, etc., 
and mix, adding a little more milk if required 
to make it of the desired consistency. Bake 
in balls the size of large walnuts, place to- 
gether on buttered pans with side3 to them. 
Moderate oven. 



Vibrations from Machinery. — The French 
society for the encouragement of national indus- 
try, which offered a prize of §400 for the inven- 
tion of a means for deadening the shocks and 
vibrations to buildings caused by steam ham- 
mers and other heavy machinery, awarded one- 
fourth the amount for a device which consisted 
of introducing India rubber plates between the 
foundation of the machine and the floor. 



Stuffed Potatoes. — Bake some large pota- 
toes in their skins; when quite done, scoop out 
the insides, and mash them well with a little 
butter or milk; mix some finely minced beef or 
mutton with the mashed potatoes, adding pep- 
per and salt to taste; refill the empty skins 
with the mixture, and place them in the oven 
again till thoroughly hot, putting a small lump 
of butter on the top of each to prevent their 
becoming too dry. Serve in a cloth. This is 
always a favorite dish with children. 

Asparagus Rolls. — Boil the asparagus as 
usual in boiling salted water; when tender cut 
up the tops and all that is eatable, and warm 
over in milk, butter rubbed in flour, yelks of 
raw eggs beaten, a grate of nutmeg, and a 
small pinch of mace — quantities regulated by 
the amount of asparagus; have some rolls with 
the crumbs scooped out, having taken off the 
top crust, fill the cavity with the boiling aspar- 
agus, and place the top crust on at once; it 
must be managed quickly so as to send to table 
very hot. 

Beef Stew. — Select from the cheapest cut of 
beef about three lbs. of the lean, and put into 
an iron pot, cover it with water, and one 
quart of sliced tomatoes, and one-half pint 
sliced okra, three onions cut fine, and half a 
dozen ears of corn cut from the cob. Let the 
whole stew gently for three hours, or until the 
vegetables make a jelly with the meat. Season 
with salt and pepper before removing from 
the first. If desired, add two ounces of butter. 

Dried Peach Pudding. — Three-quarters of 
a pound of flour, one pint dried peaches, three 
gills beef suet, one teaspoonful of salt. Chop 
the peaches and suet, mix them with the 
flour and salt; add cold water enough to mix 
the ingredients together in a stiff dough as can 
be made with a spoon, tie it in a cloth, leaving 
room to swell, and steam or boil it three hours 
or longer. The rule for a batter pudding is 
half an hour to every pint of pudding. 

Frosted Apple Pie. — Line a pie plate with 
a puff paste. Slice in apples, sugar them and 
add a little butter, no water, and a little lemon 
essence or juice. Bake, and when done spread 
a thick frosting of beaten egg and sugar over 
it, return to the oven till the frosting is 
warmed through. 



8 



TMl PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 2, l88l. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWEB 

Office, 202Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine St., S. F. 

Address editorial »ml business letters to the firm. In 
dividuals are liable to be absent. 

Asitoal StJBBORrpnoNS, $4; six months, 82; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one year In advance 
one dollar will be deducted. No saw names will b« 
taken without cash in advance. Bemittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Advbrtisincj Raths. 1 week. 1 month. 

Per line 25 .80 

Half inch (1 square). . 81.00 83.00 
One inch 2.00 5.00 

Entered at San Francisco P. O. as second-class matter 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



S mos. 
82.00 
7.50 
14.00 



12 mos 
8 6 
24 
40 



A. t. DSWSV 



W. B. 1WBR. 



8. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 2, 188 1. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS. —The Great Cotton Show of 1S81; 



Wine; A Fourth of July Reminiscence, 9. Notices of 
Recent Patents, 12. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— The Plum Aphis In Florida; 
Bisulphide for Phylloxera, 8. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— International Cotton Exposi- 
tion, 1. How the Farm Boys Celebrated, 7. Chinese 
Celebrating the Fourth of Julv in Early Days, 9. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— The Grange and 
Co-operation; Bringing in the Youth; The Grange as an 
Educator; Resolution of Kespect, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California and Nevada, 4 and 5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 5 and other pages. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— A Califomian in Texas; 
Mt. Diablo, 5. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Peach, 2 Plants Worth 
Trying in California, 2-3- 

THE STOCK YARl>.— Short Horn Notes, 3 

PISCICULTURE.— Trout Ponds, 3. 

HOME CIRCLE — Our Country (Poetry); A Woman's 
Victory; The New Declaration; Discoursing Boys Smok- 
ing; Ourselves and Self-Control; The Words of Wash 
ington; The Rural in New York State; Girls at Foot 
ball; "Going to California;" Floral Exchange; The Mis 
take of Mothers; Light and Life, 6- 

YOUNG FOLK8' COLUMN.— The Fifer of Lex 
ington, 7- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Healthfulness of Fruit; 
Buttermilk as Summer Food, Drink and Medicine; Fine 
Sweet RuskB; Stuffed Potatoes; Asparagus Rolls; Beef 
Stew; Dried Peach Pudding; Frosted Apple Pie, 7- 

Business Announcements. 

Bain Wagons— Baker & Hamilton, S. F. 

Nursery— Isaac Collins. Hay wards, Cal. 

St. Augustine College — Benicia Cal. 

Texas Lands— James Thompson, San Antonio, Texas. 

Hay Presses, Etc.— Jackson & Truman, S. F. 

Dividend Notice— San Francisco Savings Union. 

Dividend Notice — German Savings and Loan Society. 

Assessment Notice — Grangers' Business Association. 

Wagons— A W. Sanborn & Co., S. F. 

Boarding and Day School— Miss S. B. Bisbee, Oakland. 



The Week 



The week precedes the "Glorious Fourth," 
and urban and rural minds are occupied with 
plans for celebration. Already the premonitory 
pops of toy pistol and fire-cracker betoken the 
forethought of Young America, and arrange- 
ments for systematic racket and display of 
bunting, the imposing parade and the essentials 
of oratory, poetry and the one hundred and 
fifth reading of the declaration, are all being 
planned and will be duly executed for the diver- 
sion and entertainment of the people. In this 
city there will be the usual military demonstra- 
tions, festoons of flags will bridge the streets, 
and other decorations will not be wanting. 
Those who enjoy the excitement, tumult and 
spectacle of a city celebration will no doubt be 
gratified by a visit to San Francisco next 
Monday. 

In the interior towns, and at the pleasure 
resorts where thousands are now congregated, 
there will be quieter observations of the day, 
and the patriotic spirit will rise as high 
as in the more imposing demonstrations. The 
patriotic idea in the day should not be lost Bight 
of, and the young should be well informed of 
the stirring events of the last century, which 
culminated in 1776, and opened the way for a 
nation which now leads the world in freedom 
and enlightenment. Do not let the national 
birthday be looked upon merely as the occasion 
for sport or recreation, but let its higher signifi- 
cance shine forth above the conventional cele- 
brations. In this way the principles upon which 
the nation rests may be kept fresh in mind, and 
perchance they will lead the thoughts and lift 
the lives of men above the sordid aims and am- 
bitions which are now-a-days becoming too 
prevalent. Observe the national holiday by all 
means, and honor the day by an observance 
which shall enforce its highest, deepest meaning. 

The sensation of the week has been the 
comet which may be seen a little west of north 
during the early part of the night, and in the 
northeast before sunrise. At first, people were 
startled by the idea that there were two com- 
ets, but its nearness to the polar star makes 
its apparent circle very small, and enables it to 
frighten timid people at both" ends of the night. 



Discouraging the Ships. 

We have several times commented upon the 
hardship which our importers of merchandise 
of all kinds would bring upon the productive 
interests of the State by deeds which would 
discourage the coming of ships to this port. It 
was shown that the merchants were making 
contracts with the railway, which obligated 
them to send all their goods by rail or by the 
isthmus — the latter route being under the con 
trol of the railways. The effect of such con 
tracts is to take away business from ships com 
ing around the Horn, and consequently ships 
coming to take away our grain must come in 
ballast and must get pay for both voyages out 
of the farmers' grain. Of course fewer ships 
will come nnder such an outlook than would 
come if they could get cargo enough to pay the 
expenses of the trip hither, and the result must 
be few ships and much grain, a condition of 
affairs which means high charter rates, which 
are death to our grain-producing interest. 

This is a matter in which one cannot find 
much fault with the railroads. It might be ex 
pected that they would do what they could to 
get patronage. But it is plain that importers 
should have more concern for the prosperity of 
their customers than to deliberately depress the 
price of products which furnish the means of 
purchase to our great consuming population. 
Whatever momentary advantage there may be 
to merchants to enter contracts with the rail- 
ways, and thus turn their backs wholly upon 
the ships, it is plain that it is an exceedingly 
shortsighted policy, and will result ere long in 
the aggregation of goods which the people can- 
not buy, and trade will of course be dull and 
profitless. 

Eastern people are perceiving this folly of 
San Francisco importers, and are commenting 
upon it in forcible terms. The New York 
Shipping Lilt, which is of course in the interest 
of the ship owners, and yet proves its proposi 
tions so as to commend them to the acceptation 
of all disinterested persons, has the following 
review of the subject: 

The combination of different railroad lines forming the 
through route to San Francisco and manipulated in San 
Francisco by the agent of the Central Pacific railroad and 
its connections, and in New York by the agent of the 
Union Paciflc railroad, have been working earnestly and 
with great success to kill off the shipping business via 
Cape Horn. They first subsidized the Pacific Mail 
Steamship Co., and by paying them a certain amount 
monthly, succeeded in controlling all the California 
freight going by that route via the Isthmus, and making 
all rates therefor. This arrangement still continues. The 
only other opponent they could have was the sailing 
Bhips, via Cape Horn. If they could block up tho Straits 
of Le Maire, and other channels around Cape Horn by 
sinking old vessels etone loaded, as was done in Charles- 
ton harbor during the war, it would probably have been 
done; but this was impossible. So they enlisted the as- 
sistance of many of the leading houses in San Francisco — 
importers and exporters of dry goods, groceries, canned 
goods, etc.. and in consideration of an agreement not to 
receive, not to ship, and not to sell or handle any goods, 
via Cape Horn, give a reduced railroad rate to all who 
will sign such an agreement. The California papers are 
expatiating on the tremendous increase in the products of 
the soil, notably of wheat and barley. The products of 
the mines are now a secondary consideration. Of wheat, 
tho larger part goes to Europe. Of barley, some to Aus- 
tralia and some to New York— when prices admit. Both 
these cereals are properly sail vessel freight. To secure 
the requisite amount of tonnage by sail for bo large a 
grain crop as California now produces, vessels should be 
encouraged to proceed in that direction. How old Call- 
fornians, who have been always identified with the devel- 
opment of their home interest, should assist any move- 
ment that keeps ships away from San Francisco and re- 
stricts their opportunities for marketing the products of 
their State by binding themselves to the railroads by a 
cast-iron contract, is beyond comprehension. 

We commend these weighty sentences to the 
attention of our importers. They cannot af- 
ford to shut their eyes to the issues involved. 



A Bag Ring Again. 

We were not as wise as we thought last week 
when we remarked that the bag business would 
probably run "without a combination this year. 
The ring was welded almost before our ink was 
dry and our conclusion that recent experience 
with combinations was not such as to lead deal- 
ers into more of them seems to have been incor- 
rect. So far as we can learn, however, there is 
not nearly so much heart and confidence in the 
combination this year as there has been hereto- 
fore, and we should not be surprised to hear of 
its collapse. In this, however, we may be mis- 
taken. Ordinarily there is no reason why a 
wheat grower should be much harmed by a bag 
combination made at the end of June. 
There are exceptional cases, of course, 
but generally a wheat grower should 
have his bags engaged before this time in the 
season. For two months at least, bags have 
run along from week to week at a fraction over 
8 cents each on large lots. This price is so near 
the cost of production that the bag-buyer need 
not expect to do better, and if he does not buy 
at that rate, but postpones procuring his sup- 
ply, he will, in most cases, put himself at the 
mercy of a corner. It is true that a crop is an 
uncertain quantity and may be destroyed by 
fire or blasted by rust or northers. In this 
way, a calculation as to the bags required may 
be all awry. Yet it is quite a safe investment 
to buy what bags you expect to need, for if the 
crop fail, the bags can be re-sold without loss 
when they are bought low, and there is a chance 
of turning apenny on them if they be not required 
for home use, for the combination will pnt 
up the price temporarily just about the time 
that the crop shows its final features. 



We do not expect the combination will sue 
ceed in maintaining very high prices this year. 
According to all authorities the supply is ample 
and the corner will be a difficult one to main 
tain. It is not desirable to hold over bags, and 
some nervous side of the corner may fall in for 
the sake of unloading. Unless this occurs, it is 
possible that wheat growers who need bags, may 
have to pay about 2 cents each more than they 
could have bought them for at any date since 
last September. 

In the Rural of June 18th, we printed a table 
of bag prices for the last 10 years, which may 
be consulted with interest in view of the pres- 
ent advance. The only lesson to be drawn from 
the situation is that when bags are purchasable 
low before harvest, it is not wise to wait until 
the dealers get their heads together and pinch 
those who postpone their purchases until the 
last moment. There is less excuse for delay in 
purchasing now than there once was, as it has 
been possible at any time since last harvest to 
get bags bought and held until harvest, at a 
small margin and a low rate of interest. 



Jersey Values. 

We have had several paragraphs of late al 
luding to the rise in Jersey values at the East. 
The subject is of course one which interests 
many of our readers, for the Jersey stock is 
widely distributed and the handsome animals 
are delighting their owners both in the large 
dairy and in the suburban barn-yard. As there 
has been reached an area of high prices, and as 
the United States has led in the advance, it is 
interesting to note what evidence there is that 
the rise in value is not a mere sensation but 
likely to endure, for this is the secret of safety 
in any property whether it be live stock, or 
bonds, or lands, or merchandise. 

The Bulletin of the Jersey Cattle Club takes 
up this subject in its May issue, and it must be 
acknowledged that it adduces much strong ev 
idence on the affirmative side of the proposi 
tion. As the subject is of present interest in 
California as elsewhere, we shall summarize 
this review for the information of our readers, 

In the first flush of excitement there were not wanting 
some who saw in the competition for certain animals 
nothing but "gambling in pedigrees," injury to dairymen 
and eventual ruin to all. But let us make some com pari 
sons. Do we pay any more for beef to-day because cer 
tain 8hort Homs have sold for $25,000 1 Is the price of a 
good roadster higher since "Kentucky Prince" fetched 
over $10,000 at auction t Has the sale of some prize fowls 
at $1&0 per trio advanced the price of eggs ? As yet the 
extremo prices reached by Jerseys are about 10 times the 
average of the common run, whilst some of the Duchesses 
were sold at 100 times the price of an average good Short 
Horn, and horses at 60 times the value of a decent hack. 

If breeders of Jereevs had rone so daft that a poor man 
was mortgaging his homestead to pay for a heifer, there 
would be cause for alarm; but as the buyers of these 
costly animals are men of affairs who are not given to los- 
ing their heads in daily transactions of a magnitude that 
make these purchases a mere recreation, we need not 
make ourselves unhappy oo their account. This good we 
think it safe to expect for dairymen; the present buyers 
have paid enough to show that their interest and ambi- 
tion are kindled to a degree that will ensure tha most care- 
ful breeding from the best foundation stock tnat money- 
can command, and systematic feeding and testing such as 
men of slender means cannot accomplish. 

It is not possible for great improvement to be made in 
breeding by those most capable and best equipped with- 
out beneficial effect among less favored herds. With the 
interest now awakened there is no fear of the blighting 
effects of indifference. We must breed for years yet be- 
fore the supply can meet the growing demand. Even the 
East is but slenderly stocked, and we have barely touched 
the edge of an immense country at the far West adapted 
to dairying, and only waiting for the needed stock. 

The journal from which we have quoted then 
proceeds to enumerate the results of a number 
of sales held this spring at the East, to show 
how values stand at present. On page 449 of 
last week's Rural the most significant of these 
sales were mentioned, and we refer the reader 
to that statement. We count it fortunate for 
the whole dairy interest, that the rich men of 
the country are turning their fancy and their 
coin into the development of dairy cattle. The 
present excitement in Jerseys, so far as we can 
see, rests upon the actual pail performances of 
certain cows, and this is the sovereign utility 
test by which all dairy cattle should be judged. 
That some of our citizens have plenty of money 
to take up this idea and vie with each 
other to work it out for all there may be in it 
We count it fortunate for the productive inter- 
ests of the country. Meantime, while these rich 
men are gratifying their tastes for excellence in 
stock, the whole race of cattle is being elevated, 
and each small farmer or suburban resident who 
owns a few Jerseys, will find his property ad- 
vanced, if it be the true article. Back of all 
this lies the wide fact that the milk-yielding 
ability of all cattle will be more carefuUy ob- 
served, those only will be kept which make 
good use of their feed and the margin of profit 
in dairying will be v, idened. We own that we 
are gratified by the Jersey boom. We do not 
see that it can harm anyone, and the prospect 
is, that in the end all will be benefited. 



Fruit for the Fruit-less. — Our fruit grow- 
ing readers who have a surplus of fruit which 
will not pay for marketing may do a good thing 
with it by boxing it up and sending it to the 
Fruit and Flower Mission, 713 Mission street, 
S. F. It wiU be delivered free by Wells, Fargo 
& Co., and the local expresses. The mission, as 
is known by many, is composed of kind hearted 
and enterprising young ladies who give part of 
their time to the alleviation of pain and distress 
by the distribution of fruit and dowers to the 
inmates of the city hospitals. They would be 
thankful if the fruit growers would give of 
their abundance for this praiseworthy object. 
The fruit should be sent so as to reach the city 
on Wednesday or Thursday of each week. 



EflJO^OLOqiCr\L. 

The Plum Aphis in Florida. 

Editors Prbss:— In your issue of May 28th, 
Mr. Edward Berwick gives an account of the 
depredation done his plum trees by the plum 
aphis. He also asks you for information in re- 
gard to it, and says: "Perhaps, also, some 
kind reader will give his experience." As I 
have made the Ajihidida of Florida a special 
study for the past two years, possibly my in- 
vestigations on the plum aphis here will prove 
of value to your correspondent, and others of 
your readers. 

In Europe there are several aphides that at- 
tack the plum. The most common are, Aphis 
pruni, Koch; Phorodon mahaleb, Fronscolomb, 
and Phorodon hamuli, Schrank. These have un- 
doubtedly been imported into America on nurs- 
ery stock, or otherwise, and are now pretty 
generally distributed throughout the country. 

Dr. Asa Fitch, in his "Report on Noxious, 
Beneficial and other Insects of the State of New 
York" (vide Trans. N. Y. State Agricultural 
Society, 1855, page 826), describes another 
species, under the name of Aphis prunifolia, 
which Prof. Thomas, an authority on this fam- 
ily, thinks identical with Aphis pruni, Koch. 
This is probably the species referred to by Mr. 
Berwick. Prof. Thomas says: 

This species appears to be quite variable, but the follow- 
ing taken chiefly from the original description by the 
author of the species, will probably enable the reader to 
Identify it: The winged specimens measure about one- 
seventb of an inch to the tip of the wings; the body is of a 
shining black color except the abdomen, which is pale 
green with a black dot on each side of the two or three 
anterior segments; a large dusky spot rather behind the 
middle tip of the abdomen, acuminate; honey-tubes cylin- 
drical, reaching to the tip of the abdomen. The legs are 
pale, dull yellowish, antenna; black, except the rib-vein. 
The venation does not appear to be as uniform as is usu- 
ally the case in this genus. The larva; are more or less 
of a greeniBh white color, varying according to age. The 
wingless specimens are broadly oval in form, the average 
length about one-sixteenth of an inch. 

Besides the above, I have detected another 
species affecting a native plum here, which 
occurs in countless thousands on the twigs and 
leaves early in the spring (March and April). 
This is apparently undescribed, and I submit 
the following description: 

Apkia prunicoleus, N. sp. : Wingless female; length, .08 
inch. Broadly ovate, and maroon brown. Beak short 
and thick, reaching to middle coxx; brown, excepting' in 
the middle, which is reddish; antenna; reaching to honey 
tubes, basal joints black, third and fourth greenish white, 
tip of fourth and balance black. Honey-tubes reaching 
to tip of abdomen, black, or dark brownish black; style, 
long and white; all coxa; and femora black, tibia? to near 
the tip, white; btlance, including tarsi, black. 

Although thousands of the apterous indiv- 
iduals occurred on the trees, no male or winged 
ones could be found. In my studies on this 
family, although all are more or less injurious 
to vegetation, I find comparatively few really 
do any great damage, as there are numerous 
bugs, beetles, flies, etc., which prey upon them 
externally, besides being destroyed internally 
by numerous parasitic ichneumon and chalcid 
Hies, which hold them in check. Among some 
of their enemies, either bred or observed by me 
here, are the following: The blood-red lady-bug, 
Cycloneda sanguinea; the twice-stabbed lady- 
bug, Chilocorus bivulnerus; the golden-eyed 
chrysopa, Chrysopa plorobunda; aphidious flies, 
Triorys testaceipes and T. citraphis; hemipteroui 
bugs, iieptoglossu* phylhpus and Zelus longipes, 
caught with beaks inserted into the aphids, 
sucking their juices and thus killing them. I 
have also bred several minute dies belonging to 
the Chalcididce family ; also two larvae of some 
Carabid beetle which had gorged themselves to 
repletion; and also last, but not least, the im- 
portant larva; of the Syrphus flies, which de- 
stroy so many of these pests, although they 
themselves are preyed upon by two internal 
parasites, Pteromalus 4-maculattr and Spalangia 
syrphi, nobis. Thus we see nature has provided 
abundant natural foes to contend with them for 
existence, and although they are the most pro- 
lific insects known to us, a single aphis having 
been known to generate several thousand mil- 
lions of offspring in five or six generations, yet 
it is seldom that the aid of man is required to 
keep them nnder control. 

From a few orange twigs'affected with aphides, 
I bred nearly 500 ichneumon flies, and although 
my trees were badly affected with these pests, 
early in the season, I did nothing for theii 
removal, and at present, not one can be found. 
These parasites undoubtedly did the work for 
me, by effectually ridding my trees of them. 
Mr. Berwick need feel no alarm about his plum 
trees, for these parasites no doubt exist in Cal- 
ifornia as elsewhere, and I trust will have, by 
this time, effectually destroyed the aphides. 
Should this, however, not be the case, a strong 
wash made from steamed tobacco stems syr- 
inged upon his trees, will prove efficacious. — 
Wm. H. Ashmbad, Jacksonville, Florida. 

Bisulphide for Phylloxera. 

A Napa county exchange says that Mr. Wein- 
berger is making the third and last application 
of bisulphide. The ground is very hard, necessi- 
tating vastly increased labor over former appli- 
cations, but the effect is good and he is satisfied 
with his trouble. 



A hundred amd ten hands are employed in 
picking fruit on Gen. Bidwell's ranoh, at Chico. 
Over 30,000 Itis. of blackberries were shipped 
one day last week. 



July 2, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



9 



The Olive in Italy— No. 3. 

[Translated for the Rural Press from L'ltalia Agricola, 
by Dr. J. 1. Bleasdale.) 

Management of the Olive Grove. 

The olive tree requires much care and no tri- 
fling expense. Every year it should be culti- 
vated twice; once rather deep in the winter, 
the other slight, as with a scarifier. Every 
third year the manuring has to be renewed. 
Then, the young plants have to be grafted; an 
operation which may be effected in any one of 
three ways — by cuttings (spacco), or ring (anello), 
or by budding (occhio). Then comes pruning 
as soon as the young tree has arrived at a rea- 
sonable development of foliage. By this means 
the cultivator regulates the balance between 
the roots and the tops, to prevent an over- 
growth of wood and to secure a larger yield of 
olives. The pruning needs to be done with 
much accuracy so as to be truly beneficial to 
the tree, and possibly every year instead of every 
three, so as to cut always the useless new sprouts 
and respect the adult branches a little more. 
The pruning instrument should be the usual 
gardener's pruning knife, or scissors, and no 
rougher tool. 

The following are some hints about pruning 
an olive tree: 

a. That the vertical branches bear always 
less fruit than the horizontal ones and those 
that hang down. 

b. That suckers rarely bear fruit. 

c. When the head of the olive tree is too 
dense, the fruit, besides being small, contains, 
less oil. 

d. When the tree is in full bloom, air and 
sunlight should constantly have free access to all 
parts; hence it is desirable to remove little 
twigs and leaves which cause shade. 

e. That an olive tree may be said to be well 
pruned when its fruit can be collected without 
moving the stools or step-ladders (ciocche), as 
also when the branches have not been robbed 
too much of their young wood. 

Diseases and Insects. 

The care necessary to be bestowed on the 
olive tree does not stop at this point. The 
intelligent farmer ought still to keep a con- 
stant supervision over his olive groves, in order 
to discover, on their first appearance, the dis- 
eases to which the trees are subject, and the 
insect pests which do so much damage; to sub- 
due them by appropriate means. We will 
point out the principal diseases, and species of 
destructive insects: 

The Knot (zoijna): — This shows itself upon 
the branches of the tree, in the form of a 
knobby excrescence of different sizes. This 
disease is caused by collections of moisture 
and sap settling in one spot, especially on the 
more tender branches and by absorbing the nour- 
ishment needed by the plant, render it sickly 
and almost destroy the fruit. The remedy is 
to cut off the affected branches. 

The Mosses and Lichens: — These form a kind 
of greenish parasitic vegetation which not un- 
frequently manifests itself upon the bark of 
the stem of the tree, and is caused by moisture 
and dampness. Quicklime is the most reliable 
remedy for these complaints. 

The Cochineal (Coccus kermes): — An insect 
which lives on the tender portion of thicker 
branches, sucks the sap, penetrates into the 
bark, promotes the leakage of the sap, blackens 
the plant and ere long kills it. 

The Psilla (Psylla olivina):—A winged insect 
which causes a kind of white woolliness 
about the axils of the leaves and covers the 
branches, when the tree is in bloom. We can 
only advise to cut off the leaves and attacked 
branches; but if the invasion is but just visible 
a dressing of diluted petroleum might suffice. 

Tignola (Tinea oleolla): An insect which has 
four generations ; the first in the leaves ; the 
second upon the buds; the third in the flowers, 
and the fourth in the fruit of the olive tree ; 
but the two last are the worst, because its at- 
tack on the flowers kills most of them, and by 
getting inside the fruit causes it to drop off be- 
fore its time. We advise to gather and burn 
the leaves, because in them we find the nests of 
the larvaa. 

La Mosca (Baeus ole<e): Another insect, which 
punctures the olives and deposits in each an egg, 
from which is hatched the little grub which 
feeds on the pulp of the olive, boring into even 
the core ; hence the falling off of the fruit 
before it comes to maturity. The best method 
of getting rid of the insect is to gather the olives 
while the grub is still in them. 

The Punternolo (Pholocottibus olem): An- 
other small creature, which is extremely injuri- 
ous in the larva state, because it nibbles the 
young branches of the olive tree which bear the 
flowers, and causes them to dry up. To destroy 
it these dry branches should be cut off the tree, 
beoause it is under them that it attaches itself 
during its lifetime. i 

Productiveness. 
There is an established belief in various parts 
of these provinces that the olive bears a full 
crop only every second year, while, on the 
other hand, we are assured by competent culti- 
vators that when the pruning is done in a ra- 
tional manner every year, instead of every two 
or three years, a crop may be obtained every 
year. 

In confirmation of the above we are pleased 
to notify those cultivators who live in that be- 
lief, that M. Pascal Cesare, director of the seri- 
cultural establishment of S. Leucio, near 
Caserta, gets a crop from his own olive trees 
every year, because he takes care to prune 
them regularly, to manure them as they ought 



to be, and to spare no pains nor care in employ- 
ing all the best means known in that branch of 
agriculture. 

There exists an inveterate habit of associat- 
ing together Ceres and Minerva, wheat with 
olive trees; and however this practice may be 
reprobated by certain writers, for the reason 
that, though the tree sends out many and strong 
roots, which, while some grow downward into 
the ground, others spread themselves out to a 
great distance at a little depth from the surface, 
and may be injured by the plow and harrow, not 
by the long roots of the wheat; still the friends 
of the association declare, that when the tree is 
educated from infancy to th>8 kind of cultiva- 
tion of the ground, the roots are compelled to 
strike downward, without the tree itself sus- 
taining any injury, or diminution of its pro- 
ducts. Leaving the decision, however, of this 
matter to the judgment of the experienced in 
this branch of agriculture, we will confine our 
attention to supplying the following information: 

Olives may be gathered at any time from the 
end of November until May. In case of trees 
reared from seed we recommend hand-picking; 
for those reared in other ways, the fruit may be 
left to fall of its own accord, or lightly beaten 
off with canes; but this last method we hardly 
care to recommend, because the tree might be 
damaged by the breaking off of its slender 
branches. By some it is recommended to gather 
before the commencement of spring, so to se- 
cure a better tasted oil, one that will keep bet- 
ter, and run less risk of losing the fruit. 

The yield of the olive tree being very varia- 
ble, aocording to its age, we will give an ap- 
proximate view of the quantitative yield of ol- 
ives; and of the amount of oil they will yield for 
every age of the tree from 5 to 40 years — or, till 



Grain Field Fires. 

The season for these dread visitations has al- 
ready shown its presence by several ruinous 
conflagrations. In spite of precautions the 
flame is communicated to the combusti- 
ble material, the smoke rolls before the 
wind, a community is aroused, and heroic 
work is done— but the labor of months is swept 
away in an hour, and unless the owner has been 
fortunate enough to ensure he has nothing but 
vexation of spirit, and in many cases a year of 
hardship before him. The instances have been 
so frequent that the danger cannot be over- 
looked. It is a duty to ensure a crop, and there 
should also be something done to break the 
sweep of the fire by barriers of plowed ground, 
by arranging strips of summer fallow alternate 
with the land under crop, or by some other ar- 
rangement which will stay the progress of the 
flames. 

The accounts of field fires are dismal reading 
and yet they are of interest and sometimes con- 
tain instructive points. We take from our in- 
terior exchanges items of several fires which oc- 
curred during last week. Tie largest was in 
Merced county, and the Valley Argus gives the 
following account of it: 

A fire started on the farm of C. Healy on Wednesday 
last about 1 o'clock p. m., and was not got under control 
until about 2,000 or 2,500 acres of grain had burned in- 
volving a loss of from $30,000 to 540,000 to the farmers 
The losers, so far as we have been able to ascertain are 
Crittenden, from 600 to 800 acres on the Healy farm- 
E. T. Givens, 700 acres; C. C. Nelson, 160 acres- Fay from 
900 to 1,100 acres; Russell, 160 acres. There are others 
who lost more or less grain, but we cannot ascertain how 




CHINESE CELEBRATING FOURTH OP JULY IN THE EARLY DAYS. 



the tree may be said to have arrived at full 
maturity. 



AGE OFOL1VETRF.ES. 



From 2 
From 
From 11 
From 16 
From 21 
From 26 
From 31 
From 36 



to 5 yrs. 
to 10 yrs. 
to 15 yrs. 
to 20 yrs. 
to 25 yrs. 
to 30 yrs. 
to 35 yrs. 
to 40 yrs. 



yUANTlTV OF OLIVES q' ANTITlT OF OIL 
FROM EACU TREE, FROM BACH TREE. 



2 50 Kilograms. ' 

3.50 Kilograms. " 

6.50 Kilograms. 
11 50 Kilograms. 
16.50 Kilograms. 
24.00 Kilograms. 
26.50 Kilograms. 
28 50 Kilograms. 



.200 Grams. 
.300 Grams. 
.550 Grams. 
.050 Grams. 
1.300 Kilograms. 

1 900 Kilograms. 

2 100 Kilograms. 
2.300 Kilograms. 



* Nearly. 

Note. — We may increase these amounts by 1.50% of oil 
if the washings of the crushea olive seeds be added. 

From the above figures we perceive that the 
average yield of oil by the olives is about 8%. 

The lowest and highest yield of the olive tree 
may vary as 3 to 7 — and that on account of the 
quality of the land, the character of the climate, 
the nature of the manures employed, and all 
the rest of the cultural attention which the 
tree requires. A number of cultivators are, 
however, of opinion that by carrying cultiva- 
tion as high as it can reasonably be brought; 
and applying every year as much as 65 kilo- 
grams of manure to each tree it is possible to 
reach nearly double the above average of pro- 
ductiveness. 

M. Cuppari gives as the normal production 
of one acre (ettaro) 600 kilograms of oil ; and 
this seems near the truth, for by culculating 
240 adult olive trees to the acre, each of which 
will produce an average of 2.30 kilograms of 
oil we shall have 552 kilograms without count- 
ing the quantity obtainable by washing the 
crushed kernels. 

The value of the produce of the olive tree in 
Italy two or three years ago amounted to 250,- 
000,000 of lire of which 160,000,000 represented 
the amount of home consumption, and 90,000,000 
that of export. 

The Value of the Rural. — A. K. Gregg, 
proprietor of the Soda Bay hotel, Lake county, 
is interested in horticulture, and finds the 
Rural Press of much value to him. In renew- 
ing his subscription, Mr. Gregg writes: 

Vour paper is a valuable publication, and should be in 
the hands of every one who tills the soil or raises stock. 
Even in my business I have derived information from the 
Rural Press of many times the value of my subscription. 
Success to you. 

A company has been formed in New York 
called the Central Northern Pacific and Oregon 
River Navigation Co. Villard is President of 
it. Its capital stock is $50,000,000, 



much. A header and two wagons were burned. When 
the fire broke out farmers from the surrounding country 
for 7 or 8 miles rushed to the fields in danger with their 
teanas, plows, wagons, mower**, water-carts, etc., and 
their united efforts saved the valley from a general con- 
flagration. A strong breeze was blowing from the north- 
west, driving the flames toward the great grain farms 
around Plainsburg and further south on the Deadman 
creeks, and had the farmers not have worked rapidly and 
judicious!) to confine the destroying element within a 
small area the whole of the great grain-growing region of 
the southeastern cornerof the county would have suffered 
a tremendous loss. But by cutting the standing grain 
with mowers, raking the straw aside and plowing the 
ground and burning ahead of the advancing fire the peo- 
ple succeeded in keeping the flames within comparatively 
narrow bounds until the railroad track was reached, where 
the fire was subdued. We are informed that several men, 
active workers, got their hair and whiskers badly singed, 
by being enveloped in sheets of flame borne upon the 
wind, but luckily none of them were badly burned. This 
fire was a most frightful one, the line of burning grain 
appearing from our standpoint— the top of the El (japitan 
hotel — to be several miles in extent, and the flame and 
smoke arising to an elevation of hundreds of feet made 
the sight a most fearful one. How the fire originated is 
not positively known. 

Another fire, of a different character in that 
it started from a threshing engine and resulted 
in a loss of machinery as well as standing grain, 
is reported by the Contra Costa county Gazette 
of June 25, as follows : 

Quite a disastrous field fire occurred on Friday of last 
week at the Point of Timber, in which nearly 300 acres of 
heavy summer-fallowed grain, a separator and Jackson 
elevator were burned. The fire is reported to have been 
caused by a strong puff of wind blowing down the smoke- 
stack of the engine and throwing the Are out iuto the 
high stubble. The wind was blowing freshly, and in the 
heavier gust swept the fire with frightful fury through 
the high grain; and it was only in the lulls that anything 
ciuld be done to check or turn its course, though, before 
it was extinguished, hundreds of men from all the sur- 
rounding neighborhood were gathered and working with 
every available appliance of water wagons and wet sacks 
to subdue it. This was finally accomplished by flanking 
so that it burned out to an alfalfa field on one side and 
the public road on the other. J. M Baldwin was the 
owner of about 170 acres of the wheat burned, and C. J. 
Preston of about 125 acres, and Mr. Netherton of a few 
acres. The separator and elevator belonged to M. J. 
Christenson. Mr. Preston's wheat was insured, as we un- 
derstand, at the rate of $10 per acre. 



Alum Water for Vermin. — Millers and 
others, who are troubled with bugs and worms 
infesting crevices in the bolting chests and 
other machinery, are recommended to try hot 
alum water, which is suggested by high scien- 
tific authority, as a good method of destroying 
creeping things. Take two pounds of alum 
and place it in three quarts of warm water (or 
in that proportion), and let it stand on the 
stove until the alum disappears. Apply while 
hot with a brush to the crevices and other 
places that conceal the insects, or use it as the 
exigencies of the case demand. 



Orange Wine. 

Last week we had an item showing the low 
figure to which oranges had fallen when brought 
into competition with the peaches, cherries, 
etc., which are now in season. A day or two 
after the item was printed the price improved, 
owing to the short supply, until the best were 
sold at $2.50 per box. This was a gratifying 
advance for those growers who had choice fruit 
then in the merchants' hands. It does not, 
however, greatly ameliorate the situation of 
the large amount of small fruit which is grown, 
and which, as this year, will sometimes be so 
late as to conflict with the early stone fruits 
and berries grown in the central valleys of the 
State. It is a fact recognized by all, that it 
would be a great thing for all growers if some 
way could be devised for using the small fruit 
at home, for this would give shipments of choice 
fruit just as the markets here and at the East 
demanded it, and the return to growers would 
be much larger. 

The subject of orange wine has been mooted. 
Some months ago we gave the experience of a 
Florida orange grower in making orange wine, 
and the high estimation in which the liquor 
was held by a connoisseur. It is reported that 
in Louisiana also there is something satisfac- 
tory done with oranges in this direction. Back 
of all this is the orange wine industry of 
Smyrna, the product of which has figured in 
the exports into New York city and was sold 
there at a high price. All these things seem 
to suggest that our southern friends who have 
oranges which the market may not take at a 
profitable figure, would do well to try the 
orange wine to see what there may be in it. If 
the small fruit could be banished wholly from 
the trade the good and choice lots would bring 
a much better price. 

A correspondent of the Los Angeles Herald 
has been experimenting with orange wine in an 
amateur way. Procuring an ordinary hand 
"uqueezer," he commenced operations, with the 
following result: From three bushels of wind- 
shaken oranges he expressed six gallons of juice, 
which he placed in a keg to undergo fermenta- 
tion. After the expiration of 30 days, he drew 
it off, bottled it and put it away in a cool place. 
It is now about 60 days old, and promises to 
make a very fine wine. It is not necessary 
either to wash or pare the fruit. He simply cut 
the larger ones in two and the end off the 
smaller ones. From his experience, he is satis- 
tied that one man can make 10 gallons per day, 
or what will make 50 bottles of wine. 

This experimenter believes that the most 
profitable disposition we can make of orange 
crops is to make them into wine. In doing so 
the entire crop can be used, large and small. 
Nor does it matter if the orange has commenced 
to spoil — it is just as good as when taken from 
the tree. He says: "If orange wine, at one 
year old, can be sold at wholesale so as to net 
$1 per bottle — and it surely will command a 
larger price and a ready sale — then the pro- 
ducer will realize a much larger profit from his 
crop than from the sale of the marketable fruit 
at the highest price ever obtained." 

As we have said, this may open a way for the 
profitable disposition of the orange surplus. We 
do not look upon it for anything more than 
that, if as much. Orange wine will probably 
always be a fancy article to meet a compara- 
tively limited demand. With the chief end 
wine-making, in view, one had far better plant 
grapevines. 

A Fourth of July Reminiscence. 

As one is discussing present preparations for 
celebrating "the fourth," it will be interesting 
to call to mind a feature of one of the early 
celebrations in this city. Although a proces- 
sion of the Chinese residents of the city through 
the principal streets would now be looked upon 
mainly as an indication that the Celestials were 
treading on the corns of the Caucasian in 
another branch, time was when the moon-eyed 
foreigner was invited to participate with his 
more enlightened "fellow citizens" in a march 
through the public streets on our national 
holiday. Not more than a quarter of a century 
ago, the most unique and noticeable feature of 
one of the Fourth of July processions of San 
Francisco, was the throng of gaily dressed 
Mongols in their then straDge and outlandish look- 
ing costumes, their wagons decked with artificial 
flowers, and bearing aloft banners and streamers 
emblazoned with flaming colors and embroidered 
with the grotesque figures of their national 
dragon. Our engraving, made from a drawing 
taken at the time, represents the scene. The 
Chinamen appeared to enjoy the procession 
heartily, laughing, chatting and shouting, to 
the great scandal of the native born, whose 
custom it is, on such festive occasions, to main- 
tain a preternaturally solemn air and visage. 



University Officers.— At the meeting of 
the Board of Regents on Tuesday W. T. Reids 
who has been principal of a boy's school in tbi, 
city, was elected President of the University, 
and Rev. J. H. C. Bonte was chosen Secretary 
of the Board of Regents. 

The Porte has ordered the authorities of Syria 
and Tripoli to prevent the entrance of French 
political agitators. 



10 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 2, 1881. 



Hotels and Summer Resorts. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 
<a-Free coach to the House. O. F. BECKER, Proprietor 



HIGHLAND SPRINGS, 

LAKE COUNTY, OAL. 

BEAUTIFUL AND HEALTHFUL SUMMER RESORT 
FOR FAMILIES, INVALIDS, CAMPERS 
AND PLEASURE SEEKERS. 

Hotel and Cottages Newly Furnished. 

Board and Room, $10 per week, including Mineral Baths. 
Children under (J years, and Servants, Hall Rates. 

Direct route by steamer -'Donahue" to Donahue Land- 
ing, connecting with S. F. & N. P. R. R. to Clo.erdalo, 
thbnce by Stage to Highland Springs. 



The springs are situated at an altitude of 1700 feet 
above sui level; and for natural beauty of scenery, health- 
ful climate, hunting and fishing, are unsurpassed in the 
State. The surrounding forosts and valley are particu- 
larly inviting to campers, who will be especially enter- 
tained at the Springs. 

The waters have produced many wonderful cures In 
the following diseases: Dyspepsia, Paralysis. Ery- 
sipelas, Kheumatism, Sciatica, Liver and 
Kidney, Bronchitis, Pulmonarv Complaints, 
in toeir earl\ stagea. General Debility, aud a never- 
failing remedy for Chills and Fever. 
For further particulars, address 

MRS. J. C. GOODS, Highland Springs. 



B&RTLETTJPRINGS. 

THESE WELL-KNOWN AND 

Celebrated Health-Giving Springs 

Are Situated in Lake Co., CaL, 
ABOUT 150 MILES from SAN FRANCISCO. 
HOW TO GET THERE. 

Tourists can have the choice of two routes, one by boat 
to Donahue, then by rail to L'loverdale, the balance of way 
by stage. Second, train to WU iania, pacing through the 
thriving towns of Davisville, Woodland and Cachtville, 
changing cars at Davisville. Stage from WilliamB to Springs 
over a beautiful road of 28 miles. 

GREEN BARTLKTT & T. S. McMAHON, Proprietors 
To be under the supervision of JOHN CRIULER, of 
Lake county, and C. R. CLARKE, of Nevada county, who 
will spare no effort in makiug guests comfortable. Hotel 
has been rented and refurnished throughout. 

americatTexchange hotel. 

Sansome Street, (Opposite Wells, Fargo 
& Co'a Express), San Francisco. 

This Hotel, under the management of CnAS. MONT- 
GOMEKY, has been thoroughly renovated, and being in 
the very center of all the Banks, Insurance Offices and 
Commission Merchants, it offers special inducements to 
Merchants from the Interior and Farmers. 

Board, with Room, 81, $1.25 id $1.50 per day. Special 
rates by the week or mouth. 

FREE COACH TO AND FROM THE HOTEL. 



ANDERSON'S SPRINGS, 

LAKE COUNTY, CAL., 
Nineteen Miles from Calistoga. 

Hot Sulphur Water for Rheumatism, Paralysis, etc.; 
Cold Sulphurs for Diseases of the Bowels and Stomach; 
Climate Beautiful; Scenery Magnificent; Abundanco of 
rout Fishing ; Good Cooking. Board, $10 to $12 per week. 
ANDERSON & PATRIQUIN, Proprietors. 



BATHING SEASON 

AT SANTA CRUZ. 



FURNISHED HOUSES for rent, and full information 
for strangers and visitors on application to the Real 
Estate EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 



M. COOKE 



R. J. COOKE 



PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets. Sacramento 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

ggf Communications Promptly Attended to. *Ct 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cooki * Grkjort 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAFEE BROTHERS. 
902 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



275 Acres of No. 1 Bottom and 225 Acres 
of No. 1 Upland for Sale, 

Known as the Her Ranch, and situate three and a half 
miles from the town of Elk Grove, on the Cosumnes 
river, 350 Acres Growing; Grain, well improved, 
argo House and Barn and plenty of Timber. 4 

PRICE, $40 PER ACRE. 
Inquire of GEORGE H. ILER, on the premises, o' of 
ILER & SONS, at the town of Gait, or of 

JAMES H. FERRIS, Agent. 



FRANK RITTER'S RANCH FOR SALE. 

It is well improved, and consists of 100 Acres Of 
No. 1 Bottom and 140 Acres No. 1 Upland, and 

is situated nine miles east of the town of Gait, on Dry 
creek, California. 

Price $ I 2.000. Terms one-half Down. 

Deferred payment to draw 10% per annum, interest. Time 
to suit purchaser. Inquire of FRANK RITTER on the 
premises, or of 

JAMES H. FERRIS, 

Agent, at Gait. 



FRUIT RANCH TO RENT, 

The undersigned wishes to rent his Orchard and Ranch 
to a responsiole man with a family, who understands the 
FruiV business and can give good references. On the 
place there are between 

5,000 and 6,000 Trees 
Of the best quality of F.'uit. The place is situated in the 
foothills three miles from Auburn, Placer Co. 
[Correspondence solicited ] 

J. W. HULBERT, Auburn, Placer Co. 

A GOOD BARGAIN. 

Twenty-five acres Old Bearing Vineyard; 100 acres 
New Vines; 200 Old Bearing Orange Trees; 75 acres 
prepared for Setting Vines; 20O acres in all with a good 
site for a Wine Factory. All good Vegetable Land, with- 
out irrigation. Adjoins Mr. Rose's Vineyard, and is half 
a mile from the Railroad depot at San Gabriel, Los An- 
geles county, Cal. Income this year, $3,000, and when 
all is in good bearing, income will be from $10,000 to $20,- 
000 per annum. Price. $20,000. Inquire of 

MORFORD & BROWN. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



SHOPPING 

Done in SAN FRANCISCO for Ladies and Gentlemen, 
and COMMISSIONS OF ALL KINDS EXECUTED with 
judgment and vaste especially in 

Dry Goods, Fancy Work and Music. 

Simples sent free. Circular and references given on 
application to MISS E. H. MAYNARD, 

1521 Washington St., S. F. 

DAIRY COWS WASTED. 



Wanted, from TWENTY to FORTY GOOD DAIRY 
COWS that will come in between August and October. 
Address, with particulars, B- MARES, 

Fresno, Cal. 



YOUR NAME^cIrSI IO? 

New Btyici, by be-t arilitU: Bouquets, Bird*, UoU 
Chromot, Landscape*, Water Scene., etc.— uo 2 alike 
Agent's Complete Harople Hook, 86c. Great varlvt; 
Adverttting and Bwel-Kdgt Cards. Loweit price, tu dealer 
and priQlcri. I 00 SqmpU* Fancy Advertising Card*, BUI 
Ad4r«»« STKVKNS BKOS-, B« IB, Nwrlfctord, «. 



70 



Good Land and Sure Crops. 

There has been steady and tolerably rapid advancement made in 
the growth of a majority of the towns in Colusa, Butte, Tehama 
and Shasta counties. Especially is this so in the agricultural dis- 
tricts where the land produces at least fair crops in all seasons — 
wet or dry — as does the land on the Reading Ranch. Those look- 
ing for homes in California where diversified farming will pay every 
year; where wood and water are plenty and easy to be obtained, 
and other desirable advantages are to be had, should address the 
proprietor of the Reading Ranch. 

Some 14,000 out of 26,000 acres of the grant remain for sale 
at comparatively low rates, in quantities to suit purchasers, on easy 
terms. Prices range from $5 to $30 per acre. The tract is be- 
tween two and three miles wide, with the Northern Division of the 
C. P. R. R. passing centrally through its entire length. Send pos- 
tage stamp for an illustrated paper containing information about 
Shasta County and these lands, to the proprietor of Reading 
Ranch. EDWARD FRISBIE, 

Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



IMPERIAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
LONDON ASSURANCE - CORPORATION. 



NORTHERN ASSURANCE COMPANY. 
QUEEN INSURANCE COMPANY. 



Aggregate Capital, 
Aggregate Assets, 



$37,092,750. 
$41,896,923. 



A Joint Policy Issued by the Four Companies on the Pacific Coast. 



W. LANE BOOKER, Agent and Attorney. ROB'T DICKSON, Manager. 

PACIFIC BRANCH OFFICE: 

S. E. cor. California and Montgomery Streets, 



SAFE DEPOSIT BUILDING, 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



Educational. 



SACKETT 

BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL, 

629 Hobart St , Oakland, Cal. 

Trains boys for College and (or Business in the most 
thorough manner. 
Next School Year will commence July 11, 1881. 

Kksiok.nt Teachers: 
D. P. SACKETT, A. M., the Principal, Yale College, 
Classical Department. 
GEORGE W. DREW, A. M. , Head Master, Yale College, 
Business Department. 
ALLEN E. JANVIER, A. B., Yale College, 
English Department. 
MARY K. CULBERTSON, State Normal School of N. Y., 
Department of Natural Science. 
MRS. GEORGE W. DREW, 
Department of Music. 
The Principal is determined to spare uo expense in mak- 
ing this institution increasingly worthy of patronage. 
For Catalogue address 

I). P. SACKETT. A. M,, Principal. 

689 Hobart St., Oakland, Cal. 



The Berkeley Gymnasium. 

A First-Class Academical Institution. 

—AFFORDS A- 

CLASSICAL, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC. OR 
BUSINESS EDUCATION. 



The Next Term Will Beg-In July 11th. 

For Catalogues or particulars address 

JOHN F. BURRIS, Superintendent, 

BERKELEY, CAL. 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY, 

OAKLAND. CAL. 

Boarding and Day School for Boys and Young Men. 
Classical and English Courses. 
The next session begins Tuesday, July 26, 1881. For 
Information visit the institution, or address 

REV. H. E. JEWETT, 
Principal. 



SNELL SEMINARY, 

568 Twelfth St.. Oakland, 
(TWO BLOCKS WEST OF BROADWAY.) 

For Boarding & Day Pupils. 

Next Term Commences, Tuesday, July 20th, 1881. 
HART B. SNKI.I., RICHARD B. SNBIX, 
PRINCIPALS. 



LAUREL HALL. 

Home School for Young Ladies and Children. 

The Eighteenth Annual Session will commence Thursday 
August 4, 1881. 

This institution offers to a limited number advantages o 
the highest order, having a large corps of well-known 
teachers who give Individual care and treatment to each 
pupiL Address MRS. L. MAKSON-BCCKMA.STER. 

San Mateo. Cal. 



FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE. 

The Thoroughbred Roan Bull, New Year's 
Gift 178ia Bred by Cyrus Jones of San 
Jose, Cal. Calved. January 1, 1874. 

Got . by Grand Commander 12085 

1st dam. Duchess 9th, by Baron Airdrie 9176 

2d dam. Duchess 7th. by Duke of Airdrie 2743 

3d dam. Duchess, by D Otley 422 

4th dam, Henrietta, by Sir Alfred 969 

5th dam, Luctlla, by imported Romulus (12019) 

6tb dam, Helen, by Bertram 2d (3144) 

7 th dam. Ruby 2d. by Bertram (1716) 

8th dam. Ruby, by Young sir Dimples (971) 

9th dam. Daisy, by Wellington (678) 

10th dam. Beauty, by Duke (224) 

11th dam, Lucy, by Young Cornet (906) 

Utn dam. , by J. Biown's Red Bull 1971 

Grand Commander 12085. by imported Royal Commander 

10914, out of Imp. Goody Two Shoes, by Lord Lyons (26677) 
Baron Airdrie 9476. by 12th Duke of Airdrie 5634, out of 

Baroness Oth. by Royal Oxford (18774). 
This splendid Bull is in tine condition and warranted kind 

and gentle. A chlld'can handle him. Address 

R. THOMPSON. San Jose, Cat 



THE DUROC or RED HOG. 



This celebrated breed of Swine waa imported from New 
Yoik State a few years ago at great expense. They 
are the most 

HARDY THRIFTY and GENTLE 
Breed of Hogs aad better adapted to the climate of this 
State than any others. We make the breeding of thto 
stock a special*} - , and are now prepared to furnish young 
pigs at reasonable prices, delivered at Monterey, Cal., 
noxed ready for shipment. The largest hog on our place, 
now two and a half years old, weighs over 1,100 pounds, 
and we have others 10 months old weighing over 
400 pounds each. 

Address HINCKLEY & OETCHELL, 
Laurelles Ranch, Monterey, Cal. 



A XEW^BOOK. 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases. 

By B. J. Kendaia, M. D. 

36 Fine Engravings showing the 
positions and actions of sick 
horses. Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and best treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
dosed, effects and antidotes of all 
the principal medicines used for 
the horse, and a few pages on the 
action and usee of medicines. 

Rules for telling the age of a 
horse, with a fine engraving show 
ing the appearance of the teeth 
at each year. 

It is prititeu on One paper and has nearly 100 pages. 71x5 
nches. Price only 25 cents, or 5 for 1 1, on receipt of whleb 
we will send by mail to any address. 

DEWEY 8c CO., 

202 Sansome St.. 8. F 




July 2, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC 1U11L PRESS. 



11 



Bj\ee deeds' Direct© ^y. 

purohasbrs of stock will find in this dlrbotory tub 
Nambs of somb of thb Most Rsliablb Brsbdbrb. 

Our Ratrs. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per ^nonth, payable quarterly. 

CATTLE. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. 

HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of moat of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba Buena," of noted butter strains on the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
*' King of Soituate," son of the famous 706 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought hero. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pedigreed. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep. 

M. WICK, Oroville, Butte County, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Cattle, Short-Horns. Young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale at all times of the year. 



HORSES. 



HENRY MILLER. San Francisco, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Norman Horses of the Stock Imported 
by Mr. Perry, of Illinois, took First Premium at San 
Jose Fair, 1880. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



JOHN S. HARRIS, Hollister, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred registered Ooats. Took Eight Premi- 
ums at the State Fair of 1880. I had one Buck at the 
State Fair with staple 10 inches long. Correspondence 
solicited. 

L, U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co. , Oal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for salo. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 



E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. 418 California 
St., S. F. 



POULTRY. 



GEO. TREFZER, Napa, Cal. I have a fine lot of 
Brown Leghorns for sale, all one year old, for $6 per 
trio, if taken soon, in order to make room for my young 
stock. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Sonoma County, Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of all the varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls. Eggs for hatching sent any distance with safety. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. Send for price list. 



MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
TurkeyB, Brown and White Leghorns, Plymouth Rock, 
Pekin Ducks. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford, Cal., Breeder of Poland 
China Swine. Stock recorded in American Poland 
( China Record. Are descendants of the celebrated Mc- 
Crarj- Bismarck, bred by D. M. Magie, Oxford, Ohio. 
Took five First Premiums at State Fair in 1880. 



TO BEE FANCIERS. 

I am now ready to furnish PURE ITALIAN QUEENS, 
Colonles.Nuclei, Comb Foundation, Veil, Smokers, Knives, 
Bee Books, eto. SAMPLE HIVE. Address for Circular 

JOS. D. ENAS, 

Sunnyside, Napa P. O., Cal. 



flC 



ITALIAN SHEEP WASH. 



Kxtract of Tobacco, free from poison. Prepared by the 
Italian Government (jo. Cures thoroughly the 

SCAB OF THE SHEEP, 

And is an excellent Sheep Dip. The best and cheapest rem 
edy known for curing the Scab. Successful in every case 
For particulars apply to 

CHAS. DUISENBERG & CO., Sole Agents. 

314 Sacramento St., San Francisco. 



A. W. LOOEHART, 

N. B. Corner 11th & J Sta., Sacramento, Cal. 
Sole Manufacturer and Proprietor of 

Lockhart's Patent Self Feeder and Elevator. 

Admitted by those who have used it. for regularity of 
Feeding, Simplicity, Cheapness and Durability to be Un- 
equaled by any other Feeder in use. Call and examine 
before purchasing elsewhere. Threshing Machines Re^ 
paired on short notice. 



HO FOR THE 

Paraiso Mineral Springs, 

MONTEREY CO., CAL. 



50 



Varieties French Chromo Satin, Pearl Finished'Etc 
cards, name in gold, lOo. Card Mills, NorthfordCt 



IIMIIPIEIRni^L EGG FOOD. 




Will make your Hens Lay, keep 

them in the best possible condition and 
ward off disease. When fed accor- 
ding to directions, eick and 
drooping fowls aro never 
seen. It furnishes the 
needed material for 
f ormingbone, m us- 
ele and feath- 
ers, and ig 




Invaluable for Young 1 Chicks and Moulting 

Fowls. It comes packed in various sized packages, 
nd being a powder, is easily mixed with the cus- 
tomary feed. Give it a trial. Send Stamp for 
Cirenlir and Testimonials. 

Price. — Single pound, 50 ce^ts; Two 
and a half pounds, $1.00; Six pounds, 
$2. 00; 25 pound keg §6.26. Address, 



■The— 

Eclipse Self" 
Regulating Incu 
bators are now in act- 
ual use in most parts of 
this State, arid giving general 
satisfaction. Tney are a success, 
and being such are invaluable to all 
who attempt to raise chickens; are easy to 
manage, and cost merely a trifle to keep in op. 
eration. and wili do much bettr r work than can bi 



G. G. WICKS0N, 

General Pacific Coast Agt. 
Ho. 319 Market St. 
'ian Francisco, 
California, 



done with 
hen 8, with a 
small portion of 
the labor and risk. 
KZTThe "EcxTrsE" Is the 
only entirely self -regulating In- 
^%V^^^cubatorknown;istheonly one that 
^^^^ will bear investigating, so it is the only 
safe one to purchase. Send stamp for Cir- 
cular of California Testimonials (not Eastern.) 




The Eclipse Self-Regulating Incubator, 




TUBBS HOTEL, 

East Oakland, 

HaviDg been Thoroughly Refitted and Refur 
niBhed, Painted and Frescoed, is now Open 
for the Reception of Guests. Rooms can now 
be secured at the Hotel. 

H. S. GREELEY, Proprietor. 



PETER SAXE & SON, 

IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF 

Thoroughbred Live Stock, 
Horses Cattle, Berkshire Hogs and Pigs, and Sheep 

We can fill ordersat any 
time for the best families 
of PURE BERKSHIKES, 
"Short Horns," and "Jer- y\ 
sey or "Alderney" Cattle, \ ' 
Jacks and Mules, Spanish 
and French Merino, Cots- 
wold and SHROPSHIRE 
SHEEP. 

42T All at moderate prices 
IMS*Sb«»'*EM*"^~- - am i perfectly pedigreed. 

Importing to and breeding on this coast has been a specialty with us for the past 10 years. ^"Satisfaction guaranteed 

PETER SAXE, ) 

H. POLK SAXE, t Address Lick Bouse, San Frnneiseo. 





The Fresno Colony, 

On the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad and adjoining Fresno City and the Central Colony- 
Has the most favoroble location of any Colony, as well as other superior advantages. Abun, 
dant water secured. Land unsurpassed for Vine Raising and Fruit Culture, Send for Map and 
Circular, or come and examine. Address 

THOMAS E. HUGHES & SONS, Fresno City. Cal. < 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FBANOISCO, OAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 
In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

Reserve Fund and Paid up Stock, 35, 760. 
OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK MoMTJLLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

DANIEL RHOADS Mussel Slough, Tulare Co 

O. J. CRE8SEY Merced Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and oonducted in the 
usual way, bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits received 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on de- 
mand. 

TERM DEPOSITS are rectived and interest allowed as 
follows: 4% per annum if left for 3 months; b% per annum if 
left for 6 months: fffc por annum if left for 12 months. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic StateB bought 
and sold. 

ALBERT MONT PEL, LIE R 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 16, 1881. 



A KEY THAT 

WILLWIMO • ANY v/V/.TCtf 



OA! f% by Watchmakers. By mall, 30 cts. Circulars 
OULD FREE. J. S. BIRCH 4 CO , 3b Dey St ,N.Y. 



AND NOT 
WEAR OUT. 

mail, SO cts. Circulars 



THE 
31 ANT jG SAW 

MACHINE. 




Tlii» ■*W r «*ici tM-Fn 1 Improved 

SAW MACHINE 

Is warranted to saw a 2-foot log in three min. 
ntes, and more cord wood or logs of any size in a 
day than two men can chop or saw the old way. 
Every Farmer and Lumberman needs one. 
ACENTS WVANTED-t'lrcHlarand terms Free. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR TO 

LIN FORTH, RICE &. CO., 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 
323 and 3^5 Market Street. San Francisco. 



CARRIAGES, WAGONS 

AND 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS! 

Having recently purchased the entire stock, tools and ma- 
chinery of the late Kimball Manufacturing Company's works, 
and having the best appliances in the way of machinery for 
Wood and Iron Working, also Painting and Trimming, on 
the Pacific Coast, I am enabled to till all orders promptly, 
such as Carriages, Farm, Freight and Ore Wagona, also all 
kinds of Agricultural Implements, R. R. Horse CarB, 
and R. R. Hand Cars, Scrapers and Excavators at short 
notice. 

E. SOULE, 
341 Fourth St., Corner Bryant. 



$400 to_$60,000. 

Farms to suit all; Grain, Grape, Fruit, Stoek and gen- 
eral Farming Lands and Suburban Homes, some very 
cheap. PACIFIC LAND AGENCY, 305 Kearny St., S. F 



Agricultural Article 



THE CALIFORNIA ADJUSTABLE 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

CULTIVATOR & SEEDER. 




As IMPROVED and PERFECTED for 1881 will work 
equally as well on loose or wet land as in hard or dry 
soil, and are what every farmer needs to destroy vegeta- 
tion on the summer fallow. Will savereplowing 1 and put 
the land in the best, possible condition for early sowing. 

LOOK TO YOUR INTERESTS 

And make money by saving time and working your fal- 
lows before harvest. Our new size six-foot ORCHARD 
or VINEYARD HARROWS are provided with bandies, 
rendering them as easily controlled as the Cultivators. 
These implements are acknowledged by all who are fa- 
miliar with their work, to be the most practical for gen- 
eral use in the orchard or vineyard of any yet offered to 
the public. Manufactured only by 

BATCHEL0R, VAN GELDER & CO., 

Nos. 900 & 902 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

Under the original patents now owned by 
D. C. & H. C. REED & CO., Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Beware of Infringements. 




Wells, Fargo k Co's 
I U.S. Mails. 



Clear Lake and Calistoga 

STAGE X.X2TS, 

Carrying 
Express and 

STAGE LEAVES CALISTOGA 

On Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, for Lakeport, via 
St. Helena, Mountain Toll House, Middletown, Cobb 
valley, Glenbrook and Kelseyville, returning on alternate 
days. Connections are made on this route with the 
Great Western and Oat Hill quicksilver mines; the An- 
derson, Adam's, Siegler, Highland, Allen, Wittier, Pier- 
son and Bartlett springs; Soda Bay and other steamer 
points on Clear Lake. 

On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays coaches leave for 
Sulphur Banks (on the east shore of Clear lake 1 ), follow- 
ing the fame route to Middletown, and thence via Guenoc 
and Lower Lake, making connection with Howard and 
Siegler springs and the steamer on Clear lake. 

Passengers leave San Francisco at 8 A. M., and reach 
Lakeport and Sulphur Banks early in the evening, in less 
than 11 hours from the city, carrying the U. S. mail and 
Wells, Fargo & Co. 's express. 

The best SIX-HORSE CONCORD COACHES and stock 
are provided for the safe and prompt transport of pas- 
sengers. W. P. FISHEft, Proprietor, 
I Lodl Stables, Calistoga, Napa Co , Cal. 



MATTES0N & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match in 

Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who have 
been long in the business and know what is required In the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, Oal. 



IMPROVED MACHINES 

FOR LAYING 

AsbestineSub-lrrigation Pipe 

For sale at Davisville, Yolo County, CaL 
Apply to L. A. GOULD. 



Lowest prices pver known 
on Breech - Leaden, 
Klflea, and Revolver*, 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

I at greatly reduced price. 
' Send stamp for our New 
Illustrated Catalogue (BI 
P.POWELL & SON, 238 Main Street, CINCINNATI, 0, 

J. H. Wythe, M. D. 

Residence: Office: 
965 West Street, Oakland. 759 Market St., San Francisco 
Before 10 A. u., after 6 p. M . I From 11 a. m. to 3 P. n. 




12 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July 2, 1881. 



*A TENTS AND I NVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

From Official Reports for tho "Mining »nd Scientific 
Press," U. S. and Foreign Patent Agents. I 

For tub Webk Ending Jvne 14, 1881. 

242,738— Door Check — Isaac N. Arment, Dayton, 
Washington Territory. 

242 868 — Header— J. W. Blerin, Yuba City, Cal. 

242,893 — Nitro Dextrine— G. S. Dean, S. F. 

242,923. — Thrcst Bearing for Propeller Shafts— John 
Gordon, S. F. 

242 941 — Sofa Bed— F. Laeremans, S. F. 

242 850.— Railway Cross Tie— Hans Thiclsen, Walla 
Walla, W. T. 

243,015.— Htdraclic Borinu Apparatus— Vaughn & 
Vincent, Stockton, Cal. ': 

242,922.— Door Knob Attachment— Adam Good. S. t. 

242i778.— Billiard Chalk Holder— L. B. Holmes, 
Woodland, Cal. 

242,746.— Safety Caoe— C. D. Brown, Prcscott, A. T. 

Note.— Copies of. U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with perfect 
security and In the shortest possible time. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 'a Scientific Press American and 
Foreign, Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Hydraulic Boring Apparatus.— Walter W. 
Vaughn & George Vincent, San Francisco. As- 
signor one-half to Asa Clark, of Stockton, and 
Caleb Dorsey, Oakdale, Cal. Dated June 14th. 
No. 243,015. This invention relates to a hy- 
draulic boring or sinking apparatus, the princi- 
ple of which is to employ the pressure of water 
upon the bottom of the pipe to force it into the 
ground, bo that they are enabled to work the 
pipes or casings for artesian wells by means of a 
power applied to the bottom of the pipe instead 
of the top. It consists of an upright frame- 
work of posts or pillars supporting the shaft, 
aad fly-wheel operating a series of force pumps, 
whereby the pressure of water is obtained. An 
urjright, stationary hollow pipe, supported by 
steadying dogs fastened to the pillars, is fastened 
to the nozzle of the pump pressure -chamber and 
extends to the ground. Fitting around this hol- 
low pipe is a hydraulic pipe, to the upper end 
of which a stuffing box and collar is screwed, 
while to the lower end is screwed a solid metal 
point, having a steel tip to penetrate the earth. 
The upper end of thiB point presents a resisting 
surface to the water which is forced down 
through the central stationary pipe. Around 
this hydraulic pipe fits another pipe, or outside 
casing, the top of which fits under the collar of 
the stuffing box, and is pressed down by it. 
This outside casing, or pipe, extends about half 
way down the point, and has a flange, or collar, 
on which a corresponding projection on the 
point rests. The supporting framework or pil- 
lars are braced and strengthened by truss braces 
and anchor rods, and appropriate pawls sup- 
port the pipe when hoisting. But the hydraulic 
pipe and the outside casing pipe are forced 
down outside the stationary pipe, and an. 
forced into the ground their entire length, 
after which another length of each may be 
screwed on and forced down; and when the 
well or hole is of the required depth, the hy- 
draulic pipe with its point is hoisted out, leav- 
ing the outside casing in the ground. 

Billiard Chalk Holders. — Lyle B. Holmes, 
Woodland, Yolo county. Dated June 14, 1881. 
No. 242,776. This is a novel device for hold- 
ing the chalk which is used for billiard cues. 
The holder is so adjusted that the chalk may 
be easily brought to the point where it is to be 
used, and then returned to a position where it 
will be out of the way. The chalk holder is at- 
tached to a cord having a counter-poise or 
weight, so when the user lets go the handle or 
holder it will fly back to its place beside the 
table. A spring in the holder forces the chalk 
forward as it wears away. 

Nitro-Dextrine. — Gilbert S. Dean, S. F. 
Dated June 14, 1881. No. 242,893. The ob- 
ject of this invention is the preparation of a 
new variety of nitro-dextrine. Briefly stated, 
the manner of its accomplishment consists in 
treating vegetable fiber with dilute acid where- 
by its structure is destroyed and dextrination 
commences, and afterward nitrating the same 
with cold nitro-sulphuric acid. We shall more 
fully describe this patent in a future number of 
the Press. 

Header. — J. W. Blevin, Yuba City, Cal. 
Assignor one-half to J. E. Dempsey, same place. 
Dated June 14, 1881. No. 242,868. This in- 
vention relates to certain improvements in that 
class of machines for cutting grain and deliv- 
ering into wagons, known as headers, and con 
sistb in certain details of construction and opera 
tion, and certain combinations, which improve 
the header materially, but which it would be 
very difficult to describe without the aid of suit- 
able engravings. 



Storage of Electricity. 

A Wonderful Alleged Discovery. 

A correspondent of the London Times makes 
an announcement which, if fully borne out by 
the facts, is of the highest possible importance. 
He states that M. Camille Faure, a noted 
French scientist, has discovered a practical 
means of storing electricity and rendering it 
portable. It is almost unnecessary to remark 
that nothing of the kind has been possible afore- 
time, and that it has been regarded as being im- 
possible to store up electric energy in a practi- 
cal manner. At a recent public seance of the 
Societe d'Encouragement pour l'lndustrie, pre- 
sided over by the president of the French Acad- 
emy of Science and attended by many leading 
English scientists, the success of the discovery 
is said to have been demonstrated beyond the 
possibility of a doubt. A Faure battery wa3 
charged with the electric fluid direct from the 
ordinary Grove battery. The receptacle con- 
sisted of four Faurre batteries, each about five 
inches diameter and 10 inches high, forming a 
cylindrical leaden vessel, and containing alter- 
nate sheets of metallic lead and minimum 
wrapped in felt and rolled into a spiral wetted 
with acidulated water, and the whole placed in 
a square wooden box, measuring about 1 cubic 
foot and weighing some 75 lbs. This was pro- 
tected by a loose wooden cover, through which 
the electrodes (in lead) protruded, and were 
flattened down for convenience of transport. 
This box was handed to the writer of the letter 
in question, who left Paris on Tuesday night, 
arrived in London on Wednesdy, and finally 
reached Glasgow, where the box was presented 
to Sir William Thompson. 

That eminent man is now experimenting 
with the box in the laboratory of the Glasgow 
University, and will no doubt give the world 
the benefit of the results of his tests at an early 
date. There the matter rests at present, but 
if all this be true there is no doubt that we are 
on the eve of changes which will completely 
revolutionize many of our existing appliances 
and processes, especially as regards lighting 
and heating. This small box, measuring about 
one cu. ft., is said to contain a power equiva- 
lent to nearly 1,000,000 foot-pounds — a force, 
of which we can only speak comparatively, and 
without adequate knowledge of the resources 
of the plan on a larger scale. It is plain, how- 
ever, that if electricity really could be stored 
and safely conveyed from place to place we 
might look upon the future of illumination, by 
that means, as being thoroughly and completely 
assured. 

At present the great drawback lies in the 
circumstances that the generation of the electric 
force and the production of the light are quite 
simultaneous. When the machine stops, the 
light disappears, and vice versa. If, then, some 
means be devised to intercept and store up a 
portion of the whole of this force for subse- 
quent use, the difficulty would disappear, and 
electricity will take rank as a handy, managea- 
ble and unequaled means of illumination. The 
mere supposition opens out a vista which cannst 
be successfully thought out or described, seeing 
that, for domestic, railway, mining, manufac- 
turing and scientific purposes, the electric cur- 
rent would indubitably replace gas and all 
other illuminating media. Before counting 
these as accomp ibhed facts, however, many 
economic and other points must be satisfactorily 
explained. The outcome of Sir Wra. Thomp- 
son's investigations will be awaited, therefore, 
with more thau ordinary interest. — Ironmomjer, 
May 21st. 

Later Advices. 
A London special to the New York Times of 
June 11th, and written nearly three weeks af- 
ter Mr. Thompson's attention was first called to 
the matter, says: — The matter of storage of elec- 
tricity by the use of the Faure battery has at- 
tracted the universal attention of the scientific 
men of Europe. As has been previously stated, 
William Thompson, the eminent scientist of 
(ilasgow, lately took from Paris to Glasgow a 
Faure battery, supposed to contain a power to 
the amount of 1,000,000 R>3. to the cubic foot. 
After some weeks, Thompson makes a report, 
in which he announces the perfect success of 
the effort to store and transport the electric 
power. He has already ascertained enough re- 
garding the qualtities of the Faure reservoir 
to make it quite certain that it solves the prob- 
lem of storing electric energy in a manner and 
upon a scale to render it useful in many impor- 
tant practical applications. Among other uses, 
enough can be stored to give light in a house 
for several hours without an additional supply. 
The reservoir can be moved easily and used 
where the dynamo-electric machines are unavai- 
lable. One great advantage to be found is in 
the fact that when this energy is supplied from 
a Fajire reservoir it is always steady in delivery, 
thus preventing fitful oscilliations in the light, 
experienced from the unequal action of the or- 
dinary dynamo machines. 

Animal Digestion. — It is well known that 
certain fowls fill their digestive apparatus with 
gravel and pebbles, which act as millstones in 
grinding up their food. Kecent investigations 
show that other animals are addicted to similar 
habits on a larger scale. Seals swallow stones 
weighing from one to two and even three pounds 
each; while one investigator found, not long 
since, 10 lbs. of these boulders in the stomach 
of a sea-lion. 



College of St. Augustine. — We have re- 
ceived a copy of the Official Register of the 
College of St. Augustine, at Benicia, Cal., 
which shows the institution to be in a flourish- 
ing condition, with a large list of students, and 
an able faculty, of which Bishop Wingfield is 
president. Concerning the situation of the col- 
lege and the aims thereof, the Register says : 

The buildings occupy an elevated site, and command an 
extensive view of the straits of Crrquinez and the beauti- 
ful hills beyond, with Mount Diablo on the left and San 
Pablo bay on the right. The grounds are 60 acres in ex- 
tent, a portion of which is tastefully laid out and decorated 
with flowers, ornamental trees and shrubbery. Having 
been erected expressly for academical purposes, the 
buildings are strictly adapted to the needs of the students, 
being commodious and inviting, well ventilated and 
betted. In the domestic arrangements every' care is taken 
to unite the culture and comforts of a Christian home 
with the strict discipline of a school. Attention is paid 
to the personal habits and manners of the cadets. They 
sleep in single alcoves, in dormitories, under the charge of 
teachers and military officers. The teachers and cadets 
meet as one family in u commodious dining hall, and at- 
tend divine service daily in the college chapel. It is de- 
signed in this institution to combine with moral and men- 
tal education a thorough Icourse of military instruction. 
Thii military discipline, by its thoroughness and impar- 
tiality, is eminently fitted to perfect the physical man, 
and to give habits of quick obedience, order, politeness 
and manliness. 



Preserving Wood. —The improved French 
method of preserving wood by the application 
of lime is said to work well. The plan is to 
pile the planks in a tank, and to put over all 
a layer of quick-lime, which is gradually slaked 
with water. Timber for mines require about 
a week to be thoroughly impregnated, and other 
wood more or less time according to the thick- 
ness. The material acquires remarkable con- 
sistence and hardness, it is stated, on be- 
ing subjected to this simple process, and the 
assertion is made that it will never rot. Beech- 
wood prepared in this way for hammers and 
other tools for iron works is found to acquire 
the hardness of oak, without parting with any 
of its well-known elasticity and toughness, and 
it also lasts longer. — Am. Manufacturer. 

The fishing at Lake Tahoe is better now than 
it has been for many seasons past. Hundreds 
of trout weighing from 5 to 10 lbs. are being 
caught daily. 



Our Agents, 

Oi'R Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

J. F. Osborne — San Francisco. 

A. C. Knox— Napa and Lake counties. 
Q. W. McOrew— Santa Clara county. 
M. P. Owen Santa Cruz county. 

■i v A. Wright— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties. 
Jared C. Hoao— California. 

B. W. Crowell— Yuba and Sutter counties. 

D. W. Krlleiier— Solano and Sacramento counties. 

Geo. W. Faiirion— Plumas county. 

Geo. 11. Hopkins— Amador county. 

A Leonard Meyer— Utah and Idaho Ter. 



Attend to This. 

Our subscribers will find the date they have paid to 
priuted on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
or if the paper Bhould over come beyond the time de- 
Bired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 



Sewing Machines. 

Several first-class styles, good as new, will be sold at a 
bargain. Call on, or address H. F. D., this office. 

Important additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. The number of sea lions is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances The floral 
department is replete and the wild animals i.i good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 



Anderson Springs, in Lake county, 19 miles from Calis 
toga (over a grand, picturesque route, via Mt. St. Helena) 
are among the best in this State. They are situated in 
the midst of a natural park, full of beauty and interest to 
the naturalist Good home-like accommodations at rea- 
sonable rates are invariably furnished by the Anderson 
family. 

How to Stop this Paper. —It is not a herculean task to 
stop this paper. Notify the publishers by letter. If it 
comes beyond the time desired, you can depend upon it 
we do not know that the subscriber wants it stopped. So 
De sure and send us notice by letter. 



Note— Our quotati una are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the uaper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

8 an Francisco, Wednesday, June 29, 1881. 

Wheat is still firmly held, owing to the prevalent belief 
in a moderate surplus for export from the new crop, and 
there is an indisposition to sell because lower freights are 
expected when the ships now due or coming due shall 
arrive. Some few sales are made, higher figures being 
realized for the choicest lots. The latest news from 
abroad is as follows: 

Liverpool, June 28.— Good to choice California Wheat, 
9s Ud(<t9s 9d. The markets are quiet and steady, with not 
much demand for floating cargoes. Receipts for the put 
three days, 263,000 ctla, including 168,000 American. 

The Forei<rn Review. 

London, June 27.— The Mark Lane Bxprest, In Its re- 
view of the British Grain trade for ths past week, says: 



New white frosts have unfavorably influenced the Wheat 
blossom, which is now general. There are now no pros- 
pects of an abundant harvest. Whether an average yield 
is possible is a question upon which grave doubts are en- 
tertained. The deliveries of native Wheat are very re- 
stricted, and rates Improved Is Sd in the provinces and Is 
in London. Notwithstanding higher rates trade was un- 
animated and very limited. Foreign trade was inactive. 
American Red Winter and White Michigau was scarce, and 
Australian being in good demand. All advanced Is. 
Friday other descriptions improved 6d; off coast American 
Red Winter reached 49s and California 49s 6d. Specula- 
tion in American failed to elicit the faintest response. 
The supply of American is small. Flour is in moderate 
supply and inanimate, but improved to 01s on account of 
its scarcity. The same may be said of foreign Barley, 
though trade is nominal. The scarcity of grinding sam- 
ples has maintained the prices of foreign unchanged. For 
Oils there was a better feeling, and values remained firm 
and a shade better. Foreign was firmer and improved. 
American Maize is in small supply, and a shade dearer. 
Sales of English Wheat the past week were 24,119 quart- 
ers, at 458 per quarter, against 23,325 quarters, at 44s 8d, 
during the corresponding week the last year. 

Freights and Charters. 

British ship, City 0/ Florence, 1,200 tons, Wheat to 
Liverpool direct, £3 17s 6d. | 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

New York, June 28.— Wheat, unsettled, $1.25@1.29- 
Flour, quiet. 

Chicago, June 28.— Wheat, weak and lower, at $1.15) 
caBh, $1.12 for July, $1 12j for August, $1.11) for Septem- 
ber. Corn. 45J for August, 45) for September. Oats, 
easier, at S8J cash, S8j for June, 37) for July, 28 for 
August, 27 for September. Rye, 90). Barley, higher, at 
$1. Pork, firm, at $10 30 cash and July. $1 6. 40 for Au- 
gust. Lard, firmer, at $11.30 cash, $11 32) bid for July, 
$11.25 for August. Bulk Meats, firmer; Shoulders, $5.99; 
Short Ribs, $8 80. short clear, $8 85. Coffee, steady. 
Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, June 25.— The excitement in the Wool market 
continues without much, if any, abatement Transac- 
tions of the week have been large, amounting to nearly 
2,000,000 lbs, all grades and qualities, but there was a 
disposition to hold up a Utile at the close, on account of 
extreme views of holders in Pennsylvania and Ohio, and 
other points West. Sales of Ohio and Pennsylvania 
fleeces have been made to some extent, and include X, 
42)@43c, XX and above. 42)@45c, the latter price being 
paid for very choice, and medium, and No. 1 at 45@48c V 
lb. Michigan and Wisconsin fleeces have been held at 40 
<pt42c— firm at these prices. Combing and delaine fleeces 
are selling at 43@45c, for fine delaine, up to 48e for choice 
combing, and considerable new Kentucky combing has 
sold at 32@33c ¥ lb Unwashed fleeces have been selling 
quite freely at full prices. Fine, ranges from 25@32c; 
medium, 27«f35c, up to 34<ef36c for Georgia; California 
Wool has been in demand, and some 700,000 lbs have been 
sold, mostly Spring clip, from •> »•!-•; several lots of 
fancy commanding the latter price, iucluding the Whitney 
clip of 500,000 lbs. Other lots of good choice Western 
have been sold at 32@3Sc $) lb. Pulled Wools are in de- 
mand and command full prices. Australian Wool has 
been sold at 42)@45c; Montevideo, at 33(8350. There is a 
firm feeling for all kinds, but any further advance would 
be likely to check the demand. 

Philadklphia, June 25. — Wool is in improved demand; 
Oregon fine, 30irf35c; medium, 33<ii35c ; coarse, 27(<*28c; 
New Mexican and Colorado fine, 18(jf25c; medium, 20 

New York, June 28.— There continues to be a good de- 
mand for Wool from manufacturers. Prices are firm, and 
the stock of fleeces is moderate. New Wool is now com- 
ing forward quite freely, aud there will soon be a good as- 
sortment of all kinds to select from. Sales of Ohio and 
Pennsylvania fleeces have been made at 42)<<*33c for X and 
43(ct45c for XX and above, and a better price for choice. 
Michigan and Wisconsin fleeces have been selling at 42lp> 
43c, with*fair demand; medium and No. 1 Ohio have been 
selling at 45@48c. Combing and delaine fleeces continue 
scarce and firm, at 43i<r48c for fine and No. 1 combing. 
For coarse grades of combing there is very little inquiry. 
For unwashed Wools there is a steady demand, with sales 
of medium at -.7 •».:.• •; fine, t. e32c; low and carpet, I5@ 
23c. California Spring clip continues in demand, particu- 
larly for choice, the sales ranging from 25@3Sc. The re- 
cent sales of choice clips of California at 40c shows what 
material that State can furnish if an effort is made to 
bring up the standard, and the manufacturers are always 
ready to help by psyiug a high price for choice Wool in 
good condition and of uniform quality. Pulled Wool con- 
tinues iu good demanO, prices are firm, and stocks sold up 
close. In foreign Wool, no movement of any importance 
is noted, but full prices continue to be obtained for Mon- 
tevideo and Australian. The stocks are considerably re- 
duced, but are hold quite firm. 

The London Wool Sales. 

London, June 25. — At Wool sales to-day, 2,700 bales 
were sold, chiefly New Zealand and Port Philip. The 
market was firm and prices unchanged. 

BAGS— Since our last note a combination has sprung 
up in Bags. At first the wholesale price was run up to 
10)c, but to-day the market is not as firm as it has been, 
and quotations to-day were 9)@10c for all kinds in whole- 
gale lots, although small sales were said to have been 
made at 10fc The decline is said to be due to a falling off 
in the demand, as Bags are not wanted so badly as to 
bring 10)c for Calcutta, 

BARLEY— Barley is unchanged, most trade being in 
Feed lots. We note sales: 300 and 220 Bks good Coast 
Feed, 93}c, and 800, 400 and 250 sks do, 92)c. 

BEANS— Several kinds are lower, as shown in our list. 

BUCKWHEAT— The best has again reached $1.75 V ctl. 

CORN— Sales have been more frequent. Large White 
is a shade lower and large Yellow doing a little better. 
We note sales: 1,000 Bks large Yellow at $1.02), and 250 
Bks at $1.07); 250 sks small round Yellow at $1.07), and 
08 sks poor Urge White at $1.07). 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter prices have run alongeven- 
ly. The market is well supplied. Cheese has taken a 
higher range, going from ll)c to 12)c, according to 
quality. 

EGOS— California fresh Eggs are 2c higher per dozen, 
selling at 22(a)24c Some Duck Eggs go at 19c if the ship- 
ments happen to be large; otherwise they bring 20c. 

FEED— Hay has gained 60c per ton for the choicest 
Wheat. The range, according to quality, is as follows: 
Wheat, old, $10(312.60; do new, $8.60C<rO; Barley, $7@«; 
Wild Oat, new, $7.50@9.60; do old, $10@11.50; stock, $7@ 
8; stable, $8@10.60 » ton. 

FRESH MEAT— Our list shows a general change, Beef, 
Mutton and L*mb being cheapened; Pork and Veal ad- 
vancing. 

FRUIT— The Peach season is well under way and large 
quantities are being used. Apples are very low. Other 
Fruits are priced in our list. California Oranges and 
Lemons have sold better this week. 

HOPS— There are but few left, and as Beer is now be- 
ing freely used, holders of Hops will wait for the local 
brewers to come to their figures. It is reported that 
good California Hops are beiDg held at 26c per lb. 

OATS— Oats have sold at an advance, some choice Sur- 
prise going to $1 86 per ctl; 450 sks fair Oregon sold at 
$1 65. 



July 2, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



13 



ONIONS— Both Red and Silverskins are cheaper. 

POTATOES— There is a large supply of splendid Pota 
toes now in and prices are low. They range from 60 to 90 
in sacks and 75c to 81 in boxes. 

PROVISIONS— Prices of California Bacon and Lard are 
advanced. Eastern Hams have reached 16c per lb. The 
trade is active. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Hens, Roosters and Broilers 
are again abundant and sell lower than last week. Tu 
keys are much higher for the time being. 

VEGETABLES— Our list shows many changes this 
week. There are wide fluctuations in Tomatoes; small 
boxes of Vacaville have sold at 40c one day and $1 the 
next. 

WHEAT— The market is quiet and firm, at the prices 
named: 60 tons and BOO sks No. 1, $1.42j;250 and 100 
tons do, $140; 500 sks No. 2, $1.38?; 54 tons do, Vallejo 
delivery, $1,301, and 175 ,0 ' 8off « raJe . $1-33J. 

WOOL — Light Oregon Wools sell readily, also thcChoice 
Northern county Wools. Choice San Joaquin is in good 
demand, but the stock is nearly cleaned out, as is also the 
Foothill Wool. Anything off quality is slow and dull. 
The price for Sonoma and neighboring counties is a frac- 
tion higher than last week. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

[WHOLES ALB.] 

Wednesday m., June 29. 1881. 



FRUIT MARKET 

Apples, bsk — 15 @— 25 

do, Astracau.bx— 35 @— 50 

Apricots — 75 @ 1 00 

Bananas, bnch,. 2 00 @ 4 00 
Canteloupes.crt. 2 50 <» 3 00 
Cherries, cheat. . 9 00 @10 00 
Cocoanuts, 100.. 6 00 <» 7 00 

Cranberries, bbl @ 

Currants, chest. 4 00 (3 4 50 

Pigs, bx — 25 @- 40 

Gooseberries. . . . & 

do, English . @ 

Grapes — 75 @ 1 25 

Limes, Mex.... 8 00 & 9 00 
do, Cal, box.. 6 00 @ 6 00 
Lemons, Cal, bx 2 00 <a 3 00 
Sicily, box.... 8 50 (ft 9 00 

Australian — @ 

Oranges, Cal, bx.l 00 (a 1 50 
do, Tahiti M 12 00 @15 00 

do, Mexican. (<? 

do, Loreto... @ 

Peaches, bx. . . . — 30 @- 40 

do, bsk — 25 @— 35 

do, Crawford @— 75 

Pears, bsk — 20 (ft— 40 

do, bx — 50 @— 90 

Pineapples, doz 6 00 (ft 8 00 

Plums, bx — 25 (ft— 75 

Prunes, German. @ ■ 

(Quinces, bx @ 

Blaokber's, ch't. 4 00 (ft 7 00 
Raspberries, ch't 6 00 @ 7 00 
Strawbor's, ch't.. 5 00 @ 6 00 

Sugar Cane, bdle @ 

Watermelons,dz 1 50 (S> 3 50 

IHCil It I III IT 
Apples, sliced, lb— 6 (ft— 61 
do, quartered. . . — 5 @— 6 

Apricots — 18 @ - 20 

Blackberries....— 12J@— 15 

Citron — 28 (ft— 30 

Dates — 9@— 10 



Figs, pressed — 7 (ft 

do. loose — 5J(tt>— b 

Pt aches — 10 O— 13 

do pared — 18 (ft— 20 

Pears, sliced — 9 @— 10 

do peeled — 9 (ft— 11 

Plums — 5 (ft— 6 

Pitted — 14 ®- 15 

Prunes — 11 (<*— 13 

RaisinB, Cal, bx. 1 25 (ob 1 50 
do, Halves.... 1 75 @ 2 00 
do, Quarters. . 2 00 (» 2 25 

Eighths 2 25 @ 2 50 

Zante Currants. — 8 (ft — 10 

vegetables! 

Asparagus, bx.. (ft I 00 

Artichokes, doz. (ft— 10 

Beets, ctl @— 75 

Beans, String. . .— 1J@— 2 

do, Wax <a— 1} 

do, Fountain..— 1}@— 2 
Cabbage, 100 lbs— 60 @— 65 

Carrots, sk — 50 @— 75 

Cauliflower, doz— 40 @ - 50 
Cucumbers, bx.— 25 @— 40 
Egg Plant, bx.. - 75 (ft 1 00 

Garlic, lb — 1 @- li 

Green Corn,doz.— 2 (ft — 10 

Green Peas, lb,, @ 

do Sweet..— IJ®— 2 
Green Peppers..— 2 (ft — 5 

Lettuce, doz — 10 @ 

Mushrooms, 11). . (ft 

Okra, bx 1 00 @ 1 25 

Parsnips, lb — — (&> — | 

Horseradish — — (ft — — 

Rhubarb, box. . . — 25 85- 50 

do, chest.. @ 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, ton (815 00 

do Summer, bx— 20 (W>— 40 

Sprouts, lb (<*— 2 

Tomatoes bx...-- — (ft— 50 

Turnips, ctl — 60 @— 75 

Rutabaga (ft— 75 



General Merchandise. 



WIIOI.KMAI.K. 



Wednesday m., Tune 29, 1881. 



' IMIIIX 

Crystal Wax 16 @18 

Parafflne 20 @— 

Patent Sperm 25 —28 

< * % m i* <:oows. 

Assrtd Pie Fruits. 

2} lb cans 2 25 

Table do 3 50 (ft — 

Jams and Jellies. 3 75 (<t — 
Pickles, hf gal . . . .3 25 <a — 
Sardines, qr box. .1 67 (ft — 

Hf Boxes 2 50i@l 90 

Merry, Faull & Co.s 
Preserved Beef 

21b, doz 3 15 (93 - 

do 4 lb doz 6 50 <ft6 — 

Preserved Mutton 

2 lb, doz 3 25 @3 50 

Beef Tonsue 5 75 @6 00 

Preserved Ham, 

21b, doz 5 50 @5 60 

Deviled Ham, 1 fb, 

doz 3 00 <»3 50 

do Ham J lb doz 2 60 @ — 
Boneless Pigs Feet 

31b» 3 50 (83 75 

2 lbs 2 75 (ft - 

Spiced Fillets 2 1bs3 50 @ - 
Head Cheese3 tbs.3 50 (ft — 

€<»AI,-.IobblHK. 
Australian, ton. -- @ 8 50 

Coos Bay 6 50 <a 7 00 

Bellingham Bay - (S* — 

Seattle 7 60 @ — 

Cumberland. ... — @13 00 

Mt Diablo - @ — 

Lehigh — @ — 

Liveroool 

West Hartley.. 

Scotch 

Scranton 

Vancouver Id. .. 

Wellington 

rjharcoal, sack.. 

< ">kr. bush — @ — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Id lb. — @ — 

Costa Rica 13J@ 141 

Guatemala 13j@ 14! 

Java 24 <& 25 

Manilla 15 (ft 

Ground, in cs... 22J@ 25 
FISH. 

Sac'to Dry Cod. (ft — 5 

do in cases.. @ — 6j 

Eastern Cod...— 7 « — 7l 

Salmon, bbls... 7 00 (ft 7 50 

Hf bbls 3 50 ® 4 00 

1 lb cans 1 12i@ 1 22J 

Pkld Cod, bbls. @ 

Hf bbls (ft 

Mackerel. No. 1 

Hf l.b's 9 50 i<* 10 00 

In Kits 1 75 <a> 1 85 

Ex Mess 3 50 @ 4 00 

Pickled Herring, 
box 3 00 @ 

Boston Smoked 

Herring 65 @ 

LIME, etc. 

Plaster, Colden 
Gate Mills.... 3 00 (ft 3 25 

Land Plaster, 
ton 10 00 @ 12 50 

Lime, Snta Cruz 
bbl 1 25 @ 1 50 



(<* 9 00 
@ 8 50 



«* - 
@ 9 00 



3 50 
- 70 



Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 00 <B> 

Portland 4 00 (rt> 

NAILS. 
Assrtd sizes, keg. — @ 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No.1.1 00 @\ 

Castor, No. 1 1 00 (ctl 

do, No. 2 1 00 <a> 

Baker's A A — (ftl 

Olive. Plagnoil...5 25 (*5 

Possel 4 75 (fib 

Palm, It) 9 @ 

Linseed, Raw, bbl 70 ce 

Boiled 75 @ 

Cocoanut 60 @ 

China nut, cs 68 (<t 

Sperm 1 40 @ 

Coast Whales 35 @ 

Polar — (ft 

Lard 80 (tt 

Petroleum (110°).. 18 <a 
Petroleum (If 0").. 28 @ 

FAINTS. 
Pure White Lead. 6}<j*> 

Whiting 1JC* 

Putty 4 (d 

Chalk U(jB 

Paris White 25(8 

Ochre 3J@ 

Venetian Red ... . 3i@ 
Averil mixd Paint 
gal 

White & Tints.. 2 00 @2 
Green, Blue and 

Ch Yellow 3 00 (83 

Light Red 3 00 <»3 

Metallic Roof ..1 30 @1 
RICE. 
China Mixed, lb. . 5 J* 

Hawaiian 51@ 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay, ton... 14 00 (S22 

Common 6 50 @14 

Carmen Id 14 00 @22 

Liverpool fine... 14 00 (320 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 9 @ 

Common brands.. 4i@ 

Fancy Brands 7 @ 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 37iw) 

Cassia 19 ft* 

Nutmegs 85 ft* 

Pepper Grain 15 S3 

Pimento 10 ft* 

Mustard, Cal J lb 

Glass — @1 

SIICAR, ETC. 

- @ 



5 00 



Cal Cub- lb — @ 131 

""wdered — O 131 

fine Crushed.... —ft* 13} 

Granulated — <a 12$ 

Golden O. — ft* 111 

Cal Syrup, kgs 65 ft* 

Hawaiian Mol'sses 25 ft* 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 40 @ 65 

Country pkd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 

Hyson 

Fooo-Chow O 

Japan, 1st quality. 



35 (8 
30 ft* 
27!ft* 
40 (ct 



2d quality 25 ft* 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 



[Corrected Weekly by Sutro St Co.] 

San Francisco, June 29, 3 p. M. 

Silver, J 
Gold Bars, 
count. 

Exchange on New York, par; London, 491(g49I; Paris, 
5.20 francs $ dollar; Mexican dollars. 90<a91j. 
New York (4 per cent), 117S<ail7 3-20. 



Silver Bars. 10@18 $ cent, dis- 



Domestic Produce. 

wholesale. j 

Wednesday m., 



REANS A PEAS. 

Bayo. ctl 1 00 @l 15 

Butter 1 10 ®1 40 

Castor 3 00 (83 50 

Pea 2 00 @2 40 

Red 85 «* 871 

Pink 85 @ 871 

Small White 2 00 @2 30 

Lima 2 25 (82 40 

Field Peas.b'lkeyel 40 (81 50 
do, green.. 1 35 <g] 40 
RROOM CORVV 

Southern 3 @ 31 

Northern 4ft* 6 

CHICCOKY. 

California 4 (ft 41 

German 6l@ 7 

HAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb. 25 (8 27 

do Fancy Brands. — ft* 27} 

Pickle Roll 26 @ 271 

Firkin, new 25 ft* 26 

Western 18 @ 21 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Chsese, Cal., lb... 111(8 121 
du. boxed.... — <<* 13 

EGOS. 

Cal. Fresh, doz... 22}<8 24 

Ducks 19 ft* 20 

Oregon — @ — 

Eastern, by expr'ss 17 ft? 18 

Pickled here — (8 — 

Utah 18 @ 19 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 5*14 00 

Corn Meal 24 00 @25 00 

Hay 6 50 ft*12 50 

Middlings ft*19 00 

Oil Cake Meal. .— - ft*20 00 

Straw, bale — 40 ft?— 45 

I'LOirR. 
Extra, City Mills . 4 87i<85 00 
do, Co'ntryMills.4 25 (84 75 

do. Oregon 3 75 @4 371 

do, Walla Walla. 4 00 ftt>4 25 

Superfine 2 50 ft*3 25 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y.lb. 51(g 

Second 4jft* 

Third — ft* 

Mutton 31ft* 

Spring Lamb 4 ft* 

Pork, undressed. . 65ft* 

Dressed 71ft* 

Veal 7 ft* 

Milk Calves 71(8 

do, choice.... 8jft* 

<;rain, ETC. 

Barley, feed. ctl.. 80 (8 
do, Brewing. .1 10 ">1 20 

Chevalier 1 15 (81 20 

do, Coast . 85 ft*l 00 

Buckwheat 1 60 (31 75 

Corn, White 1 07 @1 15 

Yellow 1 021(8 1 071 

Small Round ... 1 071(81 10 

Oats 1 40 (81 60 

Milling 1 70 (81 85 

Rye 1 37}ft*l 45 

Wheat. No. 1 1 40 (81 45 

do, No. 2 1 35 ft*I 371 

do. No. 3 1 10 (81 20 

Choico Milling. . — ft*l 45 
IIIIIES. 

Hides, dry - ft* 20 

Wet salted 9 @ 10i 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 20 (8 24 

Honey in comb. . . lift* 13 

cln. No. 2 8 ft* 10 

Dark 5ft* 6 

Extracted 6 ft* 7 

HOPS. 

Oregon 15 (ft 17 

California, new... 20 ft* 25 

Wash. Ter 15 ft* 17 

Old Hops — @ 



June 29. 1881. 

Brazil 12 ft* 14 

Pecans 13 0. 16 

Peanuts 4 ft* 5 

Filberts 15 ft* 16 

ONIONS. 

Red 70 ft* 75 

Silver Skin 75 ft* 1 00 

Oregon — ft* — 

POTATOES. 
New 60 01 00 



K 



- @ 



- ft* 

- ft* 

- 

- (ft 

- © 
@ 



Petaluma, ctl 

TomaleB 

Humboldt 

" Kidney 

" Peachblow. 

Jersey Blue 

Cuffey Cove 

River, red 

Sweet 

POULTRY A UAME 

Hens, doz 5 50 @ 7 00 

Roosters 6 00 ft* 6 50 

Broilers 2 50 @ 4 50 

Ducks, tame, doz. 3 50 4 50 

Mallard — @ — 

Sprig — ft* — 

Teal — — 

Widgeon — — 

Geese, pair 1 00 01 50 

Wild Gray, doz. — — 

White do —ft* — 

Turkeys 15 © 18 

do, Dressed.... — — 

Snipe, Eng 2 60 03 00 

do, Common.. 1 00 @1 25 

Quail, doz — — 

Rabbits 1 25 01 50 

Hare 2 00 02 60 

Venison — — 

ritovisiONS. 

CaL Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 1310 131 

Medium 12J(cf " 

Light 

Lard 

Cal. Smoked Beef. 10 ft* 

Shoulders 8j0 

Hams, Cal 11 (ft iz 

Dupee's — ft* 16 

Whittaker — ft* 16 

Royal — ft* 16 

SEEOS. 

Alfalfa 15 17 

do Chile — — 

Canary 4 5 

Clover, Red 14 @ 15 

White 45 50 

Cotton — 20 

Flaxseed 2J0 3 

iHemp 7 



12jft* 121 
— 13j 
1210 13} 



M l'« s. 

Walnuts. Cal 8 (8 

do. Chile . . . 710 
Almonds, hd shl lb 8 (8 
Soft shell 12 



Italian Rye Grass.. 25 

Perennial 25 - 

Millet. German.... 10 ft* 12 

do, Common... 7 (ft 10 

Mustard, White... 30 4 

Brown 1}0 2 

Rape 3 8 

Ky Blue Grass 20 25 

2d quality 16 18 

Sweet V Grass — (ft 75 

Orchard 20 25 

Red Top — ft* 15 

Hungarian 8 ft* 10 

Lawn 30 40 

Mesimit 10 12 

Timothy 10 11 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 6t0 6! 

Refined 78(3 7J 

WOOL ETC. 
spuing— 1880. 

Oregon, Eastern ... 24 27 

do fine, heavy 21 (3 24 

spring — 1881 . 

San Joaquin, choico 19 21 

do fair.. 17 181 

Southern Coast 20 21 

Slightly Burry... 1810 20 

Burry and Seedy. 17 18 

Northern choice. . . 25 (8 30 

Burry or Seedy 22 25 

Sonoma. Mendo- 
cino, Humboldt, 

fancy 31 @ 32} 



Bags and Bagging. 

IJOHBING PRICES.] 

Wednesday m., June 29, 1881. 



Eng Standrd Wheat. 10 0101 

Cal Manufacture 

Hand Sewed. 22x36.10 (8101 

20x36 8J0 83 

23x40 12 (813 

24x10 121(3131 

Machine Swd 22x36.10 (8101 

Flour Sks, halves 9 (3101 

Quarters 5{0 6J 

Eighths 3J(8 41 

Hessian, 60 inch — 0114. 



45 inch 910 9} 

40 inch 8J0 8J 

Wool Sks Hand Swd 

31 lb -047 

4 lb do 5'2).!855 

Machine Sewed — 049} 

Standard Gunnies 131014 

Bean Bags 6J0 7 

Twine, Detrick's A...— 035 
AA.— 037 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco.— Week ending June 28, 1881. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST BAROMETER. 



June22| June 23 


June 241 June 25 


June 26 


June 27 


June 28 


30.04t 


29.978 


30.012 29.985 


29.929 


29.869 


' 29.920 


29.941 


29.928 


29.9461 29.902 


29.8491 


29.820 


29.835 




MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM THERMOMETER. 


63 


63 I 


59 I 63 


71 1 


63 


I 63 


51 


51 1 


50 | 51 


54 


53 


I 52 






MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 






74.7 


73 1 


85 | 80.3 


67.3 


79 


1 79.3 






PREVAILING WIND. 






SW 


W 1 


W | SW 


SW 


SW 


1 w 




WIND— MILES TRAVELED. 






315 


389 I 


534 | 287 


253 | 


347 


1 390 






STATE OF WEATHER. 






Clear. 


I Clear. | Foggy. I Fair. 


Clear. 


Fair. 


1 Foggy. 



RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 
I I 'I I II 

Total rain during the season, from July 1. 1880. 29.8b inches. 



Commission Merchants. 



J. P. HULME. 



Wool and Grain 

Corr\missioi\ Merchants. 

10 Davis Street, near Market, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



43TLiberal advances made on all consignments, and 
prompt personal attention given to all sales. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants, 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



PETER MEYER. LOUIS MEYER. 

MEYER BROS. & CO , 

—IMPORTERS AND — 

Wholesale Grocers, 

—AND DEALERS IN — 

TOBACCO AND CIGARS. 

412 FRONT STREET, 

Front Street Block, bet. Clay & Washington, San Francisco 
£W Special attention given to country traders. j£Jf 
P. O. Box 1940. 

COSTIGAN, COHEN & CO. 
COMMISSION 

Grain and Wool Brokers. 

OFFICE : — 28 California St., San Francisco. 

REFERENCE — LAZARD FRERES, BANKERS. 



DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers In all kinds of 

Country Produce, Frnits, Bte. 

404 and 406 Davie St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



Send your Consignments to 




SAN FRANCISCO 

The Oldest Howe. 



NEW WOOL AND GRAIN 

Commission House, 

J. H. CONG DON &CO., 

No, 6 Stenart Street, S, F. 

To our friends and the Wool Growers and Farmers gen- 
erally, having established ourselves in a General Commis- 
sion Business for the sale of Wool, <-min. Hid es. 
Pelt*. Tallow, Alfalfa Heed, etc. A strict attention 
to the business, as well as a careful study of the interests of 
Wool Growers and Farmers, during an experience of 12 
years with the well-known house of Miller & Co., enables us 
to anticipate the wants of the consignors. 

We shall do a Commission Business exclusively, giving 
personal attention to all consignments. Our facilities for 
handling Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., being unsurpassed, 
we can make it an object for our friends to consign to us. 

We are prepared to make liberal cash advances on Con- 
signments, at a low rate of interest. To those who need the 
services of a Commission Merchant we would say, give us a 
trial, we will guarantee satisfaction. 

S3T Send for Circular to 

J. H. CONGDON & CO. 



GEO. F. COFFIN & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

NO- 13 PINE STREET, 
UNION BLOCK, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Special attention given to Consignments of Grain and Fruit 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

References.— Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell- 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.;C. W. Reed; Sacra- 
mento, Cal; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



HATCH & BARCLAY, 

Corr\missiori Merchants, 

(Members of San Francisco Produce Exchange.) 
30 California Street, San Francisco. 



SIMON SWEET & CO., 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 

GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, EGGS, POUL- 
TRY, GAME, WOOL, WOOL BAGS, HIDES, 
PELTS, BEANS, TWINE, TALLOW, etc., 
and CALIFORNIA and OREGON 
PRODUCE of ALL KINDS. 

206 Washington Street, San Francisco. 
Consignments Solicited. 



Grangers' Business Association of Cal- 
ifornia. -principal place of business. No. 38 California 

Street, San Francisco, State of California. 

Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Directors 
of said corporation, held on Monday, the Twenty-seventh 
(27) day of June, A. D., 1881, an assessment has been levied 
of ten (10) per cent, upon the capital stock of said corpora- 
tion, amounting to the sum of two and one-half ($2.50) dol- 
lars upon each and every share of said capital stock, paya- 
ble July Twenty-eighth (28). 1881, to Amos Adams, the Sec- 
retary of said corporation, at lus office, No. 38 California 
Street, S. F., State of California. 

Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain un- 
paid on the Sixth (6) day of August. A. D.. 1881. will be de- 
linquent, and advertised for sale at public auction, and un- 
less payment is made before, will be sold on Monday, the 
Twenty-second (22) day of August, A. D., 1881, to pay the 
delinquent assessment, together with costs of advertising 
and expenses of sale. AMOS ADAMS, Sec'y. 

Grangers' Business Association of California, office No 
33 California Street, S. F. 



SEASIDE! 
MOUNTAINS! 

Wherever yon go, take one of onr spark- 
ling Collections of the best Songs, orthe best 
Instrumental Music All are choice collec- 
tions, and will be invaluable for amuse- 
ments on dull days, at evening entertain- 
ments, and at all hours of leisure. 

GEMS OF ENGLISH SONG- 

Great favorite Enlarged and improved. 

80 grand songs. $2. 50 

SUNSHINE OF SONG. 

All brightness. 68 songs. $2.50 

GEMS OF STRAUSS. 

Music always new and inspiring. 

Dance to it. $2.50 

GEMS OF THE DANCE. 

Great variety. Dance also to this. $2.50 

GEMS OF SCOTTISH SONG 

• 168 of the sweetest ballads ever made. $2.50 
Also many other books. Send for List! 
Books mailed to any address for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITS0N~&C0., BOSTON. 

O. H. Ditson Se Co.. 843 Broadway. N. Y 



ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 
715 Howard St., near Third. San Francisco. 



This House is especially designed as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms. Gas and running water in each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant fire from 
6 A. M. to 7 P. M. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano— all free to guests. Price 
single rooms per night, 50 cts. ; per week, from $2.50 upward s 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
to comer Third and Howard. 



GOLD MEDAL AWARDED 

the Author. A new and great Medi- 
cal Work, warranted the best and 
cheapest, indispensable to every 
man. entitled the "Science of Life or 
Self- Preservation;" bound in finest 
French muslin, embossed, full gilt, 
300 pp. Contains beautiful steel en- 
gravings; 125 prescriptions Price, 
only SI. 25, sent by mail; illustrated 
sample, 6 cents Send now. Addrfss 
T7"Uf)TT7 (TTWCIPTTi Peabndy Medical Institute or Dr. W. 
JLWUW lalShLr. H. PARKER. Mo. 4 Bulfinch street, 
Boston. 




"NEW" 
Hydraulic Rami 

The only Horizontal Ram made. Will do 
good work on light fall. SeDd for Circular 

H. F. MORROW, Chester, Pa. 



MENZO SPRING. 

Manufacturer of the Best 




Improved Artificial Limbs, 

OFFICE AND ADDRESS: 

9 Geary Street, Junction of 
Market and Kearny, S. F. 




CLARK & McKENZIE, 

SEARCHERS OF RECORDS, 

Real Estate Agents 

AND CONVEYANCERS, 
Office in Court House, Fresno, Cal. 
iSTSEND for Information. 



AMERICAN jpBjfc 

MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS. 

All kinds of Light Iron and Wood Wnrk, including Pat- 
terns, Gear Cutting, Planing. Engine, Musical Instruments 
and other repairing. Dies, Taps, Reamers, etc., a specialty. 

HEALD & BANKS, Proprietors. 



MACKINTOSH & CO., 

Dealers in Wall Paper. 

NO. 715 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 
Orders by Mail solicited. 



Landscape, Chromo Cards, etc., name on, 10c. 20 Gilt 
Edged Cards, 10c. Clinton & Co., North Haven, Ct. 



50 



14 



f HE PACIFIC HUI1L PRESS. 



[July 2, 1881. 




The Randolph Header Improved for 188 

8, 10, 12 and 14 FOOT. 



The Capital of this old and favorite company has been 
increased to 

8600,000.00, 

All of winch has now been fully paid up in U. S. Gold Coin, 
and invested ia nucii securities as are not liable to loss by 
fire, and are readily convertible into coin. 

Assets, $840, 004 .43 . 

Having but a very limited amount exposed to loss in thia^ 
city, and its busine48 being so conducted as to he free from 
serious loss by conflagration anywhere, the "Old" California 
is now prepared to offtjr a quality of indemnity second to 
that offered by no other insurance institution, whether do- 
mestic or foreign. C. T. HOPKINS, President. 

L. L. BKOMWKLL. Vict President. 

ZENAS CROWELL. Secretary. 

K. T. BARNES, Asst. Secretary. 



ZIMMERMAN 

IMPROVED, GALVANIZED IRON, 
PORTABLE, FIRE-PROOF, 

Fruit and Vegetable Drier, 

SIMPLE IN CONSTRUCTION. ECONOMICAL 
IN FUEL CURES THE FRUIT IN 
MIOM 2 TO S HOURS. 

It has the approval and hearty indorsement of nearly 
all the lcadinj.' Fruit and Agricultural Journals of the 
country. 

Over 13,000 in Successful Operation ! 

Awarded a Silver Medal by the Mechanics' h stitute, 
San Francisco, September, 1S80. Send fur Illustrated 
Catalogue with Testimonials to 

LINFORTH, RICE & CO., 
323 <5s 335 Market Street, San Francisco. 

47 LOCAL AGENTS WANTED. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Corner 16th and Castro Streets, Oakland 




" EUREKAS," the new fowL Now all the raire in the 
Eastern States. Destined to become the fowl of this 
country. Beautiful in plumage! Hardy iu constitution. 

Cocks average nine pounds. Hens six. Small Rose Comb, 
clean Yellow Legs; contented in disposition, and as layers 
they have no superior on earth. Fur further information 
send stamp tor Illustrated Circular to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 
P. O Box 1771. San Francisco 



WINDMILLS HORSE POWERS. 




BCILT AND REPAIRED AT 

No. 51 Beale Street, - - - San Francisco. 
Send for Circulars. 
F. W. KROOH <k CO., (Successors W. I.Tuhtin.) 



METALLIC WINDOW SCREENS. 

No House Should be Without Them. 

GUARANTEED TO KEEP ROOMS CLEAR OF FLIE8, 
MOSQUITOES, ETC. ONLY PRACTICAL AND 
MOST DURABLE WINDOW SCREEN IN USE. 

They are appl'cable to Top and Bottom of the Window, 
No Swelling or Shrinking, as the frames are made of the 
best Charcoal Calvanized Iron, and work between the in- 
Bide blinds and Sash, on the inside stops. AJlsi7.es. Prices 
from $2.00. In sending orders, send size and number of 
lights in sash. 

ADAMS & REARDON. 
MANUFACTORY— 115 .Mission St., San Francisco 



THRESHING ENGINES FOR SALE. 

For Sale, one second hand Rice Straw-burner, 8x10, one 
7x10 Hoadley, one 7x10 Ames, nearly new, also 3-hurse 
power Engine and Boiler. Pair of Derrick Spools, 24-inch 
Circular Saw and Frame. Marston's Self Feeder for $50 

J. W. RILEY, 
567Bluxome St., San Franclwco. 



To Fish Raisers. 



I am now ready to sell Carp which were imported from 
lermany in 1872, in lots to suit. Address 

J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 




Two of these Machines were sold on this Coast in 1878; 25 in 1879; 150 in 1880 and in 
the same year over 800 East of the Rocky Mountains. 

Great care has been taken by the Manufacturers to remedy any imperfection that may have existed in these 
Machines in previous years, and it now stands unequaled. 

Send for Circular of Testimonials. 

THOS. POWELL'S PATENT ELECTRIC ELEVATOR. 

A. Complete Stock of Agricultural Implements. 
H. C. SHAW PLOW WORKS, Stockton, Cal., General Agents for Pacific Coast. 



Nathaniel Ooarry & Bro. 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




Sole Agents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
all kinds of GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers of Englaud and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit 



RECORD OF SUPERORITY. 



1818 AWARDED 
J. H. STROBRIDGE, 
Flr»f I'rciniuuis: 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes 822 50 

Pen 5— Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22 50 

Pen 3— Ram Lambs 22.50 

Yearling Ram (1st and 2d) 38.50 

Two-year-old Ram 22.50 

Ram and 5 of his Lambs 3U.U0 

BtrMpttalEOM 

For best Ram of any age or breed, 
and 5 of his lambs $75.00 




1879-AWARDED 
J. H. STROBRIDGE, 

Kirnt Premiums! 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes S22.50 

Pen 5— Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22 50 

Two-yoar-old Ram 22.50 

Yearling Ram 22.50 

Ram and tive of his lambs 30 00 

Pen of 3 Ram lambs 22.50 

EVweepatekcti 

For best Ram and 5 of his lambB, 
of any age or breed $75.00 



THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 

We offer for sale this season 200 head Superior Rams, Yearlings and two-year-olds. Also 100 li*>ad Yearling Ewes and 
50 head aged Ewes. These sheep are all free from disease. Are LONG STAPLED, WHITE WOOLED and HEAVY 
SHEARERS. Have a faultless constitution. Are larger and in better condition than any llock of Thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep in the State. Orders by mail promptly h lied. Our ranch is only 14 miles from Oakland, by rail. Trains 
running each way every few hours. J. H. 8TROBRIDUE. Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal., E. W. Feet, Ageut. 



HEALD'S PATENT 

PORTABLE STR&W-BURNING ENGINES. 

The above Engine is the safest and most powerful in the m arket, lighter than other En- 
gines, and no danger of explosions. An explosion of Heald's boiler has never occurred. Two 
sizes are made; either size will run the largest separator. All the latest improvements have 
been added to the boiler and engine. Is ready to stand a test any time. Is guaranteed perfect 
in all its pu t-, and will do the same work with less water and fuel than any other engine in the 
market. With one of 

HEALD'S BARLEY MILLS, 

It will thresh and grind at the same time, all the separator can thresh. For farther particulars, 
Address J. L. HE ALB, Vallejo, Cal. 

aw Engine can bo seen at D. M. OS30RNE & CO., 33 Market St., 8. P."S* 




ALBERT DICKINSON. 

Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian. Millet, Rod-Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds, etc. 

POP CORN. 

Warehouses: 

115, 117 & 111), hinzie St., Office i 115 Kinaie si. 

104, 106, 108 & 110 Michigan St. CHICAGO, 1 



COOPER'S RANCH FOR SALE. 

FIVE HUNDRED ACRES, all rich Valley Land. 1 mile 
from Kelseyville, and 1} miles from Clear Lake in Ble 
Valley, Lake county. Good Schools and Churches near 
by. Place well watered, well improved and all under 
cultivation. Price, $27 j>er acre. Terms, one-half cash 
and balance on time. And the whole or one-half sold to 
suit the purchaser. H.J.COOPER, 

Uncle Sam P. O., Lake Co. 



ANGORA GOATS. 
1,600 Graded Angora Goats for Sale. 

Apply to H. W. CHAPPEL. 

Redding, Shasta Co., Cal. 



Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 




E. W. WOOISEY <fc SON, 



FULTON, SONOMA COUNTY, 



CALIFORNIA 



There is not only a constant demaud for improved stock, 
but among intelligent sheep farmers is the demand equally 
constant for purity of blood and reliability of pedigree. We 
aim to meet this requirement, and in our importations bave 
secured the best pedigreed Rams to be found on the Ver- 
mont State Register. It is this blood and quality we aro 
offering, and upon these have been awarded First Premiums 
from the State Board of Agriculture at Sacramento lor the 
past two years, and we were awarded l y the same Board a 
majority of all premiums in 18S0, vis.: lot 1 rcniium on Best 
Stock Ram of 2 years of age and upwi>rd; 1st Premium on 
Best Buck Lambs; 1st Premium on Best Ewe Lambs; 1st 
Premium on Best Ram and Five Lambs. We were also 
awarded three First Premiums and the Sweepstakes at the 
Golden Gate District Fair of 1880. We will simply state 
that for length and beauty of staple, weight of fleece, with 
vigor of constitution our sheep cannot be excelled. .We 
shall welcome our patrons at the ranch or orders by mail 

City Address 418 California St, San Francisco. 



This space will be used by H. 
D. NASH & CO., 906 K street, 
Sacramento, Cal., Manufacturer 
of "The Improved Nash & Cutts 
Grain Cleaner," giving a full de- 
scription of their new combina- 
tion Gang of Seives, for separa- 
ting Barley, Oats and Cheat from 
Wheat. 

LOOK OUT FOR IT! 




Patent, Nov. 11,1879, 
Patent, Nov. 9, 1880. 

Medical Electricity. ^^S^" 

HORNE'S ELECTRO-MAGNETIC BELT.' 

(The Only Genuine) Received Ut Premium State Fair. 1 

I K rir.,-11 a.-... 11. I. i, . , Hew Slrl., $10; KI»rtro-M«$n«.Ur UclU, 
Bilr»Ap|>ll«ncr, $15 : Elrctro-tUgn. J>elU,0 Improvement., »» 

GUARANTEED ONE YEAR. BEST IN THE WORLD. 
Will positively cure without medicine — Rheumatism, Paralysis, 
Neuralgia. Kidney Disease. Impotency. Rupture, Liver Disease 
Nervousness, Dyspepsia, Spinal Disease, Ague, riles and other 

diseases.. Send for illustrated catalogue, free Also, 

— GUARANTEED, RELIEVED, 
or Cured. Send for Illustrated 

. . — Catalogue. Hundreds of cures. 

W. J. HORNE, Prop, and Manufr. 
J03 Market SI., han Francisco, Cal. 



RUPTURE 



BEFORE BUYING OR RENTING AN 
OHG AIT 

Send for our LATEST Illustrated Cataloooi (S2 pp. 
4to), with nfwest styles, at (51 and upward; or $8.38 
per quarter, and up. Sent free. MASON & HAMLIN 
ORGAN CO., lMTromont St., BOSTON; 46 E. 14th St., 
NEW YORK; 149 Wabaali Av., CHICAGO. 



Mason and Hamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER & CHASE, 

Post Street, near Dupont, - - - SAN FRANCISCO 



Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates Etc. 

E. L. RANMOME, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. 
ARTIFICIAL STONE. Send for Circular. 



July 2, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



15 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers In 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT AND OB- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS.— Oor Descriptive Illus- 
trated Catalogue of Seeds, Trees, Plants, Etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

419 and 421 Sansome Street. S. P. 



DAVID LANDRETH & SONS, 

GROWERS OF 

GARDEN SEEDS, 




21 dc 23 South Sixth St., Philadelphia, Fa 

Their farms devoted to this purpose and cultivated by 
themselves comprise over 
Fifteen Hundred Acreg. 

Seeds supplied in any quantity to DEALERS, MARKET 
GARDENERS, or PRIVATE FAMILIES, by 
mail or otherwise. 

Landreth's Rural Register and Almanac, 

And Priced Catalogue on application. 



CLINTON CUTTINGS ( phy p l r l 6V era ) 

$10.00 PER 1,000 AT 

Magnolia Farm Nurseries, Napa Valley. 

Send for Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 
All free from disease and grown without irrigation. 
Address 

LEONARD COATES. 
YouDtvllle, Napa County, Cal. 




B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flower 
ing Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description 
Catalogues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established in 1858. 

For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised without irrigation. Also, a general assort- 
ment of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower- 
ing Shrubs; Roses in assortment. Conservatory and Bed 
ding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Prices. Address W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma Sonoma County, Cal 



COTTON SEED 

For sale in quantities to suit, by McAFEE BROTHERS, 
202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. 



FOR THE LADIES. 

TURKISH RUG PATTERNS 

A Pleasant and Profitable Fancy Work. Patterns 
■tamped in colors on heavy burlaps; Animals, Flowers 
and Scrolls. C»n be made of rags or waste yarn. Full 
printed directions furnished with pattern. Send for 
Catalogue. Address 

CHAS. PEAKE & CO., 209 Kearny St. S. F 



Giles H. Grat. James M. Haven. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counse!Iers-at-Law, 

530 California St.. SAN FRANCISCO 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse 

San Francisco, Cal. 
85,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office — 318 California Street, Room 3. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., & F. 

First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity, 10.000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the 0. P. 
R. R. and S. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rates. Advances and Insurance effected. 



SECURE PATENTS 




Dewey fcCo.'B SCiGlltifiC PrBSS Agency. 



Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency pre" 
sents many and important advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by reason of long estab- 
lishment, great experience, thorough system, in- 
timate acquaintance with the subjects of inven- 
tions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library containing 
official American and foreign reports, tiles of 
scientific and mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or a 
description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of Patent 
business, and obtain Patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices are 
as low as any first-class agencies in the Eastern 
States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
inventors are far superior. Advice and Circu- 
lars free. DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG. 




GEO. F. SILVESTER 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



9 % 

r 



2 Fruit and Evergreen. Trees, Plants, Etc, 



Q 
< 



ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives. Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



m 
d 




Cold Medal Awarded 
AXFORD'S 

National Incubator, 

AT TORONTO EXHIBITION, 1879. 
Thirty- Two Public Exhibitions. 
Long Looked for, Come at Last! 
The Baby National Incubator 
Holds lOO Egtjs and Costs 
ONLY $25. 

SelfReguIating.Durable.Practical and easily 
Understood. Will Hatch where none other 
will. Netd not "Regulate" a room to insure 
success. 

AXFORD & BRO-, 

46th St. & Langley Av., Chicago, 

ILLINOIS. 



In consequence of Spurious Imitations oj 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

Which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature 
thus, 



Which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 

SAUCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA <£• PERRINS' Sauce, and See Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper, 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blachwell, London, 
tfcc, <kc; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 



CALIFORNIA DRIED FRUITS. 

CROP 1881. FRUIT GROWERS, ATTENTION! 

GEORGE A7\7\ M£3AI>S s£? CO., 

(SUCCESSORS TO SPEAR, MEADE & CO.) 
Offices and Warehouse— 416 & 418 Front Street, ..... SAX FRANCISCO . 

WHOLESALE DE ALERS I N DRIED FRUITS. 

We are prepared, as usual, to make direct purchases of the next cron of DRIED FRUITS of all kinds in small 
quantities or the entire crop, paying cash therefor, on delivery and inspection. Do not let any of your green fruits 
go to waste; neither allow yourselves to be imposed upon by canners. When your Dried Fruits are ready for market deal 
with us direct and thus save the profits and commissions of middlemen. Write to us for any information you desire, as 
to style of packages best suited tor this market. 



THE KENNEDY REPEATING RIFLE. 




24 and 28-inch Barrels. 15 Shots in Magazine. 
Weight, 8 1-2 to 9 Pounds. 

USES THE WINCHESTER MODEL 1873 CARTRIDGE. 44 CALIBRE, 40 GR AINS, CENTER FIRE. 
Out of 500 Glass Balls thrown from a trap, 479 were broken with this Rifle. Prices Low. Circulars on application to 

E. T. ALLEN, Pacific Coast Agent, 

416 Market St.,' San Francisco. 



POULTRY, 

Hogs &, Cattle. 



Langshans, Brahmaa, Cochins, Leg-^? 
horns, Houdans. Plymouth Rocke, W. ' 
F. Black Spanish, Guinea Fowls. Aylesbury, Rouen 
and Pekin Ducks. Bronze and White Holland Turkeys. 
Peacocks, Etc. Also, Eggs for Hatching. 

Dish-Paced Berkshire Pigs, Magie Poland 
China Pigs, Jersey Cattle. 

The Illustrated Pacific Coast Poultry Book, 

which contains a short practical article on nearly every 
subject connected with Poultry Raising, and the preven- 
tion, as well as the treatment of the diseases peculiar to 
this Coast. There are over 25 large life-like illustrations of 
Poultry. This work I will mail to any address for 50 
cents (simply cost of publishing). In cloth binding, 75c. 

Stock or Eggs for Hatching guaranteed true to name, 
and to arrive safely. For further information please 
write, enclosing stamp. Circular aud price list sent on 
application. Address 

WILLIAM NILES, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



C A All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards, no2 alike. | CA Lit'iographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10c. Name 
name on, 10 eta. C. DePuy, Syracuse, N. T. ' \}\J in fancy typo. Conn. Card Co., Norttfoid, Ct, 



Caledonian Mills 

OATMEAL! 



ABSOLUTELY PURE!! 

MADE FROM SELECTED WHITE OATS. The most 
delicious breakfast food. No other preparation makes 
such sweet, wholesome porridge. Greatly superior to 
ordinary oatmeal mush. For sale by all the principal 
grocers. 

CALEDONIAN OATMEAL MILLS. 

Sansome Street, near Pacific, San Francisco 

WHEELER'S 

Carbon Bisulphide, 

FOR KILLING 

Phylloxera, Squirrels, Gophers, Rats, Verintn, Etc 

CHEAP AND EFFECTIVE. 

A.ny Person Can Use It Without Harm. 

6-lb Cans, each 81 00 

12-lb Caus, each l 75 

50-lb Cans, each 5.50 

Address JOHN H. WHEELER, 

111 Leidesdorff St., San Francisco. 
Shipping Point— West Berkeley, Alameda Co. 

WONDERFUL INVENTION. 

THE DAVIS IRON WAGON. 



Header, Farm and Freight. Manufactured expressly 
for the Pacific coast. Sknd for Circular and Price List. 
Also the following masterpieces of mechanical skill: The 
Davis Steel Doui lelree. The Davis Sp ing Tongue Sup- 
port. The Davis Spring Bolster. Tde world-renowned 
La France Steam Fire Engine. 



P. O. Sox ! 



E. A. SCOTT & CO., 
Sacramento. Cal. 



APPARATUS FOR DRAWINC 

Landscapes, Machinery, Portraits, Etc. 

Many people, old and young, are at many times placed at 
a great disadvantage by not knowing: how to draw. This 
has now been overcome by the use of the QUADRESCOPE: 
a new invention, very simple. You can be your own 
Draughtsman, and send home scenes, to the States, by your 
own hand. It affords hours of enjoyment, besides being 
practical. For Si I will send you the receipt for fitting up the 
apparatus with which you can delineate anything you choose 
and then color if so desired. By registered letter. Address 
W. W. GARRISON, Wood Engraver, 414 Clay St.. S. F 



NEW WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Repository of Eastern Carriages, 

BUGGIES AND WAGONS, 

From the largest Carriage Manufactory in New England. 
Our work is good. We sell it low. Satisfaction guaran- 
teed. Send for cuts and price list. 

P. A. BRIGGS, Manager, 
Nos. 220 and 222 Mission Street, San Francisco. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH. 

$A per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON. 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to 81.30 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL Ht CO., 

Sole Agents, 430 California Street. S. P. 



Bee Easts' Ms. 



A complete 
Manual and Ref- 
erence Book on 
all subjects con- 
nected with suc- 
cessful Bee Culture, by E. Kretchmor, of Coburg, Mont- 
gomery County, Iowa. A new edition, containing 244 
pages of plain and full instructions by a practical and 
scientific apiarist, and illustrating the new system of Be* 
Culture with the Honey Extractor. It also tells how to 
rear Italian Queen Bees. Bound in cloth. Price, post- 
paid, $1. Sold by DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome St., San 
Francisco. 



16 



r H E PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July a, 1881. 



BAIN WAGONS. 




BAIN" Wagon, with "Double Box Bed." 



Price of " BAIN " Wagon, with Double Box Bed, California Roller Brake, Double 
Trees, Stay Chain and Neck Yoke. 

Size of Price for Extra Heavy 

No, Thimble Capacity. Wagons with wide Tirea 

Skein. and Hitch Wheels. 

2} inch 1200 to 1800 tt>s. . . .Weight with 10 ft Box, 1035 tt>s $115.00 



14.. 
15.. 
16.. 
17.. 
18.. 
19.. 
20. . 



10 
12 
12 
12 



.11 



21a. 

21 . 

22.. 

23. ...II 
24. ...2 
25.... 2| 
26.... 24 



.3 «• 1800 to 2200 

. .Si " 2500 to 3500 

,.8t " 3500 to 4000 

,.3J " 4000 to 5000 

..4 " 5000 to 6000 

,.4i u 7000 to 7500 " 1975 " 225.00. . . . 

Bain Wagons, with Box Beds, as above, and Iron Axles, Gears, Solid Collars, 
all Wrought Axles. 
H inch 1500 to 2000 tt)*. .. .Weight with 10ft. Box, 1105 lbs $135.00. 



1040 " 120.00 

1350 " 145.00. 

1470 " 155 00. 

1750 " 180.00. 

.1875 " ....... 200.00., 



1860 " 220.00 

2110 " 260.00. 



2500 to 8500 "... , " 10 " 1190" 140.00. 

" 3500 to 4000 "•• " " 12 " 1380 " 160.00. 

" 4000 to 4500 "... . •' '12 " 1435 " 170.00. 

" 4500 to 5000 "... . " 12 " 1525 " 180.00. 

" 5000 to 6000 

" 7000 to 7500 

We guarantee the BAIX Wagons to be well made, and*of good material; and if, with fair 
usage, any breakages occur within one year, from the defects in material or workmanship, we will, 
on application, stating dale of purchase, size of wagon and cause of breakage, furnish new parts, 
or order them replaced without cost to the purchaser. Unless these conditions are complied 
with, claims for breakages, etc., will not be all iwed. 

The " BAIN " Wagons are acknowledged to be the best Farm and Freighting Wagons in 
the United States. They are built by the day's work, and each workman is responsible for any 
defects, either in material or construction. 



BAIN WAGONS. 




Celebrated ''BAIN" Wagon, with California Stake Rack. 

Price List of Bain Wagons, with California Stake Rack Beds, Roller Brake, 
Double Trees, Stay Chains and Neck Yoke. 

Price for Extra Heavy 
Wagons with wide Tirea 
and High Wheels. 

.8 $120 00 

125 00 

150 00 

160 00 

180 00 

200 00 

235 00 

Price List of Bain Wagons, Iron Axle Gears. Solid Collars, all Wrought Axles, and 
full California Clipped, with California Stake Rack Beds, Roller Brake, 
Double Trees, Stay Chains and Neck Yoke. 





Size of 




No. 


Thimble 


Capacity. 




Skein. 


27.. 


. .2$ inch. . 


..1200 to 1800 lbs 






..1800 to 2200 " 


29.. 


..3i " .. 


..2500 to 35U0 " 








31.. 


..3? " .. 


. 4000 to 5000 " 


32. . 






33.. 


..44 " .. 


. .7000 to 7500 " 



12 " 


1125 " 


12 " 


1415 " 


12 " 


1545 " 


14 " 


1815 " 


14 " 


1945 " 


14 " 


2050 " 



34a. 


. H inch . . 


.. 1500 to 2000 tbs.. 


..Weight with Ca). Rack, 11 ft. 

u « 12 << 


1132 ft*. 


. .$140 00 


34. 


.1| " .. 


..2500 to 3500 " .. 


1225 " . 


.. 150 00 


35 . 


.If " .. 


. .3500 to 1000 " . . 


" " 12 " 


1455 " . 


.. 165 00 


36.. 


.11 " .. 


. .4000 to 4500 " .. 


« H 12 « 


1510 " . 


.. 175 00 


37.. 


.2 " .. 


. .4500 to 5000 " . . 


U a « 14 « 


1598 " . 


.. 190 00 


38.. 


.21 " .. 


. .5000 to 6000 " . . 


" " 14 " 


1933 " . 


. 230 00 


39.. 


.2* " .. 


..7000 to 7500 " .. 


« .. .. 14 « 


2183 " .. 


.. 275 00. 



Tires on " Bain " Wagons are all fastened with oval-headed rivets. 
None but the Mod Experienced norh-meu employed in their manufacture. Especial attention 
paid to the Iron Work, and only the best of iron used. 

They Compise (!keat Stkkngth with Liuhtsess and Easy Draft. 

Only the very best of Selected Timber, which has undergone the personal inspection of the 
maker (E. Bai.v, Kenosha) used. 

None genuiue unless stamped with "Edward Bain, KenoJia, Wis." 



BAKER &> HA3VLII_.T?Onsr :j 

Satn Francisco or Sacramento, Solo Agents. 



TEXAS LANDS. 



I am prepared to sell lands in various counties of Texas 
and at prices ranging 

From 50 Cents to $5 Per Acre, 

Owing to nearness to Railroads and improvements, sup- 
ply of wood, water, etc. These lands are carpeted with a 
rich and nutritious growth of MESyUIT GRASS, green 
the year round. 

I have a solid body of 9,200 acres in Zavalla County, 
fronting Leona River. 

Plenty of Grass, Timber and Water, 

At $1.25 per acre, unfenc d, and 15 miles from Railroad. 
Also tract in Frio County, of 10,000 Acres, fronting on 
Frio River. NEVER- FAILING water, well coated with 
Grass; ALL FENCED. Well adapted to Cattle, Sheep, 
Swine or Farming, five miles from Railroad Station, at 
83 per acre, one-half cash, balance in one and two years 
at 8% interest. 

Also 4,605 acres on same river, two sides fenced and 
near County seat at 82 per acre. 

Also some 640-acre tracts of rich land at $2.50 per acre, 
and near Railroad, besides many other pieces in other 
counties. 

JAMBS M. THOMPSON, 
San Antonio or Frio Town, Texas- 



I. J. TRUMAN. 



BYRON JACKSON. 



JACKSON & TRUMAN, 



Manufacturers of 



Feeders and Elevators, 



With recently invented Spreader. 
Horse Forks for Headings or 
Hay. Folding Derricks. Hoad- 
ley Straw - Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILL8 for 
Hbockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Threshers 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. 




■ in»f»i^] 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 



JACKSON & TRUMAN, 

Cor. 6ttj and Bluxome Sts„ San Francisco. 



The Best is the Cheapest, 

AVERILL 
MIXED 
PAINT 




THE PIONEER INJMIXED 
PAINTS . Is prepared ready for im- 
mediate use, and of any Shade or Color desired. Any one who can handle a brush can apply it. It is boparvtan 
to our dump atmosphere, and is equally as good on Wood, Stone or Iron Work. 

It does not Crack, Chalk or Peal OAT, but retains for years that beauty of finiih for which it is so 
justly celebrated. 

Sample Cards of Colors, Testimonials and Price List furnished free, on application to 

O. S. OF^ICK, General Agent for Pacific Coast. 

403 Market Street, Opposite Front, San Francisco. 



At the SANBORN WAGON DEPOT, 

24 and 26 Beale Street, S. F. Cat. 

Three sizes of THORi >l r GH-BRAOE WAGONS, with 1. 2 or 3 seatr. 
Eight sizes of EXPRESS AND DELIVERY WAGONS Tnree sizes of 
FOUR SPRING WAGONS, with 1, 2 or 3 seats. Resides Business 
Wagons and Buggios. 

Also, all sizes of FARM WAGONS, made by Mitchell, Lewis & Co., of 
Racine, Wis., who make the best Farm Wasous iu the world All our 
Wagons are fully warranted. A. W. SASBOKN «t CO., 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California St.. corner Webb. 
For the half year ending with .luue 3D, 1881, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five and one-tenth of one 
per cent (5 1-107,1 per annum on term deposits, and four and 
one fourth of one per cent {i\ i) per annum on ordinary de- 
posits, free of Federal tax, payable on and after Wednesday, 
July Uth. 1881. LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Directors 
of The German Savings and Loan Society has declared a 
dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of five and one-tenth 
(5 1-101 per cent per annum, and on ordinary Deposits at the 
rate of four and one-fourth (41) per cent, per annum, free 
from Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the 11th day 
July, 1681. By order, GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

San Francisco, June 30. 1881. 



50 



All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards. (No 2 
alike). Nameon,10c. Clinton Bros., Clintonville.Con. 



HENDERSON'S 

COMEINF.D CATALOGUE OP 



SEEDS an ° 
PLANTS 



| Will be Mailed Free to all who apply by 
Letter. « 
Our Experimental Grounds In 
I which we test our Vegetable and 
I Flower Seeds arc most con: pletej 
land our Greenhouses Tor Plants 
Ucoverlmr 3 acres in glass), are 
I the largest in America. 

IPETER HENDERSON & CO. 

35 Cortlandt Street, New York. « 



Attention, Fruit Growers ! 




As the Budding season is at hand. I am prepared, 

where quantities are wanted, to grow any variety of 

Fruit Trees for 1882 at Reduced Rates. 

Correspondence solicited. ISAAC COLLINS, 

NURSERY, Haywards, Cal. 



ST. AUGUSTINE COLLEGE. 

27TH TERM BEGINS 
Tuesday, July 26th, 1881. 

Fur Catalogues please address 

BISHOP WINOFIELD, Benicla, Cal 



BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL 

For Young Ladies. 

Oak Stieet, bet. 10th arjd 11th, Oakland. 

Will open JULY 27th. A special course of study will be 
arranged Thorough preparation given for adm.tlance 
to the State University and Eastern Colleges. For cir- 
cular addrccs 

MISS S. B. BISBEE, Oakland, Cal. 



RAMS FOR SALE. 

350 THOROUGHBRED 
And Graded 

SPANISH MERINO 

Rams for Stale. 

Bred from the first impor- 
tation of Spanish Merlnu 
Sheep to California, in 1854. 
Thoroughbred and High 
Grade Ewes for sale. Piices ri-a»<inahle. Residence, one 
mile north of McConnell's Station, Western Pacific Division 

r. O. address, MRS. E. McCONNELL WIL80N. 

Elk Grove, Sacramemto Co., Cal. 




PEBBLE SPECTACLES. 




Muller's Optical Depot, 

135 Montgomery St., near Buab. 



SPECIALTY FOB. 30 YEARS. 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 



The most complicated cases of defect- 
ive vision thoroughly diagnosed, free of 
charge. Compound Astigmatic Lenses 
Mounted to order. <V2hours notice. 




Volume XXII.] SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY g, 1881. Number 2 



The Wheat Crop of 1881. 

It is now conceded by all, so far as we know, 
that the wheat yield of this State will show a 
marked falling off from last year's magnificent 
figures. The contrary has been stoutly main- 
tained by those who wish to depress the value 
of grain now unsold, but that game is about up 
as is shown by the strength of the market. We 
shall be surprised if the price does not show a 
gratifying advance before the harvest is fully 
gathered. 

This view is strengthened by the reports from 
the East, which agree that the surplus available 
for export from Atlantic ports will be much re- 
duced. The Rural New Yorker, with com- 
mendable enterprise, secured, last month, reports 
from nearly all wheat growing sections and the 
bearing of the results upon the mar- 
ket will be so great that we shall 
introduce the main points of our contemporary's 
summary thereof. Judging from the present 
multitude of reports, a? well«as from those that 
have been published every week in our columns, 
and from a discriminating selection and careful 
study of a large number of other reports made 
either by the Agricultural Department, State 
Boards of Agriculture or enterprising journals, 
we cannot avoid the conclusion that tbe wheat 
crop of 1881 will be at least 20% below that of 
1880. The latter has been estimated by the 
Agricultural Department at 480,840,723 bushels, 
so that, on this basis, this year's aggregate 
crop,can hardly be far from the neighborhood 
of 380,000,000 bushels. For reasons heretofore 
given, however, we are strongly impressed 
with the opinion that the Department's esti- 
mate was at least 15,000,000 or 20,000,000 of 
bushels too high; and should this opinion prove 
correct, a corresponding reduction should be 
made from the above estimate of this year's to- 
tal yield. 

Winter wheat has suffered far more severely 
than spring, and of the vast territory in which 
this sort is raised, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, 
and, probably, Kentucky, with parts of North- 
ern Missouri and Southern Iowa and Wisconsin, 
have been the heaviest losers. Spring wheat 
appears to be as thrifty as last year, but, owing 
to the lateness of the season and the floods on 
bottom lands in the spring wheat region, 
the acreage is somewhat less than last year's, 
except in Northern Minnesota and the Red 
River country, in which a greatly enlarged acre- 
age has been put in, with highly promising re- 
sults. The harvesting of winter grain has al- 
ready advanced as far north as Southern Kan- 
sas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, so 
that the recent rains will have come too late to 
benefit the fall-sown grain. Farther north, 
however, they will doubtless be of considerable 
advantage. The total acreage under wheat this 
year is probably somewhat less than last year, 
as the increase in the newly-settled States and 
Territories is more than counterbalanced by tbe 
decrease in the older States. On tbe Pacific 
coast the acreage under wheat is considerably 
smaller than last year, especially in the middle 
and northern districts, and the yield per acre is 
likely to be less. 



The Fourth of July. — As a rule, the Fourth 
of July celebrations in the larger cities through- 
out the country were laid aside, out of respect 
for the President in his affliction and in har- 
mony with the feeling of grief which pervaded 
the country. Instead of rejoicing, there was 
suspense, anxiety and solicitude. It was fitting 
that the day should be memorable by the omis- 
sion of celebrations. If the President recovers, 
there will be a general disposition to rejoice, 
and it is proposed to carry out the plans laid in 
this city in the celebration of Admission Day, 
September 9th. It strikes us this would be a 
very good arrangement. 

Turning the Tables. — A manufacturing 
company in Providence, R. I., has received a 
piece of bleached cotton cloth manufactured in 
England for the West India trade. It bears a 
counterfeit of the Providence company's ticket 
and trade- mark, but is of decidedly inferior 
quality to the goods made by them. 



The Date Palm in California. 

The date palm is one of the oldest of the veg- 
etable immigrants to California. It has taken 
a much humbler position in the public thought 
than the orange, the olive and the grape, which 
were its attendants hither, and yet it has 
grown into stateliness and attained the dignity 
of a landmark in several places. The date has 
lingered in quiet probably because, though its 
leaves and flowers appeared freely, its fruit is 
seldom seen. Why fruit has not appeared, 
whether owing to the isolation of individual 
trees and consequent lack of fertilization, or 
whether other conditions have made it barren, 
has not, we believe, been fully decided. And 
yet the date palm has fruited in California occa- 
sionally, as our columns have shown during the 
last five years. It is probable that lack of fer- 
tilization is the cause. We just notice in an 
essay on fruits by Dr. Sturtevant, of Massa- 
chusetts, that Theophrastus, in the fourth cen- 
tury B. C, observed that palm trees do not 
bear fruit unless the females are fecundated by 
the dust contained in tbe flowers of the male, 
and that in Greece the palm trees raised for 



ornament in the gardens bear no dates, or at 
least never bring them to perfect maturity. 
This is old observation. The old padres should 
have understood the philosophy of date and 
fecundate, and have made their early planta- 
tions accordingly. 

Tbe oldest date palms in the State are those 
which are growing upon the sites of the Missions 
in Southern California. The engraving on this 
page gives a view of one of these, and the use 
of the engraving is suggested by a fitting tribute 
to a pair of these old palms, which we find in 
the Ventura Signal, of last week. The old 
trees and their history are well touched off in 
the following paragraph: 

For many years two large and stately palm 
trees, in what was once the luxuriant garden of 
the old Mission fathers of this place, have been 
admired by Eastern people as the principal 
attraction of San Buenaventura. They are 
about 40 ft. high, and 10 ft. in circumfer- 
ence at the base. Long and graceful fern- 
like leaves brauch out about 30 ft. from the 
ground. They are from seeds planted by the 
Mission fathers, probably in 1786. For nearly 
a hundred years have they stood silent wit- 
nesses of the decay of the native race, many of 
whom, in years gone by, were accustomed to 
carry their branches in religious processions. 
They were in their prime when the Castilian 
from Mexico was attracted to the shores of 
southern California. They saw him accumulate 
broad acres and cattle upon a thousand hills. 
They saw him lose bis proud position and fall 



back before a more aggressive people. After 
nearly a quarter of a century had passed I 
over the heads, and two generations 
bad passed away, they saw the new era 
dawn upon the land about them. On one 
side two large brick blocks were suddenly 
erected. On the other sid5, between them and 
the sea, among their companions, the olive trees 
— nearly as old — the county court house. They 
were large trees in 1846, when Fremont made 
his famous ride. The emigrants of '49, who 
took the southern route from Salt Lake, and 
struck the Pacific first at this point, remember 
them as they stood out against the western sky. 
They are old and substantial evidence of the 
great fertility of our soil, of the genial nature of 
our climate, of the softness of our winds. They 
ought to be cherished and protected. The work 
of human hands, when destroyed, can be re- 
stored. Such a work, when lost, never can 
be. 

The palm shown in the picture is smaller 
than the veterans at San Buenaventura, but 
it is of the same Bpecies, and serves to show the 
general characteristics of the Phanixdactyliftra. 
During recent years there has been quite a dis- 
position to plant date palms, and some very 



handsome groves of young trees may be seen 
in different parts of the State. It remains to 
be seen whether they shall prove of any value 
for fruit bearing. 



Carp in Lake. —Lake county will prove one 
of the best fish-producing districts in America. 
Schwartz & Webber, near Middletown, in Lake 
county, are doing well with carp. They have 
five ponds, the largest covering about one acre, 
stocked with an immense number of small fry. 
They are improving and increasing their ponds, 
and do not expect to rest until they have 14, 
embracing in all 8 to 10 acres of land. They 
have an abundant supply of water from a large 
trout stream (of 40 to 45 degrees in tempera- 
ture), brought in by a ditch, and the flow reg- 
ulated so as to keep the water in the ponds at 
about 80 degrees during the warm season. Tbe 
fish are growing fast, and next season the 
guests at Anderson and Harbin springs — within 
two miles of the ponds — can be supplied with 
fine large fish, transported alive in tanks if 
desired. They have found the low, moist, 
black soil land more favorable for holding 
water in ponds than the higher red soil and 
gravel land — and believe Lake county as good 
as any in tbe State for fish culture. The pro- 
prietors of Anderson springs have taken water 
from tbe stream mentioned above, at a higher 
point, to supply a large pond made upon their 
former croquet grounds. Carp have also been 
placed in the very large pond at Boggs' old mill- 
site, between Glenbrook and Kelsey ville. 



The Cinchona Indnstry. 

Now that we are in the midst of practical ex- 
periments with the cinchonas, and as the Col- 
lege of Agriculture has sent out a number of 
seedlings for test in different parts of the State, 
the interest in the subject of quinine produc- 
tion is a direct one to Californians. We see it 
Btated that the Eastern interest in the subject 
is also growing, not with the hope that cincho- 
nas can be g-own at the East, but that our 
country should do something to ascertain 
whether some of the varied climates within our 
national bofllers cannot do something to aug- 
ment the failing supply of the famous febrifuge. 
There was a bill introduced by Mr. Kelly, of 
Pennsylvania, at the last session of Congress, to 
start an inquiry and experiment under govern- 
ment auspices, into the practicability of cin- 
chona growing. The bill was lost in the crush 
at the close of the session, but it may be ex- 
pected to come up again and will probably re- 
ceive vigorous support at the East, for there 
seems more disposition to look favorably upon 
tests for quinine than upon ventures in tea cul- 
ture. We trust it may prevail, for with the 
evidence now in hand there is reason to believe 
that California should be thoroughly assayed 
for cinchona qualities. 

Cinchona culture in general is progressing. 
The Philadelphia Ledger, drawing its informa- 
tion from foreign sources, says, some of the facts 
are already known to our readers, others are 
new. For 40 years England has been indus- 
triously engaged in establishing bark planta- 
tions ia the upland regions of India and Ceylon, 
the West Indies and wherever it could be ven- 
tured on, and the Dutch have been equally 
busy atod successful in Java. Now supplies 
from these sources are coming regularly to the 
markets in London and Amsterdam, and the 
prices got for these East India barks are pro- 
portionately higher because they yield a better 
percentage of quinine, due to the care in culti- 
vation, selection and preparation. We trust 
this statement is true. It is made without 
qualification and the market rate is an infallible 
test for quality in a material of this kind. It 
has been feared that the quality of bark might 
suffer under cultivation and by change of con- 
ditions, and if this fear can be laid aside it will 
be fortunate. The English authorities have 
published full reports of their long and varying 
series of experiments which finally led to the 
present success, and their scientific journals 
regularly report the results of analyses of the 
last importations. 

The field for the production of quinine seems 
open and not likely to be covered by the enter- 
prises now under way. It is said that some of the 
enterprising planters in Ceylon have gone ahead 
so boldly, and are so confident of their future, 
that they have made calculations for a supply 
that will soon meet the demand, but careful ex- 
perts, such as Mr. Howard, the leading English 
manufacturer of quinine, and the other scientific 
men with whom he is associated in testing the 
various barks sent to London, rather discourage 
any such sanguine hopes, and hold the view 
that the demand is likely to outstrip their ef- 
forts. We trust that the matter may be fol- 
lowed up at tbe next session of Congress and 
that our representatives will fully inform them- 
selves of the results which have already been 
attained here, for these will show the opportu- 
nity for more general efforts and the promise of 
success in them. 



Seedless Fruits. — Dr. E. L. Sturtevant has 
a mostinterestingand wide-reaching studyof the 
subject of seedless fruits in the transactions of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for 
1880, just published. He draws from all 
sources the instances of seedless fruits and ar- 
ranges them with great skill. Afterwards 
there are some pertinent deductions. The mat- 
ter will be worth a permanent place in horticul- 
tural literature. We are glad that Dr. Sturte- 
vant is bringing his untiring research and able 
classification and deduotion to bear upon fruits. 
They have already done valuable service in the 
dairy and in field cultures. 




THE DATE PALM IN CALIFORNIA. 



18 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PRESS 



[July g, 1881. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Ens. 



Oakland to San Leandro. 

Editors Press: — A trip from Oakland to San 
Leandro, is a pleasant one at almost any time, 
but especially so in the summer season, when 
crops are growing and maturing. The strip of 
country between the two places is nearly level, 
with but a slight elevation above tide water. 
From the bay on the south-west to a ridge of 
hills on the north-east, the distance varies per- 
haps from two to four or rive miles. The soil 
varies somewhat in different places. For about 
half the distance from Oakland, it is a heavy 
adobe witli here and there strips of soil that is 
more loamy. The other half towards fSan Le- 
andro, is composed of a rich sandy loam — not 
excelled in any part of the State in quality or 
productiveness. 

The grain crop in this section is very poor, 
especially so toward Oakland, and on the low 
flat lands. On the hills and toward San Lean- 
dro and Haywards it is better, but still much 
below the average, being foul with grass and 
weeds, owing to the excessive and continued 
rains of last winter. Taken as a whole, this may 
be regarded as among the most fertile poitions of 
the State. The climate is cool and moist, and 
well adapted to the growth of vegetables, and 
certain kinds of fruit, while other kinds do not 
succeed. This region is especially the home of 
the cherry and the currant, while apricots and 
plums also thrive well. Peaches grow moder- 
ately well, but the fruit is not so high flavored 
as in warm localities; grapes are not a Buccess, 
and no person of experience attempts to raise 
them. Apples do not succeed as weM as in some 
other localities and experienced orchardists are 
discontinuing their cultivation, while pears do 
somewhat better than apples. All kinds of 
stone fruits seem to thrive, and as for vegeta- 
bles, the country around San Leandro cannot be 
surpassed. Fruits and vegetables are the chief 
products, and have with industry made the pro- 
ducers comparatively rich. 

One sees quite a number of fine places aloug 
the road. Around the neighborhood of Mills 
Seminary, which is snugly nestled near the hills, 
about a mile from the main road, are a number 
of handsome residences with well kept lawns, 
adorned with flowers and shrubbery. The 
grounds around the seminary are extensive and 
laid out with good taste, kept in good order, 
and present a charming scene of floral beauty 
and luxuriance. 

I need not speak of Fruitvalc, just out of 
Oakland, which is noted for its handsome resi- 
dences and grounds, and presents an almost 
continuous line of orchards and gardens. With- 
in four miles of San Leandro the same remark 
is applicable. The road is there, as at Fruit- 
vale, lined with shade trees, and is kept 
sprinkled, which makes it pleasant to tfye trav- 
eler and keeps the dust from settling on the 
fruit and vegetables, so that they are clean and 
in good order for market. 

At Melrose (which is the first station out of 
Oakland), are located the smelting works of the 
Castle Dome Mining and Smelting Co., of New 
York. Ores of gold, silver and lead are brought 
here from various parts of the country, chiefly 
from Arizona, to be smelted. The company own 
several productive mines of silver and galena at 
Castle Dome, which they work with profit. A 
few houses, in which reside the supeiintendent 
and the workmen, constitute the village of Mel- 
rose. There is a fuse factory and a rope-walk 
near here, but the latter I am informed is not 
running at present. 

A little beyond Melrose, Mr. K. P. Clement, 
the lawyer, has a fine place. He devotes much 
attention to tine stock, chiefly thoroughbred 
horses and Jersey cattle. Still further on is 
the farm of Mr. Mathews, which seems to be 
devoted chiefly to grain, hay and stock. Fur- 
ther along on the left of the road is the dairy 
farm of Mr. Christian Bagge, who resides in 
Oakland. Mr. Bagge was not at home, but 
from his foreman I learned that he bad tried 
raising Canary seed with fair success, both for 
seed and as food for stock. Ten acres produced 
about 70 sacks, worth 4 cents per pound, while 
the straw being sweet is readily eaten by stock, 
which they relish almost as well as hay. Fif- 
teen acres raised for hay, produced 35 tons, and 
stock prefer it to wheat hay. He uses the bi- 
sulphide of carbon with success in poisoning 
squirrels. 

Further on to the right is the vegetable farm 
of Mr. A. Jones. He raised 7 acres of peas this 
year that yielded 750 sacks, averaging 100 lbs. 
each, which he sold by contract at §1.50 per 
cwt. He has 80 acres of cucumbers growing, 
contracted for at SI. 50 per cwt. for pickling. 
He has 11 acres of squash peppers, contracted 
for to a pickling house at 2i cts. per lb. They 
produce about 5 tons per acre, but require good 
care and cultivation. He has also about 75 
acres of tomatoes, contracted for at $10 per ton. 
Mr. Jones has had a long experience in raising 
vegetables, and makes it profitable. His crop 
is usually contracted for in advance. 

Still further on, about two miles from San 
Leandro, is the farm and fruit orchard of Mr. 
L. Stone. He has about 150 acres ,of rich gar- 
den soil, kept in a high state of cultivation. He 
is a practical fruit-grower of large experience, 



great industry and good judgment. Next to 
the late \Vm. Meek, his brother-in-law, his 
practical knowledge and experience in fruit 
raising is probably second to none in the State. 
His place is kept clean and neat, and is a model 
of a farm, orchard and garden. I called his 
attention to the essay on cherries delivered be- 
fore the Horticultural Society by W. W. Smith, 
of Vacaville, published June 4th in the Rural 
Press. He took issue with him in regard to 
his recommendation of the Reine Hortense as 
the best cherry for canning. "It is a good 
cherry for canning," said he, "but it is of a 
stunted growth, a poor bearer and unprofita- 
ble to raise." He showed me a number of 
trees of that variety which seemed to verify 
his opinion. He considers the Royal Ann to 
be the coming cherry for canning or for ship- 
ping, and he also praises the Elten highly. The 
Black Tartarian is a good cherry to sell on 
account of fib appearance, but in its eating 
quality it has been overestimated and has had 
its day. 

He has about >• acres of rhubarb (or pie 
plant) in his orchard planted between the rows 
of trees and within about 4 ft. of them. The 
rows of plants are about 3 ft. apart. If planted 
from the seed it yields a crop in two years from 
planting; if the roots are planted, a crop may 
be taken the same year. He cultivates well, 
and manures the plants highly in the fall. From 
G acres he got over $750 worth of the plant this 
year, and it does not seem to interfere with the 
product of the orchard. The crop was sold to 
a dealer. Cherries apd currants seem to be the 
leading and most profitable fruits of this sec- 
tion, and the crops have been fair this season. 
I have spoken of only a few of the many farms 
along the road, and must defer the description 
of other places until another time. 0. E. W. 



Santa Cruz for Fruit-Growing. 

Editors Press: — Please let me answer 
through the Press an inquiry from Mr. Leonard 
Coates, of Vountville (and many others of simi- 
lar import, from different places), about the 
fruit-growing interests of Santa Cruz county. 
Mr. Coates wants to know particularly about 
growing Petite d'Agen prunes and peaches, 
the price of land suitable for their growth, and 
the cost of planting an orchard. 

With regard to growing prunes, I know of no 
trouble so far in any part of the county. The 
trees commence bearing young, and bear regu- 
larly to the full extent of their capacity, and 
the fruit is very rich and nice. They do well 
on all locations so far as tried, from the bay to 
the top of the mountain*. 

There is a good deal of rough, cheap land in 
the county on which they would grow to per- 
fection—land that can be had at from So to $15 
per acre. But there is plenty of good fruit land 
in the hills that can be cultivated easily, that 
can be had at $30 to $40 per acre, that is near 
town, good roads, and good schools and rail- 
roads. 

Every kind of prune and plum that I have 
tried does well here, except the peach plum — 
that does poorly. As for peaches, we can hard, 
ly call Santa Cruz a peach-growing county, 
although some parts grow very good peaches; 
but it is of the hardiest kinds, which do not 
"curl" much or none at all, which are profita- 
ble to grow here. Our summers are rather cool 
for first-class peaches, but the hardy kinds bear 
well and are good for canning, being solid and 
a little tart. 

The cost of planting an orchard here will be 
about $16' per 100 for yearling prunes and peach 
trees, and from $4 to $5 per 100 for preparing 
the ground and setting the trees. There is 
plenty of go6d fruit land for sale here now at 
reasonable rates, and any person wanting land 
here can get the desired information concerning 
the fruit-growing quality by giving me a call, 
as I am well acquainted with the fruit-growing 
interests of the county. M. P. Owen. 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Meeting of the Horticultural Commission. 

The second regular meeting of the Board of 
State Horticultural Commissioners was held in 
this city, June 30th; Pres. C. H. Dwinelle in the 
chair. The following Commissioners were 
present: W. W. Smith, of Napa District; M. T. 
Brewer of Sacramento District; W. B. West of 
San Joaquin District; S. F. Chapin, of the 
Santa Clara District; Matthew Cooke, Chief 
Executive Horticultural Officer, and Pres. C. 
H. Dwinelle, Commissioner for the State at 
large; John H. Wheeler, Sec'y. The minutes 
of the preceding meeting were read and cor- 
rected, to make the regular time for quarterly 
meetings the Thursday preceding the last Fri- 
day of March, June, September and December. 

On call for reports of Standing Committees, 
Mr. Cooke reported his progress in the great 
quarantine work he was engineering. Regard- 
ing this the following resume is given: County 
Commissioners have been appointed in the fol- 
io wing counties: Sacramento, Yolo, Solano, El 
Dorado, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, San Joa- 
quin, Contta Costa, Amador, Santa Cruz, and 
San Bernardino. The Boards of Supervisors — 



the officers upon whom devolves the appoint- 
ment of County Commissioners of Horticulture 
— of the following connties have promised the 
appointment of County Commissioners: Placer, 
Napa, Tuolumne, Los Angeles, Marin, Nevada, 
and Butte. 

Countiee which Refused. 

In response to Mr. Cooke's efforts to get 
Commissioners appointed in Sonoma county, 
informality of the petition was claimed by the 
Supervisors, and the petition refused. In Ala- 
meda county the Supervisors refused outright. 
In all of the counties where Commissioners 
have been appointed, an earnest feeling is man- 
ifested by a large majority of the fruit-growers 
to comply with the requirements of the law, 
and from present indications the workings of 
the Commission will be successful. 

Mr. Cooke further stated that he had con- 
sulted with Mr. Towne, of the C. P. R. R-, 
about the proposed systems of quarantine, and 
the latter bad promised that the company would 
cheerfully do all in their power to see the 
proper laws enforced. In conclusion, Mr. 
Cooke offered for adoption a system of carefully 
prepared quarantine regulations. They were 
discussed at considerable length, and the con- 
clusion arrived at discouraged the adoption of 
these regulations at present; the Board post- 
poning their consideration until a future meet- 
ing. 

Afternoon Session. 

In the afternoon, Commissioner A. Cad well, 
of the Sonoma District, was added to the list 
of Commissioners present. 

Communications from F. Gillett, the Com- 
missioner for the El Dorado District, and from 
Ellwood Cooper, of Santa Barbara, Commis- 
sioner for the State at large, were read. Mr. 
Gillett made reference to the extensive work to 
be performed by the Commission, of the com- 
me ndable action taken by Mr. Cooke, of the 
necessity of a State Entomologist, etc., closing 
with a promise, at the next regular meeting in 
September, to render his report on codling 
moth and insects injurious to fruit and fruit 
trees. Mr. Oillett also excused his absence. 
Mr. Cooper stated his inability to be present at 
this meeting, and promised his report on insects 
infesting olive trees, at the next regular meet- 
iug, viz., in September. 

The following resolution was offered by Mr. 
Dwinelle for consideration by the Board, after 
which it was unanimously adopted. 

In view of the rapid spread of noxious insects injurious 
to fruit and fruit trees, the State Board of Horticulture 
most earnestly calas the attention of fruit-growers to the 
following matters: "Too great care cannot be used in pro- 
curing tree cuttings or scions, whether from foreign 
couutrics or local nurseries, to be sure that they are free 
from scale insects, borers or other like pests. All empty 
fruit packages should be thoroughly disinfected on their 
return from market to the farm, in order to destroy in- 
sects or their germs. To accomplish these desirable re- 
sults, the rules for the protection of fruit and fruit trees 
from the ravages of insects, as prepared by Mr. Id. Cooke, 
Chief Executive Horticultural Officer, are especially com- 
mended. Copies of these rules can be obtained by ad- 
dressing Mr. Cooke, at Sacramento or on application to 
members of the County Boards of Horticultural Com- 
missioners. Active steps should be taken to secure the 
appointment of County Boards where not already made 
as, in general, in co-operation lies our only hope of pre- 
serving our valuable horticultural interests from the 
many threatened dangers. " 

Practical Entomology. 

Following this came a discussion on the feas- 
ibility of informing the public on practical en- 
tomology, and the principal remedies against 
obnoxious insects, by means of a pamphlet or 
descriptive treatise. As a result the following 
resolution was adopted: 

Retolvtd, That the Chief Executive Horticultural Offi- 
cer be requested to prepare for publication, in pamphlet 
form, a brief popular treatise on the more prominent in- 
sects injurious to fruit and fruit trees, giving'* description 
of their appearance, life, history, and the best means of 
their destruction. 

Of other important matters acted on by the 
Board, it was decided to request the State 
Board of Agriculture to make proper provision 
at the next State fair for the prominent exhi- 
bition of the pests destructive of fruit and 
fruit trees, the same to be uuder the supervision 
of the Chief Horticultural Officer, Mr. Cooke. 

To further the quarantine work in the State, 
it was resolved that the Chief Executive Hor- 
ticultural Officer be authorized to appoint local 
resident inspectors in any part of the State 
where needed. 

Again, work was begun for the obtaining of 
an entomologist on this coast, one to consult as 
well as instruct. Mr. Cooke thought the most 
feasible plan for securing immediate results was 
that which had been proposed by President 
Dwinelle, viz. : To educate a young man at the 
University of California for entomological work. 
President Dwinelle explained that the entomo- 
logical correspondence addressed to him at the 
College of Agriculture had assumed such pro- 
portions that it was impossible for him to find 
time to attend to it properly. He had offered 
to hire some one of the students to give a por- 
tion of his time as entomological assistant, and 
to direct and supervise his work on condition 
that the horticulturists would furnish the need- 
ed funds. His estimate was for about $600, to 
make the experiment for a year, including 
needed apparatus, books, etc. Nearly one-half 
of that sum was already subscribed, and he 
hoped that the rest would soon be pledged. A 
valuable foundation might then be laid for the 
needed collection of insects, with notes upon 
their history, and the best means of destroying 
them. 



The Arizona people want a governor who 
will stay in the Territory and attend to its bus- 
iness. Therefore they want General Fremont 
removed to give place to such a man. 



Notes on Irrigation, No. 1. 

G. C. Holman, of Lockford, San Joaquin 
county, read an interesting lecture on the sub- 
ject of irrigation before a union meeting of 
farmers at Lodi last May. We shall give our 
readers the parts thereof which seem to us of 
most general interest: 

There are many inhabited countries where 
the necessary moisture is deficient. This may 
be owing to certain topographic conditions, pro- 
ducing climatic effects, as a deficiency of rain- 
fall, or where it is not satisfactorily distributed ; 
or the population may be so redundant that a 
larger amount of water is required than the 
usual rainfall, whereby to increase horticultural 
and agricultural products. This deficiency and 
supply must be furnished by artificial and me- 
chanical means. This method, or art, we term 
irrigation. 

Irrigation, .though practically new to us, is at 
least as old as Mosaic history, that makes Adam 
the first of irrigators in the Garden of Eden, 
where was located a spring, or cienega, that 
watered the garden. In Europe, Asia, Africa, 
South America and Mexico, it is historic, hav- 
ing an existence of many centuries; and it is 
still cherished and promoted by some of the 
most enlightened nations of the world. Eng- 
land, France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Holland 
and Egypt have complete systems under Gov- 
ernmental control. 

Egypt, practically a rainless land, is noted 
for her fertility and abundant crops. Yet her 
aqueous supply comes hundred of miles from 
the Victoria Nyanza, in equatorial Africa, and 
is applied by artificial means. I well remember 
the wonder and interest awakened in my mind 
in my earliest historic readings, by the descrip- 
tions of her immense irrigation works; of her 
immense reservoirs, often covering areas of 
miles in extent; her canals of solid concrete or 
stone masonry, of the popular interest excited 
by the annual rise of the Nile; the pageantry, 
the ceremonies and festivities observed in the 
opening of the sluices, when a most beautiful 
virgin was offered as a propitiatory sacrifice to 
the spirit of the waters, which were to bless 
and enrich the lanS. And Egypt to-day is not 
less noted for her fertility than in the time of 
the Pharaohs. 

Irrigation in India. 

India, whose climate in some respects is an- 
alogous to our own, prior to British occupation 
had numerous canals, fed by the snows of the 
Himalayas, some of them exceeding 100 miles 
in length and aggregating thousands of miles, 
which had been in use for centuries. And since 
England has assumed control over that country 
the government has expended more than $100, 
000,000 in constructing new works and in re- 
pairing those destroyed in internecine wars. 

As stated by Capt. It. Baird Smith, an officer 
of the English Army and of the corps of en- 
gineers in India, the main trunk of one of the 
new canals built under English auspices, is 453 
miles in length, and with its four great branch- 
es, all navigable like its main trunk for vessels 
of great size, has an aggregate length of 898} 
miles. At the head it is 140 ft. wide on the 
bottom, 170 ft. wide at water surface, and car- 
ries a stream of 10 ft. deep with a current of 4 
miles per hour. The volume of the water is 
6,750cubicft. per second. In addition toits great; 
capacity for irrigation and navigation, it affords 
extensive<watei[power fordriving machinery. And 
this is only one of the many. The effect upon 
the prosperity of the country, even in smaller 
things, is illustrated by the fact that some plan- 
tations of trees set along the canal by the Eng- 
lish to gratify the Eastern love of shade, soon 
repaid them in the sale of timber double the out- 
lay, and timber remaining was estimated at 15 
times the cost of planting. 

Probably no part of the vast expenditures of 
the English government repays so well as that 
upon canals. Returns direct and indirect upon 
some of them are as much as 36 ". per annum. 
Their total average is 7.15% per annum. Their 
effect has been to reclaim from a semi-barbar- 
ous and .vagrant life nearly twelve millions of 
inhabitants, and to make them an industrious, 
contented people. It affords constant employ- 
ment for a population of upwards of 200 to 500 
to the square mile, and in seasons of great 
drouth relieves them from the dangers of fam- 
ine, with which they were formerly visited. 
Produce which cannot be estimated at less than 
$50,000,000 in that country of low 
prices, is placed beyond the contingencies of 
season, andpublic revenues amounting to 
$15,000,000 annually, is permanently protected 
from fluctuations in ordinary times and from 
annihilations during extraordinary ones. 
Irrigation In Italy. 

Canals have had an existence of centuries in 
Italy, where the system is more generally ap- 
plied than elsewhere, and is thoroughly appre- 
ciated although the annual rainfall there equals 
that of the Atlantic States, and two-thirds of 
it falls during the growing period, say between 
April and October of each year, an amount 
greater than our annual rainfall. The area ir- 
rigated is about 1,500,000 of acres, and the 
great cost of some of the works, their distribu- 
tion and application, amounts in one instance 
— that of the Wilan Canal, to $400 per aore. 
These improvements are the work of a vast pop- 



July 9, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL FB1SS. 



1Q 



ulation and of centuries. They consist of heavy 
masonry dams, thrown across mountain tor- 
rents; of revetments of masonry which follow 
the alignment of rivers for miles, in one instance 
that came under my notice of 40 miles, protect- 
ing the canals from errosion of flood without 
and the wear within. Canals paved within to 
prevent their deepening; tunnels under high 
grounds; aqueducts for crossing rivers and val- 
leys; syphons under, over and through canals, 
and this work generally of rock masonry. One 
is astonished at the evident cost and labor. Yet 
the water is all eagerly appropriated by the 
farmer or manufacturer, who would willingly 
pay for more. These canals have greatly en- 
riched the soil and improved the sanitary con- 
dition of the country, to whose productiveness 
they so greatly add. They have enriched the 
land owners and contributed to the support and 
comfort of one of the most densely populated 
districts of Europe. The population of the irri- 
gated lands in Piedmont is 270 to the square 
mile; Lombardy, 390; Lodi, 475. And in what- 
ever country irrigation works exist, the popula- 
tion increases. The holdings are generally 
small, rarely exceeding a few acres; but in 
Italy, Belgium and France, as I have seen, 
three to five crops are annually raised, two 
being in the ground at the same time in differ- 
ent degrees of growth. 

Irrigation in California. 

Perhaps I have said enough to impress upon 
your minds the great esteem and importance in 
which irrigation is held, where it has been the 
longest and most generally practiced. A nearer 
illustration may interest you more. It may be 
found in the more southern counties of our 
State, in Utah and Colorado, where it has been 
practically tested for the last 10 or more years, 
and with the highest degree of profitable suc- 
cess. Los Angeles county heads the list in pri- 
ority of use, and to some extent thorough scien- 
tific application. The Padres of the various 
missions from 80 to 100 years ago, constructed 
canals and acqueducts to convey water to the 
arid plains where were located their religious 
establishments. Although few of the latter 
have survived, their orange, fig and olive or- 
chards and vineyards still bear witness to their 
enterprise, zeal and devotion. The total water- 
shed which supplies the counties of Los Angeles 
and San Barnard i no, under one system, amounts 
to about 500 cubic ft. per second, transmitted in 
126 canals of an aggregate length of 440 miles, 
irrigating 64,490 acres. These canals supply a 
large number of flourishing settlements, the 
population of which are engaged in the cultiva- 
tion of tho vine, the orange, lime, olive and 
other semi-tropical fruit3, besides the usual 
field products, with best pecuniary results. 
And it must be borne in mind that without wa- 
ter artificially applied, much of these naturally 
fertile, but arid lands would be nearly worthless 
for agricultural purposes. Before irrigation 
works were constructed much of the land was 
sold for $2.50 per acre; now it is said to be 
worth $100 per acre, unimproved. 

Mainly within the past ten years the people 
living in the vicinity of Kern, King's, San Joa- 
quin, Merced and Stanislaus rivers, have had 
the foresight and energy to construct canals and 
direct the waters to irrigate the otherwise dry 
and sterile plains. The canals have multiplied 
and flourishing settlements have sprung up 
along the line, adding wealth and population 
to the country. Areas of vines, wheat, barley, 
corn, beans, alfalfa, cotton and other crops 
are grown that astonish even the natives; and I 
was equally astonished at the seemingly fixed 
and prolific crops of the infantile and youthful 
native, and became satisfied there would event- 
ually be no lack of educated and practical irri- 
gators, which the country needs. 

Some of our political economists have pro- 
posed that the drainage or cachcment area of 
the country embraced in what is called the San 
Joaquin and Tulare valleys, opening to the 
north with a downward slope, and the Sacra- 
mento valley opening to the south with a down- 
ward slope, their waters uniting in Suisun bay, 
should be utilized by the construction of grand 
trunk lines, following by an easy grade the line 
of the foothills on the east and west side of the 
drainage center of these valleys, and receiving 
the waters of the various rivers which would 
intersect them. 

It is evident that a work of this magnitude 
could only be undertaken under the auspices of 
the State, as a Government work; but this 
would be in my opinion, antagonistic to the 
best public interests. In the first place, our 
rivers generally leave the foot-hills at right-an- 
gles with the drainage system of the valleys, 
and the topography of their nighborhood as- 
sumes a parabolical form which renders their 
local application to irrigation the most econom- 
ical and convenient. Again, as matters now 
go, jobbery, surpassing that of "slickens" would 
b"j fastened upon the people in the shape of bur- 
densome taxation for years to come. 

It would, however, be well for the State to 
assume the proprietorship of all unappropri- 
ated waters, and supervise their conservation 
and equitable distribution, thus preventing fur- 
ther monopoly and waste by speculators or im- 
provident claimants. 

I approve in general terms (though with ex- 
ceptions) of the work that is now being prose- 
cuted under the supervision of our State En- 
gineer, in the various departments to which he 
has been assigned. 

Especially important to the people of the 
State is the subject of drainage and irrigation; 
and the facts elucidated by the instrumental 
investigations now and for the past two years 
in progress, will give us data upon which indi- 



vidual and State policy may be founded. 
While some portions of our State have availed 
themselves of the benefits 0/ a water supply, 
very little active interest is at present evinced 
by our people; in fact it amounts to apathy. 
And this in the face of an abundant and cheap 
supply at our command. Various spasmodic 
efforts have been made at different times in 
that direction, but they have all evaporated 
into evanescent space. We came pretty near 
being struck by lightning when the Mokelumne 
Ditch and Irrigation company was incorporated; 
but that, like its predecessors, rests in — pieces. 

The cause of these failures is to be traced to 
the impecuniosity of the projectors, want of 
general co-operation, or the game of the big fish 
eating the little ones — like the autocrats of the 
gravel road exacting tribute from the outside 
barbarian, who cheerfully pays (of course) for 
the privilege of leaving his shekels with his 
Stockton cousin, or his respect and homage at 
the kingly court of San Joaquin. 

Another cause among us for indifference is the 
fact that in the last decade, from our improved 
methods of agriculture, we have had no general 
failure of cereal crops; and the impression gains 
among some, that irrigation for these lands is 
not necessary. Shall we remind such of former 
barren years, 1864 and 1877, or of individual 
failures when the aggregated loss would have 
built sufficient works to have rendered your 
crops certain; or shall I ask my brother farmer 
if he expects to fatten a hog on one-fourth or 
one-half ration ? Growing plants, as you know, 
contain from 70% to 95% of water. To the ex- 
tent then that water supplies the necessary es- 
sential of a growing plant, it is actual nutri- 
ment. Water also holds in suspension all the 
fertilizing elements that enter into the construc- 
tion and constitution of the plant, and it is m ly 
in the shape of water that the constituents of 
plant-life are disseminated. 

Whenever, therefore, the supply is deficient, 
the plant is stunted and fails to attain a healthy 
condition. In the progress of time, also, other 
crops will be grown which require larger 
amounts of water. To meet the requirements 
here upon our sun-parched plains, it is neces- 
sary we should have water sufficient to produce a 
healthy growth, and bring the plant to matur- 
ity. We point with pride to what our bottom 
lands can do under favorable circumstances, 
yielding five crops of alfalfa in a season, aggre- 
gating 10 to 12 tons to the acre; or two crops, 
say one of potatoes and one of corn may be raised 
off the same ground in a single season. But 
these must not be flood years, or of drouth. 
In the one case we suffer from an excess of a 
good thing, and in the other, like the Good Tem- 
plars of the plain, we wish for more. 

(To Be Continued.) 



3f|EEp \hd Wool. 



Wool Trade of the Half Year. 

We have received a copy of the wool report 
of E. Grisar & Co., of San Francisco, for the 
six months ending June 30, 18S1, and reproduce 
it for the information of our readers: 

The wool season opened here in the face of an 
exceedingly dull market in the East, prices there 
being nominal, and manufacturers pursuing the 
the close policy of buying raw material only as 
they needed it, so that it was generally expected 
here that prices would open correspondingly 
low, which as usual, turned out to be a fallacy, 
as in fact our prices ruled higher during the 
whole season than the relative rates in the East. 
Owing mainly to new railroad facilities, and to 
the favorable condition of the weather, wools 
arrived earlier and in larger quantities than in 
former years, showing receipts on the 7th of 
May, of 33,646 bags, againt 22,953 the year 
1880. Up to the middle of April the market 
continued without any general activity, and 
prices were nominal. The arrival of the usual 
number of Eastern buyers, although they op- 
erated cautiously, gave a better tone to the 
trade, and by the end of the month, the market 
showed signs of activity, large sales being ef- 
fected at 20 to 21 cents for good conditioned 
San Joaquin, and 17J to 20 cents for bright 
Southern Coast, having a few burs. These 
figures have varied very little during the season. 

Northern wool met with marked favor, being 
mostly taken on arrival, and the market soon 
became extremely active in this line. Prices of 
first arrivals ruled from 26 £ to 27 cents for good 
average, to 27 to 28£ cents for light. But tho 
demand seeming to be larger than the supply, 
competition soon drove the prices to 30 to 31 
cents for choice, and really fancy lines of Men- 
docino and Humboldt brought as high as 32.> 
cents. The average condition of the clip com- 
pares favorably with previous years. 

Oregon. — Receipts of this staple have been 
very large. So far, the wool received is almost 
altogether from the Eastern range. The demand 
has been active, opening at 25 cents for choice, 
and 22 cents for fair, competition soon raised 
the prices to 26@2S cents for choice, and 23@25 
for light medium, the heavy being neglected at 
21 to 23 cents. Few Valley wools have been 
received so far, not enough to give any reliable 
quotation. 

Scoured Wool. — Scouring here has become an 
important feature in the wool trade, and during 
the past year the amount exported in a clean 
state has largely increased. 



Wool Production. 



Weight of Bags: 

66,235 bags 21.195,200 lbs. 

Shipped exclu- 
sive of above.. 1,276,229 " 



Total 22,471,429 

On hand, Jan. 1, 
about 2,000,000 



Receipts at San Francisco: 

January 702 Bags 

February 305 " 

March 3,347 " 

April 23,540 " 

May 26,152 " 

June 12,189 " 

Total 66,235 V Grand Total. 28, 790, 709 

Comparison of Monthly Receipts. 



24,471,429 

Oregon, 14,091 

bags 3,935,480 

Foreign, 1,276... 383,800 



1881. 

January 702 

February 305 

March 3,347 

April 23,540 

May 26.152 

June 12.189 



1880. 
243 
211 
1,838 
16,400 
24,828 
18,081 



1879. 
360 
181 
1,678 
18,588 
29.796 
10.307 



1878. 
1,084 
787 
788 
15,631 
28,057 
12,526 



1877. 
540 
338 
8.948 
34,386 
30,523 
11,924 



Total 66,235 61.601 60,910 58,873 86,659 

Comparison of Exports. 

January 1st to June 30th, 1877 29.855,198 lbs. 

January 1st to June 30th, 1878 19,120,316 " 

January 1st to June 30th. 1879 23,291,472 " 

January 1st to June 30th. 1880 12,234,332 " 

January 1st to June 30th, 1881 21,124,230 " 

Exports: 

During the six months ending June 30th, 1881. 

January 31. Railroad from San Francisco 1,455,340 lbs. 

Feb'y 4. Ship "Imperial" 207,840 " 

28. Railroad from San Francisco 2,03-1,580 " 

March 31. Railroad fiom Han Francisco 676,600 " 

April 30. Railroad from San Francisco 2,184,100 " 

May 31. Railroad from San Francisco 4,505,630 " 

June 2. Ship "Seminole" 1,316,859 " 

21. Steamer "Colima" 2,573 " 

25. Ship "Eliza McNeil" 1,911,659 " 

30. Railroad from San Francisco 5,550,820 " 

19,848,001 " 

Shipped from outside of San Francisco by rail. 1,276,229 " 



21,124,230 " 

Included in exports there were 921,350 lbs. 
pulled wool, 1,629,850 lbs. scoured wool. 

The weights of receipts and exports are gross. 
The usual tare of bags received is about three 
lbs. each; on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 lbs. 
each. 

Comparison with Former Tears. 

California Fleece. 

1875 23,642.880 lbs. 

1874 19,355,682 



California Fleece. 

1881 24,471,429 lbs 

1880 20,349,915 " 

1879 20,651.039 " 

1878 18,842,920 " 

1877 28,289.640 " 

1876 27.895.314 " 



1873. 14,658,497 

1872 12,607,280 

1871 13.381,390 



The Women's Enterprises. 

Silk culture under the auspices of the ener- 
getic ladies of the California Silk Culture Asso- 
ciation, is being pushed through its experimen- 
tal stages in various parts of the State, and the 
local papers are furnishing much interesting in- 
formation of the progress attained. We shall 
cite two cases as follows: 

The Santa Cruz Courier- Item says: Mrs. A. 
J. Donzel and Mrs. O. J. Lincoln, on Church 
street, are conducting experiments in silk cult- 
ure. About two months ago Mrs. Donzel took 
charge of about 5,000 eggs and Mrs. Lincoln 
1.000. All that is required to hatch the eggs 
is a temperature of from 70 to 75 degrees, 
which must be maintained with but little varia- 
tion during the period of worm life. The 
almost microscopical creatures are no sooner 
born than they commence to feed on mulberry 
leaves, which continues without cessation^ for 
six weeks, when they are prepared to spin 
their cocoons. The young worms are placed in 
wooden trays of any convenient size and sup- 
plied with fresh leaves three times a day in 
their early growth, but when it is nearly the 
spinning season, new leaves are required as 
often as once in four hours. The "nasty 
worms" encase themselves in their wonderful 
silken shrouds in a few days' time, and within 
ten days from the appearance of the first co- 
coon, the last delicate, glossy envelope has 
been spun and wound from the- marvelous re- 
sources of the mulberry eaters. In this state 
of suspended animation the stay is short, and 
unless the chrysalis is "choked" the cocoons 
are soon pierced by the moths, which enjoy a 
brief existence, lay their eggs and die. In the 
experiments conducted by these ladies, from 
80% to 90% of the eggs hatched. A few worms 
died at all stages of existence, as often from 
mistakes in their care, incident to amateurs, as 
from natural causes, but now they have about 
600 perfect cocoons from each 1,000 eggs. The 
mulberry leaves for feeding were secured from 
trees on premises occupied by Mr. Donzel (the 
old Boston homestead), and from other trees 
about town, of which there are fine specimens 
in the yards of Mrs. Blackburn, and Messrs. 
Tierney, Field, Kirby and Longley, and per- 
haps others. The cuttings were saved by both 
Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Donzel, and next season 
they will have a fine supply of young trees for 
transplanting. Until disposal is made of the 
cocoons, or the eggs if devoted to that purpose, 
an estimate cannot be made of the profit in the 
business. These ladies, who by the way have 
by no means discarded masculine assistance in 
their operations, have been rewarded by wit- 
nessing the exceedingly interesting phases of 
silkworm life, and the cocoons produced are of 
beautiful quality and fine size, so that the ex- 
periments may be considered a success. When 
undertaken as a business industry, a million 
worms would not require more thought and 
care than is demanded by a thousand. We be- 
lieve theso remarkable spinners will prove a 
prolific source for "pin-money," and that their 
care may afford a means of securing a liveli- 
hood to many invalids and unfortunates, if it 
does not become a profitable industry. 



The San Rafael Journal says: Mrs. Dr. I 
Lain is very busy with her cocoonery, ovei 
Gordon's bank. She has about 5,000 worms, 
all busy in various stages, from tbose wander- 
ing about in search of locations, through the 
finest floss, to the finished cocoons, and the 
emerging moths. Mrs. McLain has found that 
the experiment involves a prodigious amount of 
labor, and that the actual business differs from 
all the theories of books. The worms are very 
large, healthy and vigorous. Mrs. Austin, 
Mrs. Downing, Mrs. Hooper and a few others 
are experimenting at their homes with worms 
from the same invoice of eggs. They will be 
taken to the State Society's rooms when the 
cocoons are ready. Mrs. McLain's success so 
far is very encouraging, and shows that the in- 
ducements are great for any who think of em- 
barking in the business. 



TrfE VlNEYW>. 



Meeting of the Viticijltiiral Commission. 

The Board of State Viticultural Commission- 
ers met Friday, July 1st, at the offices in this 
city; present, Charles A. Wetmore, Charles 
Krug, J. de Barth Shorb, Isaac De Turk, R. 
B. Blowers, George West, G. G. Blanchard, 
and the Secretary, J. H. Wheeler; Mr. Wet- 
more, Vice-President, presiding in the absence 
of Mr. Haraszthy, who attended later in the day. 

During the morning session there was an in- 
formal discussion and examination of viti- 
cultural matters. 

Mr. West submitted for examination sam- 
ples of wines and brandies of the vintage of 
1880, the most interesting among which was a 
Zinfandel claret, a white wine of the West's 
White Prolific variety, a Muscat of Frontignan, 
and new distillations of the White Prolific. All 
of these were products of the El Pinal vine- 
yard, near Stockton. The Zinfandel attracted 
attention on account of its fine body, flavor and 
color, and especially because many have as- 
sumed that 

Light Dry Winea 
Of fine quality could not be produced in that 
region. The alcoholic strength measured 9.9%. 
The soil of the vineyard is a deep black loam, 
underlaid with rich marl deposits. The Fron- 
tignan was from the variety known as the Mus- 
cat Blanc, which produces the finest wines of 
Frontignan, near the Mediterranean Sea — or, 
rather did produce them before the destruction 
of that region by the phylloxera. The new 
brandy was of surprising quality. The West's 
White Prolific is a vine so named because its 
true name is unknown at present, and to pre- 
vent confusion. It is a prolific bearer, produces 
a fine, agreeable white wine, and a brandy 
which resembles the finest types of pure Cognac. 
It came to Mr. West in a collection from Boston 
many years ago, and he has been unable to 
trace its name. It is a variety that is destined 
to become famous. 

Mr. Wetmore exhibited grafts of this year 
upon iritis Californica roots, also young seedlings 
of Riparia and Californica, from seed sown this 
year. The grafts illustated three 

Systems of Grafting, 
Viz. : One on a seedling Californica, raised last 
year at Berkeley, the graft being a Mataro; the 
second being an Orleans Riesling on a section of 
wild root taken from the hills of Lake county — 
eight or ten inches long; the third a Orenache, 
grafted into the side of a small piece of wild 
root — a test graft intended to determine 
whether economy may be practiced in material 
for root-grafting. These specimens all showed 
vigorous growth, and fully demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of the Board the value and impor- 
tance of the wild vine of this State for grafting, 
stockt 

Samples of insects developed under glass by 
the Secretary, from germs sent by Ellwood 
Cooper, were examined; also, specimens of fun- 
goid disease on foliage, canes and fruit, pre- 
sented by Mr. J. H. Drummond, of Glen Ellen, 
Sonoma county. 

Afternoon Session. 
On the opening of the afternoon session of 
the Board, the necessity and best means of ob- 
taining viticultural statistics, was considered, 
Prominent among the means devised was that 
suggested by Mr. Krug, who recounted the 
practical experiences of the St. Helena wine- 
growers in their success with this system: It 
is to get up proper blanks, and have them sent 
around by men employed for this purpose. This 
plan was adopted by the Board, and pursuant 
to this plan, each commissioner for a district 
becomes authorized to expend $50 in thus gath- 
ering information on the vineyard statistics of 
his district. The blanks for this purpose to be 
made out under the direction of the Executive 
Committee. 

It was unanimously decided to isssue, in 
future, treatises on the various vine pests, rem- 
edies, translations on vine culture, etc., to be 
prepared under the direction of the chief execu- 
tive officer and the Committee on Phylloxera, 
vine pests and diseases of the vine. These to 
be published from time time, in pamphlet form, 
and finally incorporated in a bound report at 
the end of the year. These same pamphlets 
will be circulated free to those of the public 
desiring them. 

An extended discussion of the value of the 
University to the agriculture of the State fol- 
lowed an informal report from the Committee 
(Continued on Page 21.) 



20 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 9, 1881. 




Questions for Subordinate Granges. 



Bro. Eshbaugh, lecturer of the National 
Grange, has issued bis document to the lecturers 
of subordinate Granges, proposing subjects for 
discussion during approaching meetings. He 
says of his propositions: 

These documents are intended to assist you 
in your duties as Lecturer of your Grange. 
The educational advancement in the subordinate 
Granges, depends largely upon the efforts of the 
Lecturers. 

Name the question at a previous meeting, to 
be considered at the next. Give thought and 
study to each question, so as to become familiar 
with the subject. In presenting your views, 
solicit general discussion. 

Subjects for July. 

Question la.— Haw best to preserve summer fruits and 
1 c«etables for winter use? 

Suggestions. — Best method considering health 
and economy. How best to preserve their fla- 
vor? What temperature keeps it best and long- 
est? Our worthy sisters should take a deep in- 
terest in this question. 

Question 14.— Transportation; how does it affect the 
fannere? 

Suggestions. — Agriculture furnishes 80% of 
inland commerce. On every dollar of extor- 
tionate rates farmers pay 80 cents. A railroad 
may cost SI, 000,000. Reasonable dividends on 
this amount for profits would be right. But 
corporations add by adulterated stock — "water- 
ed —from 40% to 100%, then claim dividends, 
say, on $1,800,000 instead of $1,000,000. 
Hence we pay $1.80 for §1.00 worth of services. 
Consolidated capital in the hands of corpora- 
tions is used to oppress agriculture and all 
other industry. Profits on agriculture are re- 
duced to the average of one per cent, per annum 
on capital and labor, while corporations make 
from 25% to 50%. and even 100%. How un- 
justly is the great wealth produced by the 
farmers distributed ! 



Worthy Lecturer's Points. 

W, L. Wm. Johnston is on his travels, and 
many subordinate Granges will no doubt be 
aided by his presence and stirring words. At 
Stockton last week he made an address at a 
harvest feast which was reported by the Inde- 
pendent. We give the following paragraphs 
which comprise but a small part of the good ad- 
vice given his hearers: 

Farming is a profession and it required as 
much time and talent to achieve success iu it 
as in other professions. In fact a farmer must 
be a business man and a scientific man, too, to 
be a success. He must take account of his sur- 
roundings and use them. If he does not do 
this he will fall behind his fellows and will be 
compelled to give way to better men. It takes 
strict, practical economy to make the farm self- 
sustaining. The farm should produce its own 
bacon and hams, and should have a place where 
both can be properly cured and preserved. De- 
tails are generally too much neglected by farm- 
ers; and this is more generally true of Califor- 
nia than of any other country. They do not 
like to be bothered with small things pertaining 
to the household. They prefer to live from a 
grocery store, rh many instances, instead of 
from the farm. 

Farmers Paying Tribute. 

The lecturer took a trip to Sonoma recently 
and there were on the boat a large number of 
vegetable peddlers; and as soon as the boat 
touched the wharf they up with their poles and 
their baskets and away they went over the hills, 
carrying vegetables to farmers. This beats car- 
rying coals to Newcastle. Think of it; and of 
the tribute these farmers paid. There was, 
first, the man who raised tbc vegetables; then the 
freights on them to market; then the profits of 
the commission merchant; then freight again 
away from market; then fare for the peddlers — 
for that too had to be paid by the consumers; 
then the profit to the peddler— all this tribute 
the farmers had to pay, when by setting aside a 
few acres each and giving them a little atten- 
tion, they could have much fresher, better veg- 
etables, and at one-fifth the cost. Was it tru^ 
that San Joaquin farmers did the same thing? 
Were they, too, patronizing the Chinese who 
float, and tote and drive the products of the 
soil about the country, becauee producers are 
too proud to produce them for themselves. 
Do Not Buy What You Can Raise. 

If your farm does not pay it is your fault. 
No place in the world compares with California 
for wheat fields and orchards and vineyards and 
pasturage, and it is no fault of the farm if it does 
not produce well, no fault of the farm if China- 
men supply farmers with vegetables that the 
farm could better produce. It too often bap- 
pens that the farmer lives outside his farm, and 
expects the farm to support him— that is, he 
buys all he eats and looks to the farm to pay for 
it. Cases were instanced in which, year after 
year, this was done, and when, after the mar- 
ket day bills were paid, nothing was left. It 
was store bills and butcher bills and grocery 
bills and vegetable bills — possibly other bills — 
that ruined farmers, juBt because they did not 
raise what they could. Old times, when farms 
were wholly self-sustaining, were better than 



such a state of affairs. Farmers tried too often 
to live like townspeople — they fgave too many 
notes, spent too much time at cross roads and 
in deadfalls, and did not attend to their busi- 
ness. 

The Need of Farmers. 
Farmers needed to invest more money ju- 
diciously on their farms, instead, as was some- 
times the case, in town lots. They shonld 
make improvemnets. Should build barns with 
all conveniences attached and make home pleas- 
ant. They should use more tact and judge- 
ment than was often shown. Even in making 
good bread the housewife found it necessary to 
stir in brains and judgment, and farmers needed 
more brains and judgment put into the soil with 
their seed to make fanning a good pursuit. 
They needed to mingle more with each other 
and to swap and distribute brains among them- 
selves. The Grange was the best place for that. 
By imparting what each has all will grow and 
be benefited. All had heard of the "Little 
farm well tilled. " It was a good thing. That 
and the "Little wife well willed" would always 
result in at least the "Little barn weU filled." 
The ladies, too, needed to be taught their part, 
but he was not an adept at that and would 
leave it. He would remark, however, that 
some mothers were fond of nice-looking young 
men — those white-handed, smooth-faced young 
men, who never go out in the sun. The young 
ladies, too, were apt to favor such beaux. It 
was all well enough for young people in town, 
but farmers' wives and daughters ought to look 
for something else. He would not like to see 
them marry solely for money and for farms 
and stock — those things were all well enough, 
and he would advise the girls never to fall in 
love with one who had not something of them 
all; but the man himself to be loved — the true 
farmer — was more than houses and lands and 
flocks and herds. 

St. Helena Grange and the Railroad Com- 
mission. 

Editors Press: -At a meeting of St. Helena 
Grange, held on June 18th, the enclosed resolu- 
tions were passed, and the writer requested to 
furnish you with a copy of the same. — H. J. 
Lkwelmng, Sec'y St. Helena Grange: 

WHBKEAJL The railroad commissioners appointed by the 
State of < 'alifomia, for the purpose of regulating freights 
and fares, and check the encroachments and exactions of the 
railroad companies, and for the protection of the farming, 
mercantile and industrial interests of the State, have failed, 
tor reasons better known to themselves, to afford the relief 
which was justly expected of them; and 

Wh kkeas. The record shows that Gen. Stoneman. a mem- 
ber of that commission, has fought manful]) to redress the 
wrongs inflicted upon the people by the rraspiug railroad 
monopolies; therefore be rt 

Kemlvtd. By St. Helena Orange. P. of H . that lien. Stone- 
lnau is entitled to the gratitude and commendation of the 
shipping and traveling interests of the State for his bold. 
Arm and incorruptible stand in his action as a member of 
that commission. 

RtiHtlvnl, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to Gen. 
Stoneman. and that they he published in the California 
Patron and Ki rai. IMM, .1 Lewelliug. ('has. A. Storev. 
S. T. Pellet. Committee. 



The (Grangers' Shipping Arrangements — 
Some time since the fact was mentioned in the 
Patron that the Grangers' Business Association 
of this city had purchased a site for a warehouse 
just above the railroad slip at Benicia, and de- 
signed ultimately to build thereon. Bro. 
Adams, the manager of the association informs 
us that the plans for the structure are in hand, 
and that the contract for putting up the build- 
ing will be let in a few days. He says that it 
is the intention of the directors to have the 
warehouse completed on or before the 25th of 
this month. The intention is ultimately to 
have a storehouse, with a capacity at least 
equal to 50,000 tons. The manager says the 
association will be read)- to receive consign- 
ments of produce or storage on or before the 1st 
of August. — Patron. 



CALIFORNIA. 

COLUSA. 

Crops. — Sun, July 2; We are satisfied that 
the State of California will not have half the 
wheat she had last year, and hence there will 
not be as great a surplus as we had after lait 
year's harvest, and there are a great many more 
sbip;i on the road out here, and the good prices 
prevailing will head others this way. We 
therefore confidently expect better prices. Our 
county will not have half as much as last year 
— or over half. In company with Col. Hagar 
we went to Chico last Saturday. Going up we 
crossed the river at Butte City and returning 
crossed at Jacinto. There are but very few 
fields of good wheat on either route near the 
road. Hon. John Boggs has about 400 acres of 
white Towselle on the east side of the road, on 
his home place, which is the best wheat by far 
— for a rieid of any size — we have seen this sea- 
son, and on the west side of the road his 
Proper is good also. From Butte City, almost 
to Dayton, the grain was pretty mnoh all 
drowned out. There were some fields, sown 
again after the flood, but most of them did not 
seem to succeed well. John Crouch has, per- 
haps, a couple of thousand acres mostly on the 
Parrott grant — in Butte county — that is very 
good, but not as good as the same land pro- 
duced last year. He had to sow twice. The 
northern and western part of the Parrott grant 
was drowned out and not much of it was re- 
sown, We went up on the line between the 



Parrott and Pratt grants, and saw but very 
little grain on the latter where last year it was 
magnificent. Then the Dayton country, that 
has never failed, was not nearly np to the 
average, and was a long way below last year. 
There was a little good wheat between Dayton 
and Chico, but even that will be at least one- 
third short. Returning by the other route we 
find things ho better. Dr. Glenn has but little 
wheat along the road. What he bas is back, 
and we understand that he does not expect half 
his last year's crop. Some days before we 
crossed at Colusa and went np the east side of 
the river to Princeton. There is a considerable 
qnantity of very excellent wheat along this 
road. In fact it was nearly all good, but this 
district of country is not large. We hear 
about the same reports from other portions of 
the county, and of neighboring counties. There 
is, however, a very great amount of land put to 
summer-fallow this spring, and with a favor- 
able season Colusa will be likely to have the 
largest crop next year she ever had. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Carp Farming. — Martinez Gazette., July 2: 
We made a call a few days since at Mr. Dickin- 
son's little carp farm near Concord, where he 
has four small ponds, supplied by artesian water, 
in which he is prosecuting the beginnings, as it 
were, of his fish hatching and raising here ; as 
upon the 10 acres of land which he occupies, 
and is about to purchase, there is sufficient space 
and he has ample water supply from his wells 
to raise several hundred thousand fish every 
year, besides growing alfalfa enongh to feed a 
small dairy herd of cows, and raising, with his 
facilities for irrigation, a large crop of mar- 
ket garden vegetables. One of the artesian 
wells delivers a constant two-inch stream of 
water, two ft. above the surface ; and this is 
many times more than he has present use for, 
to keep his ponds full and running off through 
the waste pipes. Each of the ponds, which 
have a depth of from 8 or 10 inches to 1\ or 3 
It., is so arranged that the water can be drawn 
entirely off, and the fish changed from one to 
another, as convenience or propagation require- 
ments may dictate. In the spawning pond Mr. 
Dickinson thinks he has about 15,000 young 
fish of this season's hatching, and ranging from 
' inch to 2 inches in length, and the larger por- 
tion of them will grow to 5 or 6 inches this sea- 
son. In the larger pond he has about 1,400 of 
last year's hatching, which will now average a 
half pound each in weight. The fish gain much 
faster in size and weight after the second year 
than before, and there are a few of three years 
old in one of the ponds, which exceed 2 ft. in 
length and >; lbs. in weight. The yearlings are 
sufficiently large for pan fish, and are of de- 
licious flavor, as we are prepared to affirm from 
actual test on those given us for the purpose by 
Mr. Dickinson. As a business, where there is 
a demand for the stock, or facilities for getting 
the fish to market, carp raising properly con- 
ducted can hardly fail to be profitable, as the 
fish feed largely on the vegetation of the ponds, 
its quality and nutritious value depending of 
course upon the nature of the soil and the qual- 
ity of the water ; but if nothing is furnished 
from the pond, the coat of feeding the fish will 
be small compared with the quantity and qual- 
ity of meat produoed. There are a great many 
places in the county where carp farming could 
be profitably followed ; and there is hardly a 
farm, where there is a small spring or windmill, 
but will furnish the means of raising enough for 
domestic use. We hear that Messrs. Pice, 
Hemme, Wood, Elliott, Marsh, RuBsellman, and 
many other residents of the county, are pre- 
paring or have prepared carp ponds, the stock 
for which they have engaged of Mr. Dickinson. 

MENDOCINO. 

Big Gooseberries. — Ukiah l)evwcrat: Ukiah 
valley can challenge the State to beat the goose- 
berries raised here, both in size and flavor. Mr. 
N. Wagonseller, who is our most enterprising 
and energetic horticulturist, has made the 
raising of gooseberries a specialty for the past 
few years, and now he can boast of having 
raised the largest berries of that kind ever pro- 
duced in the valley, and, we think, in the State. 
On Friday last he exhibited to our gaze, and 
made us a present of, a double handful of them, 
the largest of which measured 3g by 34. inches, 
and it only took 32 of them to weigh a pound 
They are of the (,»ueen Victoria variety. Who 
can beat them ! 
MERCED. 

*From Grain to Fruit. — Valley Aryan, July 
2: M. D. Atwater, one of our most successful 
wheat farmers, bai planted this year about 40 
acres in the choicest varieties of grapes on the 
high plain lands of his home farm, and is try- 
ing the experiment of raising grapes and other 
fruits without irrigation. The ground was 
plowed deeply and well pulverized before plant- 
ing out the cuttings and since planting the 
ground has been cultivated with a plow, culti- 
vator and hoe at regular intervals, by which 
means the moisture has been kept up and the 
young vines are thrifty, making a satisfactory 
growth. Mr. Atwater expresses confidence in 
the success of his experiment, which we hope 
will be fully up to his expectations. He has 
a few acres about his dwelling devoted to or- 
chard, vineyard, kitchen and flower garden, 
watered from a reservoir suppiled by raising 
water by windmill, and produces some of the 
most choice fruits and vegetables grown in the 
county, and if he succeeds in demonstrating the 
practicability of raising grapes upon the dry 
plains without irrigation, he will have accom- 
plished a great deal in developing the value of 
our soils, Mr, Atwater carries on a wheat 



farm of 8,000 acres, a distance of six to nine 
miles from his residence, and yet finds time to 
look after his little home farm "of 3,000 or 4,000 
acres in wheat, a band of sheep, a well tilled 
garden, orchard and vineyard of four or five 
acres, from which we have seen as fine speci- 
mens of tigs, peaches, grapes and other fruits 
as can be grown in the State. 
MONTEREY. 

Crops. — Castroville Aryus, July 2: In com- 
pany with Messrs. Jordan and Casady we took 
a drive into the country last Tuesday to see 
the crops and to witness the working of the 
straw-carrying attachment for a threshing ma- 
chine lately invented by the Crane brothers. 
It is attached to a separator at Mr. Potter's 
place, about six miles from town, and while 
there we saw it subjected to a thorough test, 
and there is no doubt of its being a complete 
success. We hope the boys will make some- 
thing out of it. We were not favorably im- 
pressed with the looks of the crops, the wheat 
in particular, most of the barley looking very 
well. Very little of the wheat seems to be 
afflicted with rust, but has failed to mature 
from lack of moisture or other cause. One 
field in particular, a small distance off, had the 
appearance of being No. 1, the wheat standing 
breast high, the heads large and handsome, 
but had very little in them. Potatoes also 
looked rather poor. 

The Tablk Lands —Salinas Democrat : The 
table lands north and northwest of this town 
have not this year kept up their reputation as 
grain producers. The mid-winter rains doubt- 
less were the cause, leaving a crust on the sur- 
face which pinched the stalks of the growing 
grain, and kept the ground cold. It was ex- 
pected that the "latter rains" would have 
changed those conditions, but, as they did not 
come, hence the comparative failure. It is too 
late now, but we Hazard the opinion that a vig- 
orous harrowing made when the spring set in 
would have remedied the mischief. In this 
connection we mention the appearance of wild 
oats in unwanted quantity in the fields alluded 
to. They are "weeds" and as they have al- 
ready dropped their seeds, the only effectual 
way of clearing the land of them must be a 
double plowing — one in the nature of a summer 
fallow and the' other after tbey have sprouted 
and in preparation for sowing the crops which 
are to occupy the land. 

NAPA. 

Oranges in Napa Valley. — The Calittogian 
of late date on this subject mentions the fact 
that T. J. Tully, located in the hills two miles 
southwest of Calistoga, has 50 orange trees three 
years from the bud on four-year-old trees, mak- 
ing them now seven years old. Twenty of the 
trees are bearing this summer, and next year 
the whole number will be produciug (fruit. 
These trees, the owner says, have never been 
frost-bitten, nor even slightly; and he therefore 
expects to be entirely successful in his efforts to 
raise this species of fruit here. Considering 
that his trees escaped injury last winter, it is 
not probable that he will be troubled with frost 
any in the future. 

SAN BENITO 

The Grain Yikid. — Hollister Advance, 
July 2 : The harvest of the grain crop com- 
menced in this county about ten days ago, and 
is progressing rapidly. But little threshing 
has been done as yet. Owing to the fine grow- 
ing weather which has prevailed of late, the 
crop yield throughout this entire section will 
be much larger than was looked for two months 
ago. Grain that was early sown, is in all parts 
of the county, yielding handsomely, even 
larger than last season. The late sown gvain, 
of which there is much in this county, is, how- 
ever, turning out very poor, in rome localities 
being almost an entire failure. A careful esti- 
mate shows that the total yield will be from 
one-fifth to one fourth smaller than for the sea- 
son of 1880. 
SONOMA. 

The Wool Sales, — Cloverdale Reveille: The 
wool sales this season did not create as much 
excitement as usuaL The clip is lighter in 
weight but superior in quality. So far this 
month there has been shipped from the depot 
2,950 bales or nearly 1,000,000 lbs. On the 
14th, J. F. Hoadley forwarded eight carloads 
of this staple, and other parties the same num- 
ber, making 16 car loads in all. Shaw, Bow- 
man &. Co. and E. Grisar & Co. purchased prob- 
ably tbree-fourths of the wool sold here, paying 
on an average 30 cents per pound. C. T ravers 
of Mendocino county, had the most wool of any 
individual who came to this market, over 100 
bales, from which he realizes nearly $8,000. 
According to the number of sheep, Zuver & 
Truitt had the best yield, their clip amounting 
to nearly 30 bales. The sheep from Mrs. 
Moyle's place yielded nearly five pounds per 
head. The wool maket having been good for 
the last few years, the ranchers are generally 
out of debt and are prosperous. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

Carp.— Stockton Herald, June 27: W. L. 
Overbiser has attained very gratifying results 
in his experiment in fish culture. Mr. Overhi- 
ser uses an engine for raising water for his bouse, 
stables, and for irrigating bis garden and or- 
chard. The water for irrigation is pumped 
into a reservoir, or pond, on his ground, fie 
said reservoir being made by budding a circu- 
lar embankment, 150 ft. in diameter, of a hight 
sufficient to give a depth of water of 7 ft. above 
the general level of the place. In this reservoir 
Mr. Overhiser last February placed about 30 
carp, and at the present time this pond appears 



July 9, 1881.J 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



91 



to be literally swarming with young fish from 
2 to 5 inches in length. Mr. Overhiser failed 
last year to produce any young carp, and last 
February he found out the cause of his failure. 
He had several catfish in the pond with his 
carp. In February he drew the water off and 
removed the catfish, since which time his carp 
have multiplied with astonishing rapidity. The 
catfish in scouring about the bottom of the pond 
had destroyed all the spawn as fast as it was 
deposited. 
TULARE. 

Notes. — Delta, July 2: Along Tule river, 
from the Lake to the mountains, all the farmers 
are busy garnering their grain, and from the 
present appearance, the yield will be generally 
good. Some have already threshed aud are 
hauling their gram, for market or storage. 
Everybody and every available horse in the 
country, is on the move. On the lower Tule a 
great deal of the grain is lodged, requiring much 
extra time, labor and expense to head it; conse. 
quently it will not all be secured before August. 

Turkey Crop Reduced. — The turkey crop 
through Pleasant and Frazier valleys will not 
be so large as heretofore, though there are 
enough to supply each family in Tulare county 
with one for Thanksgiving. B. M. Hotchkiss, 
who has, in previous years raised them by the 
thousands, thought it useless to do so this year, 
as the sun would, undoubtedly, draw the earth 
into that flaming orb on the eventful 19th, and 
roast them before they were half grown. As 
soon as he found his error, he started over the 
country to purchase several hundred, so as to 
utilize the large number of acres of stubble he 
has. 

VENTURA. 

The Good Outlook. — Free Prexn, July 2: It 
is cheering to notice how rapidly Ventura county 
has recovered from the depression caused, first, 
by the dry year, which killed two-thirds of all 
the cattle and sheep in the county ; afterward, 
by the two years in which the price of our then 
staples, hogs and barley, went down to about 
nothing. Last year, with a fair crop, the 
farmers very nearly paid up the stores, the 
bank — and the printer. This year, with splen- 
did crops of everything (honey excepted, which 
is not a farming crop) they will pay everybody 
in full, and have coin left. The wheat crop 
now being harvested is above the average, es- 
pecially in quality, the Max and barley the same, 
while the later crops of corn and beans never 
looked more promising. No wonder our people 
feel good. In any other country, three consecu- 
tive years of such depression as our farmers 
were subjected to, would have taken 10 years 
to recover from and pay off the mortgages. 
Here, our farmers have done it in two years, 
with cash left — or, rather, they will have when 
the present crop is marketed, say, three months 
henfJe. 

OREGON. 

Crickets. — Oregon Cor. Idaho Statesman; A 
few days ago I had occasion to ride over the 
range on Burnt river and Willow creek, travel- 
ing over about 75 miles of territory — bunch- 
grass hills — and along the whole distance, from 
10 miles below Old's ferry, on Snake river, to 
Ironsides mountain, and averaging five 
miles in width, the earth presented a black, 
moving, shrieking mass of crickets ( orthopiera, ). 
While those crickets are not so destructive as 
the locust (grasshopper), they nevertheless de- 
vour gardens, grain fields, and much tender veg- 1 
etation in their path. I saw many gardens which 
they had left a wreck. They cross streams, 
ditches and mountains, and seem to move in 
columns, but with little regularity. They have 
no wiugj, hence they depend upon their long, 
lever-like legs, or hoppers for locomotion. They 
are not much like the chimney black cricket. 
They are fearful cannibals, slaying and eating 
each other with a ravenous appetite. They 
have no sting or dangerous nippers, hence are 
not dangerous to the human family, so far as in- 
flicting t wounds. The way these crickets cross 
streams is amusing. When they come to a 
stream of water which they "think" they can 
cross, they climb every object along the margin, 
and when as high as they can ascend, they shut 
their eyes and give one long, dangerous, and 
sometimes fatal, leap into the water, shut up 
like a jack' knife and float down till they come 
in contact with an object; then they immediate- 
ly seem to wake up and make a desperate grab 
and crawl upon it. If he is lucky enough to be 
on the right side, he moves on; if not, he tries 
it again. Thus thousands are drowned. 



Bursting Power of Ice. — Ed. Hagenbach 
experimented, during the past severe winter, 
upon the bursting force exerted in the expan- 
sion of water when freezing. Two interesting 
experiments were made with cast-iron hand 
grenades. The outer diameter was 5.9 inches, 
the inner diameter 5.04 inches. The shells 
were filled with water, closed with a screwed 
iron plug, and exposed to the cold. Both shells 
were broken, and a curved thread of ice was 
projected, by means of an ice column, from the 
upper surface. One of the plugs was evidently 
thrown out with great violence, and to such 
a distance that it could not be found. The 
curvature in that case was bent upward. 

At Painesville, Ohio, July 4th, Martin Noo- 
uan, a teamster, and Daniel Noonan, his 
brother, were arrested as the men who robbed 
an express wagon of $20,000 on June 7th. The 
securities were recovered hidden in a straw bed. 
There was $6,000 in currency and $5,000 in 
other forms left. 



Meeting of the Viticultural Commission. 

(Continued from Page 19.) 
on Conference with the Board of Regents. At- 
tention was. called to the important advantages 
which the University afforded to mature minds 
in matters of scientific research, which, it was 
considered by the Board without dissent, were 
of greater practical value to the State than 
even elementary instruction of under-graduates. 
One of the members thought that the public 
was in danger of being 

Misled by Careless Statements 
Of men who are supposed to understand the 
wants and condition of the University, to the 
effect that the institution is not a success. The 
first manufacture of the bisulphide of carbon 
had been attempted successfully by a University 
graduate, aided by instruction from Prof. Hil- 
gard, and its use for exterminating squirrels 
and gophers had first been recommended from 
the same source. The special investigator of 
this commission in the field is a University 
graduate, specially selected, instructed and 
guided by Prof. Hilgarcl in his occupation of 
searching out and disclosing the presence of 
phylloxera and other pests in vineyards. His 
work has already been the means of circumscrib- 
ing and commencing the systematic destruction 
of a disease that, until this year, was fatally 
threatening an industry in which at least $30,- 
000,000 are already invested. The executive 
officer of the commission is also a graduate. So 
in other active pursuits the young men edu- 
cated at Berkeley are industriously laboring to 
the honor and for the welfare of the State. _ It 
was the expressed opinion of the commission 
that the University should be liberally en- 
dowed and supported, and that its usefulness 
and success should not be measured by the 
number of under-g-aduates, but rather by the 
continued study and influence of graduates 
during their mature life, aud the means afforded 
for the whole people to derive advantage from a 
well -supported seat of learning and scientific 
labor. 

In this connection, Mr. Blanchard offered 
The Following Resolution, 
Which was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Board that the 
Agricultural Department of the State University has 
been ably conducted, and has already been of incalculable 
benefit to the farmers of the Pacific coast, and indirectly 
to all its industries; that its weakness lies only in want 
of adequate appropriations of money to maintain and 
conduct its work, and that the agriculturists of the State 
be ureed to accord to the University a cordial and zeal- 
ous friendship and support. 

The Secretary was instructed* to transmit a 
copy of this resolution to the Board of Regents. 
Report of the Chiet Executive Officer. 
On the call for reports from special com- 
mittees, Mr. Wetmore submitted the following 
on the progress of the work in his department 
as Chief Executive Viticultural officer: 

To the Board of State Viticultural Commissioners — 
Gkntlemks : I have the honor to submit for your con- 
sideration a brief report concerning the progress of work 
in my department. A more detailed account, will be pre- 
pared for publication as soon as practicable. 

The most important work of investigation of the extent 
of ravages of vine pests and vine diseases, and results of 
remedies applied, is uow being continued, as it was begun 
last year, with the assistance of a special investigator, F. 
W. Morse. The chief ends of the researches are as fol- 
lows: 

First— To determine as accurately as possible the loca- 
tions and extent of vineyard areas affected by pests and 
diseases. 

Second— To instruct vine-growers how to ascertain the 
presence of pests. 

Third— Having ascertained the presence of a pest in a 
vineyard, to warn the proprietor and others in time to 
eradicate the evil before it becomes unmanageable or too 
costly. 

Fourth— To ascertain by actual observation the results 
of any remedies that may have been applied or experi- 
mented with in practical culture. 

Attention is especially directed by Mr. Morge to the 
phylloxera. Last year our funds were too limited to per- 
mit as careful and as thorough work to be done as was de- 
sired. This year our investigator was engaged to com- 
mence observations on the 1st of June, with the intention 
of keeping him steadily in the field at least four months, 
visiting as many vineyards in all important districts as 
possible, and all suspected places wherever reported in 
the State. 

He is Keeping a Record 

Of all his observations, meanwhile advising us of import 
ant discoveries as he passes i>om one district to another. 
It is too early now to give any detailed statement from 
his notes. It is gratifying, however, to know that his 
discoveries of phylloxera in vineyards, heretofore consid- 
ered unaffected, have been thus far immediately followed 
by determined and systematic efforts on the part of pro- 
prietors to exterminate the pest, which will, without 
doubt, be successful and easy to accomplish, because the 
newly discovered spots are generally less than one acre in 
extent. 

A careful examination of the portion of J. C. Wein- 
berger's vineyard, near St. Helena, which was found af- 
fected by phylloxera last year, and treated with bisul- 
phide of carbon last winter, under the personal super- 
vision of our Secretary, J. II. Wheeler, was made by Mr. 
Morse. His report corroborates those of others who had 
previously examined it. He was unable to find any phyl- 
loxera on the roots of the section treated; but, on the 
contrary, to our extreme gratification, the roots which 
showed the effects of last year's ravages were vigorously 
developing healthy rootlets, and the foliage and new 
canes of the vines displayed renewed life and fertility. 
Outside of the section treated, two rows of vines were 
found infected on one side, indicating that the area of the 
diseased part had not been fully circumscribed. One 
more treatment, it is now expected, will completely 
eradicate the pest from this vineyard. The success of 
this treatment, which was considered a test case, hag re- 
stored confidence to the vine growers throughout the 
State. One of the lessons taught by it, however, is that 
ample margin should be treated around infested spots to 
insure the destruction of all the insects which may be 
spreading upon healthy vines, but not yet sufficiently 
numerous to be 

Easily Detected. 
In comparison also with the results of treatments dur- 
ing this summer upon diseased vines, uow being watched, 
it is apparent that the winter treatment is the cheapest 
and most effective. 

It is to be hoped that every facility will be afforded to 
Mr. Morse by the vine-growers, wherever he goes, to ex- 
pedite his work. The sooner we know where pests*exist, 



the sooner may the remedies be applied, and the saving 
of time will not only lessen the extent of the evil and ex- 
pense, but also check its progress. 

Some vine-growers last year complained bitterly against 
this commission because the values of their properties 
were injured, as they claimed, by the disclosures of our 
investigations. Now, however, there are fewer com- 
plaints, because through our efforts the practical values 
of remedies have been demonstrated and confidence has 
been restored. I have noticed several important pur- 
chases of diseased vineyards by experienced viticulturists, 
who no longer doubt their ability to contend against the 
insect. Many intelligent proprietors have voluntarily en- 
gaged us to examine their vineyards, hoping to discover 
the pest, if present, before it has made serious progress. 

A simple way of stating the cost of making a thorough 
winter treatment with the bisulphide of carbon is by 
saying, "It costs one ton of grapes per acre." If only one 
or two acres are affected the expense is a trifling one. 
Experimental Work. 
The experimental work, which by law I am required to 
supervise, is being carefully conducted. I have been ably 
assisted by our secretary, who has personally supervised 
and directed applications of bisulphide of carbon, by Mr. 
Morse, who, together with Mr. Wheeler, made an accurate 
chart of the vines to be experimented with, showing Me 
relative positions of the dead, diseased and apparently 
healthy stocks; by Prof. E. W. Hilgard, of the State Uni- 
versity, who, with Mr. Morse, personally directed the 
preparation of various fertilizers to accompany the , bisul- 
phide treatment, and by 5£r. H. Appleton, who has given 
us control of a small isolated vineyard belonging to him 
in the Sonoma valley for experimental purposes, and has 
worked faithfully under our direction at small expense to 
the State. Mr. Mayers has also devoted to our experi- 
ments a portion of his vineyard lying near Mr. Appleton's. 
A preliminary report from Mr. Appleton is appended here- 
to. The charts of the experimental grounds and of the 
methods of treatment are also submitted. 

As soon as practicable I shall make a detailed report 
concerning this experimental work, and make known re- 
sults as they are developed. So far we are encouraged by 
apparent success. 

Efforts are being made to test the phylloxera resisting 
powers of the wild vine of this State— iritis Californica. 

The statistics of this year will be important in respect 
to plantations of 

American Resisting Stocks. 
I have become more convinced than I was when I pre- 
pared my report to you last year, as commissioner at 
large, that we must follow the experience of French vine- 
growers with these stocks and institute experiments of 
our own rather than to rely on the written advice of some 
vine-growers of the United States east of the Rocky 
mountains, who publicly declare that the phylloxera is a 
blessing and not a curse, because it causes to be substi- 
tuted the American vines for the vitu vinifera, and who 
ignore the fact that our vine-growers, without denying 
the value of some of the American varieties, are seeking 
to preserve the European or riniferas. Great mistakes 
have already been made this year by following such in- 
competent advice, and it is therefore my intention to re- 
port as early as possible upon the results of experiments 
with American vines, so that as much light may be 
thrown on this branch of the Bubject as possible before 
new orders are sent East for cuttings. Again, I desire to 
caution our people against the importation of any rooted 
vines. Cuttings will be less dangerous, and can be easily 
disinfected. 

I have obtained, through the courtesy of Prof. Foex, of 
the National School of Agriculture of Montpellier, France, 
voluminous notes of French experience with resistant 
grafting stocks, and shall have them translated, giving 
due credit to his intelligent and most valuable labois. 

The sample specimens of various grafts on roots and 
seedlingsof the vitis Californica submitted for your in- 
spection will probably be interesting as illustrating the 
facility with which this species takes the graft of the 
European varieties, and the rapidity and vigor of devel- 
opment. The seedlings are of this year's growth, from 
Riparia and California seeds. 

Entomologist and Crvptogamic Fungi. 
An effort was made early this year to obtain the services 
of an entomologist through the creation of a Chair of 
Entomology at the State University, which institution 
has already and is still doing valuable service in the cause 
of agriculture. Unfortunately, this has failed, the Legis- 
lature having adjourned without passing the necessary 
appropriation for the purpose. There will be no further 
opportunities to obtain the appropriation until the Legis- 
lature conveues again. The long interval intervening 
will prove a great loss of time, and we may again be dis- 
appointed. Cryptogamic fungi also require careful and 
continuous study. The duties of the administrative offi- 
cers of this Board are chiefly confined to matters of in- 
vention, experiment, compilations and direction, and the 
dissemination of information drawn from practical expe- 
rience. For purely scientific research our members have 
little time. Meanwhile, each year brings more trouble for 
the farmer, whether in viticulture, horticulture, or other 
branches of agriculture. It is time that some one should 
devise a way to accomplish what is wanted. 

Prof. Dwindle has wisely thought of the plan of com- 
mencing the education of at least one student at the 
State University in entomology, who shall devote himself 
to books, correspondence, and original observation. The 
professor very patriotically offers to assist and direct such 
a student in his studies, having himself studied sufficient- 
ly for that purpose. A subscription is being organized to 
raise the funds to defray the expenses, and with our aid I 
doubt not but that it will prove an important 
Step in the Right Direction. 
Mr. Cooke, your Chief Executive Horticultural Officer, 
is accomplishing good by encouraging young men in Sac- 
ramento, who have the opportunity to consult his collec- 
tions and advise with him, to study this science. There 
remain two effective means of doing more immediate 
good. 

First — The National Government might be induced to 
provide for a member of the Entomological Commission 
to reside on this coast. 

Second — It is within the reasonable possibilities that a 
fund of §100,000 might be obtained from private subscrip- 
tions to endow at the University chairs of Entomology 
and Cryptogamic Fungi. One or more wealthy men might 
be found who would honor themselves and the State by 
making the endowment, or a popular subscription, gener- 
ally circulated among the people, might be successful. 

The adaptation of vines to soil and climate is, I would 
respectfully suggest, an important topic for each member 
of this Board, and others who will assist us, to consider. 
The question is constantly recurring, "What varieties of 
vines ought I to plant V" We shall save many unprofit- 
able ventures when we can answer this question with a 
fair degree of accuracy. It is very important because so 
many new vineyards will continually be planted. I in- 
tend to collate what information I can on the subject, but 
I shall need all the assistance that can be given to me. 
Fungoid Diseases. 
This yeaV was marked by showers of rain about the 1st 
of June. The rapidity with which some vineyards were 
afterward attacked by fungoid disease is attributable to 
the increased moisture. Questions have been forwarded 
to the Commission relating to the names of and remedies 
for certain types of this evil, wliich, without careful scien- 
tific examination, we have been unable to satisfactorily 
answer. We have been promised assistance, however, 
through one of our well-known botanists, who makes a 
specialty of fungi. In consultation with him I elicited 
the following general statement, which may serve as a 
guide for inventive spirits, viz.: Cryptogamic Fungi are 
susceptible to strong odors or perfumes. A case was 
cited where he had recommended one gentleman to culti- 
vate heliotrope in a conservatory at San Rafael, where a 
grapevine was suffering from mildew. He prefers tobacco 
smoke to sulphur in treating affected vines. Refuge to- 
bacco may be used, or the p,ant may be raised at the vine- 
yards for the purpose. 
I Arid by consulting Prof. Foex' Manu that in France, 



for the Anthrachnose— a stubborn form of fungus 
does not yield readily to sulphur— lime and sulphur are 
freely used, the latter beginning with the first appearance 
of the disease and repeated every eight or ten days until 
it disappears. It is recommended also to wash the old 
wood of the vines with green vitriol (sulphate of iron), 
which is also beneficial to vegetation. The value of the 
blue aud green vitriol has been demonstrated this year in 
this State, but I think that preference should be given to 
the latter on account of its stimulating effect upon soils 
and vines. 

Chas. A. Wbimorb, Chief Ex. Vit. Officer. 
Miscellaneous Matters. 
Mr. Krug here spoke of the active work be- 
ing done in the St. Helena district with carbon 
bisulphide to exterminate phylloxera immedi- 
ately, whenever discovered by Mr. Morse, who 
had recently visited that district for the Com- 
mission. 

President Harazthy reported favorable re- 
sults with bluestone, as applied over a year ago 
to the Orleans vineyard. 

Commissioner Blowers, of Woodland, reports 
having been overrun with grass-hoppers in the 
vicinity of his vineyard, but by the commend- 
able co-operation of his neighbors, destroying 
them by means of hauling pans of tar thinned 
with petroleum, about the borders of the vine- 
yards, he has been able to prevent their des- 
destructive progress. 

A question occupying the Commission at con- 
siderable length was that of the adaptability of 
different varieties of grapes to certain soils. No 
definite rules could yet be laid down. Mr. 
Krug specially asserts the necessity of adopting 
hillsides for red wines, whereas light-colored 
wines belong to the rich, low bottoms. A val- 
uable work to ascertain the truth of these facts 
will, during the ensuing harvest, be conducted 
at Mr. Krug's cellar, at St. Helena, viz., the ap- 
portionment of a department in which will be 
stored samples of wine made from the various 
grapes from the various vineyardists — varieties, 
locations, altitudes, etc., will be noted and pre- 
served. Whether this adaptability be only lo- 
cal, can be ascertained only by other cellar- 
masters following his plan. 

The resolutions of the Board of Horticulture, 
adopted on the 30th ult. , were concurred in with- 
out debate. 

Furthermore, the work of President Dwi- 
nelle, of the Horticultural Board, regarding a 
subscription to support an entomologist, were 
approved and recommended to the public. Ad- 
journment followed. 



News In Brief. 

Earthquake at Hanford on the 3d. 
Cyclone at Pougbkeepsie, N. Y., on the 5th. 
There are only 45 prisoners in the Utah pen- 
itentiary. 

The total acreage in vines in Napa county is 
about 12,000. 

Santa Claus, the California horse, was de- 
feated at Rochester on the 5th. 

The army worm has just made its appearance 
at Lower Soda Springs, Shasta county. 

A number of the retail butchers of this city 
have organized a Mutual Protective Union. 

The opera house and 12 other buildings at 
San Jose, were destroyed by fire on the 4th. 

There are 300 men in the woods at the head 
of the Yakima, W. T., getting out railroad 
ties. 

The World says: There is no longer a doubt 
that the infant heir of the Duke of Norfolk is 
blind. 

Chinamen are catching spring salmon on the 
Columbia river, near Clifton, Oregon, with hook 
and line. 

The silver ledge recently discovered at 
Orcas Island, W. T., is creating considerable 
excitement. 

From 200 to 250 tons of refined sulphur are 
shipped every month from the Humboldt Co. 's 
works, near Wmnemucca, Nev. 

France has determined to mobilize 100,000 
troops and send them to Africa to put down the 
insurrection with a strong hand. 

Hamilton Disston, the Philadelphia saw 
manufacturer, has bought 4,000,000 acres of 
land in Florida. It will be reclaimed and col- 
onized . • 

The proposition to levy a special tax of $12,- 
000, in Seattle, W. T., to build new school 
houses, was voted down by the people of that 
district. 

William Elankenship, a young farmer who 
resides in French Camp, has "just lallen heir to 
$.30,000, through the decease of an uncle in 
Arizona. 

They have a locomotive in Austin, Nev., 
called the "Mule's Relief," which hauls a car 
heavily loaded with ore up a grade 400 ft. to 
the mile with ease and rapidity. 

The Oregon Astorian says: The other day 
one man returned to the West Coast cannery 
with three salmon among his lot that weighed 
183 lbs., an average of 61 lbs. each. 

An English official will go to America in the 
autumn to conclude a consular convention with 
the United States in order to cope with the 
crimping of British sailors in America. 

Isaias W. Hellman, President of the Farm- 
ers' and Merchants' bank of Los Angeles, has 
been appointed by the Governor as a Regent of 
the University, in place of D. O. Mills, resigned. 

Reports from Camas prairie, Idaho, are to 
the effect that the cattle are recovering from 
the terrible epidemic with which they have 
been afflicted. Over 250 have died from black- 
leg out of a herd of 5,000, 



22 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



[July 9, 1881. 




Threnody. 



Oh, sweet are the scents and songs of spring 

And brave are the tummer flowers, 
And chill are the autumn winds that bring 

The winter's lingering hours. 
And the world goes round and round, 

And the sun sinks into the sea, 
And whether I'm on or under the ground 

The world cares little for me. 

The hawk sails »ver the sunny hill, 

The brook trolls on in the shade. 
But the friends I have lost lie cold and still 

Where their stricken forms were laid. 
And the world goes round and round, 

And the sun slides into the sea, 
And whether I'm on or under the ground 

The world cares little for me. 

life, why art thou so bright and boon? 

Oh breath, why art thou so sweet? 
O friend i, how can ye forget so soon 

The loved ones who lie at your feet': 
But the world goes round and round, 

And the sun drops into the sea, 
And whether I'm on or under the ground 

The world cares little for me. 

The ways of men are busy and bright. 

The eye of woman is kind; 
It is sweet for the eye to behold the light, 

But the dying and dead are blind. 
And the world goes round and round, 

And the sun falls into the sea, 
And whether I'm on or under the ground 

The world cares little for me. 

But if life awake and will never cease 

On the future's distant shore. 
And the rose of love and the lily of peace 

Shall bloom there for evermore. 
Let the world go round and round. 

And the sun sink into the sea; 
For whether I'm on or under the ground 

0, what will it matter to ine? 

— J. G. Holland in Scribner. 



To the Girls. 



\\ bat are you doing, my dear girls, to help 
along this great, bright world of ours? Toward 
what path are your feet tending ? To what goal 
in the far distant future do your thoughts 
turn? What is your aim in life? There have 
been earnest-souled women who have done great 
and good deeds in humanity's cause, or have 
won with pen, pencil and chisel, undying 
honors, and written their names in never-fading 
letters upon fame's glittering page; and these, 
not scions of noble stock, but honest, self-made 
women of the. soil, who, through long days of 
labor and nights devoid of eaBe, have raised 
themselves to a high position by the mere force 
of their sterling qualities with native energy 
and strength of character. It cost something! 
Ah, yes. Fortune seldom comes at your beck; 
if you sit down with folded arms to woo the 
fickle goddess, you will very likely sit there to 
the end of the chapter. Rouse yourselves, gird 
on your armor, go forth with confidence and 
hope, make up your mind to work, and work 
with a will, throw mind and soul into your pur- 
suit, for whatever is worth doing at all is worth 
doing well; the reward may be long in coming, 
you may sometimes grow faint and weary, and 
may fail more than once, twice or thrice, but 
never give up, try again and again ; let every 
defeat nerve you to fresh contest. Girls, what- 
ever your lot in life, do your best; whatever 
your work, it is worthy of best efforts. In 
climbing the mountain's rugged side, take care 
that there be no unwary steps, no sudden fall 
from rectitude into chasms of moral vice; lend a 
helping hand now and then to lead a weaker 
companion along the rough places, improve each 
golden moment of opportunity, catch the good 
within your reach. Do not spend your time in 
vain regrets for any mistakes you have made, 
but Bet yourselves to work to repair it; she who 
■ waits for an opportunity to do much at once may 
breathe out her life in vain and idle wishes, and 
regret at the last moment of her life her worse 
than useless endeavors in not accepting the 
present instead of looking into the far future, 
tor a more glorious and exalted sphere. Let 
every stroke tell, let every step be a firm mark 
along your onward jurney, footprints that will 
remain long after you have passed to the other 
shore; and let whatever will be your aim, above 
all else, strive to make your life strictly upright, 
pure and honorable; be everything that is thor- 
oughly womanly, helpful, charitable, tender 
toward your fellows; a living, breathing lesson 
to all around; and a golden anthem tbat shall 
ring golden chimes of joy and love throughout 
all eternity. — Mrs. F. O. Church, in Western 
Rural. 

Industrial Indications. — The arrival of 
gold in the United States from Europe is as 
great in proportion as is the arrival of immi- 
grants from the same quarter. The United 
States have such vast resources of production 
that we are fast draining Europe of her surplus 
gold and of her best blood and muscle. We 
have cotton, which must be used to clothe toil- 
ing millions, and of late years we have been 
supplying food in immense quantities from the 
Western States and from the Pacific ooast. 
Every year now but makes more manifest the 
grand destiny which is in store for the inhabi- 
tants of the most favored people in the world. 



Home Making in Miniature. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Mrs. C. F. Youno.J 
Referring to the sketch of trout pond farm 
in last week's Rural, I think I hear some one 
exclaim : 

"I do not see the pay coming in, or the en- 
joyment Mrs. C. can have, living out in the 
woods. More than likely a cold winter, or 
heavy rain, or hot wave in August, will kill all 
their fish, and then there they will be poorer in 
the woeds than we are in town. For myself, I 
don't want anything to do with such a life." 

My dear madam, Mrs. C. is living her own 
life. You could not, if you would, share it 
Perhaps you can, by reasoning, comprehend 
where and how money is saved and accumulated 
by living out of town. First, the cost of rent 
A house of four rooms, where there are side- 
walks, is counted cheap at $10 a month, or $120 
a year; water, at $2 a month, eqnals 924 a year; 
milk, two quarts a day at 10 cents a quart, $73; 
two rolls of butter a week at 65 cents a roll, 
$67.60 ; 30 cords of wood a year, at $6 a cord, 
$180; poultry, 50 chickens at 50 cents each, $25; 
eggs, 50 dozen, $16.66. After the first year, 
strawberries, 50 lbs., at 12fc cents, $6.25; ditto, 
blackberries and red raspberries, $12.50; rad- 
ishes, lettuce, string beans and tomatoes, $20. 
This is a fair estimate of actual cost in Nevada 
City. It aggregates $545 saved each year by 
living out on their own place. Of eggs and 
poultry there will be a surplus equal to the cost 
of their feed. The calves, kept three years and 
sold for beef, will pay for the hay required to 
sustain them the previous winters. By that 
time, they will be ready to harvest both clover 
and wheat hay. 

Beside helping their father in the construction 
of the trout ponds, the two eldest boys have, 
since March, first cut, sawed and split 25 cords 
of stove wood, worth, on the ground, $3 a cord. 
If they cut as much more, then they have 
earned their own clothing and books. This 
$545, that must have been expended in town, 
in a manner, that, at the end of the year, there 
would have been nothing to show for it, will, 
on the new place, be seen in the shape of an 
addition of two rooms, hard-finished, and 
paint, and in pipe to bring the water to the 
door. Every dollar will count in substantial 
improvements. 

The time and strength that town boys apply 
to mischievous pranks, Mrs. C. 's boys will give 
to the acquisition of industrious habits and the 
care of pets. The little fellows have pigeons 
and dovecotes. They have swings and little 
axes, and take turns playing pull the cross-cut 
saw. It does not appear to be a task, but a 
pleasure to help build a home. They challenged 
us to a trial of strength with sledge and wedge 
in splitting stove wood, and said that we could 
almost be as much a boy as mother was. 

My dear madam, it largely pays to train boys 
to industrious habits. It pays the parents and 
the community in which they reside. After 
that, it pays the State and the nation. Who 
dares to say that it will not pay even in the 
next world and throughout eternity ? 

New and crude as everything will appear for 
a year or two, the consciousness of proprietor- 
ship with their parents in this important work 
of home-making, lends a charm to every hour's 
work. Something to love and pet, to plant and 
see it grow, to beautify and remember as long 
as they live. If they persevere, how many 
precious memories will, in future years, cluster 
around the experiences of these lads at the (then) 
old home in 1881. 



Use op Dress. — No matter what men may 
write or say upon tne subject, the womanly 
woman will always pay considerable attention 
to her dress, as she should. Indifference, and 
consequent' inattention to dress, often shows 
pedantry, self-rigbteousness, or indolence. It 
is not a virtue, but a defect in the character. 
Every woman should study to make the best 
of herself with the means at her command. 
Among the rich, the love of dress promotes 
some degrees of exertion and displays of taste 
in themselves, and fosters ingenuity and in- 
dustry in inferiors; in the middle classes, it 
engenders contrivance, diligence, neatness of 
hand; among the humbler, it has good effects. 
So long as dress merely interests, amuses, oc- 
cupies such time and such means as we reason- 
ably alot to it, it is salutary; refining the tastes 
and the habits, and giving satisfaction and 
pleasure to others. Sensible men like to see 
their wives and daughters well dressed, and 
take pride in their appearance. The woman 
who has not some natural taste in dress, some 
love of novelty, some delight in the combina- 
tion of colors, must be deficient in a sense of 
the beautiful. As a work of art, a well 
dressed woman is a study. Consistency in re- 
gard to station and fortune, is the first thing 
to be considered. A woman of good sense 
will not wish to expend in unnecessary ex- 
travagances money wrung from the hands of 
an anxious, laborious husband; or, if her hus- 
band be a man of fortune, she will not en- 
croach upon her allowance. It .will be her 
duty to dress well with as little expense as 
possible — for it is unbecoming to no woman's 
dignity to be careful of the clothes she wears, 
and to economize in her expenditnre. When 
love of dress is indulged in beyond the com- 
pass of means, it cannot be too severely con- 
demned. But it is the duty of every woman 
to dress as well as she can. 



Two Farmers' Wives. 

During a summer tour among the New Eog 
land mountains, Col. Higginson came across 
two types of farmers' wives. The thought im- 
pressed by the meeting was that "home" meant 
much in their patient, silent lives, which are 
seldom broken by a holiday. He wrote to the 
Woman's Journal what he saw: 

"Walking by a comfortable farm-house, the 
other day, I was attracted by a remarkably 
fine lily, of a species new to me, which grew in 
a wooden urn on the doorstep. On closer in- 
spection it proved so beautiful that my com- 
panion and I made bold to ring at the door and 
ask for further information. 

"We were at once cordially greeted by a 
cheery woman of middle age. who received with 
delight our praises of the lily, showed us a 
fuchsia and geranium which rivaled it in her 
affections, and insisted on our goinj into her 
old-fashioned parlor, where a magnificent ivy 
literally encircled the four sides of the room 
from a single root in the corner. She had come 
to us from the wash-tub, but she looked per- 
fectly neat, and was ready to talk as we to 
listen. 

"She had lived all her life in the house where 
we saw her; it had been occupied by three gen- 
erations of her owe family before her; relics of 
their old-fashioned furniture were there, stoutly 
retained against the blandishments of furniture 
hunters such as ourselves. Especially curious 
was a quaint old mirror, with heavy gilt frame, 
and an odd little clock at the top. 

"Here our hostess had been married, here she 
had borne six children, several of whom had 
died; she had lived for a year or two in Boston, 
'hub of the universe,' but she liked the old 
homestead better. She did all her own work, 
— the children at home being still young — and 
she apologized profusely for the untidy appear- 
ance of a room in which we could nowhere de- 
tect a speck of dust. In her manners and lan- 
guage she would have appeared to advantage 
anywhere. She lived, to be sure, near the vil 
lage; but I am constantly receiving the same 
sort of impression from the women whom one 
meets at the doors of lonely houses far up on the 
mountain side. 

"Driving a long distance, one day, in search of 
a lost spy-glass, I was directed at last up a by- 
road leading from a by-road, and ending at 
length in a solitary mountain gorge, where there 
was but a single house. I could not imagine 
what had brought a settler there, until I noted 
a fine 'sugar orchard' of maple trees, the finest 
to be seen in that whole region. 

"On my knocking at the farm-house door, it 
was opened by an old lady — I use the term ad- 
visedly — so neat, so kind, so agreeable in ex- 
pression and manners, that a city visitor would 
have felt justified in engaging a months' board 
at once, on the face of appearances alone. For 
25 years she had lived up in that lonely glen, 
going out of it only to attend 'meeting' on 
Sunday, or to make rare purchases at the little 
village store. 

"She did not seem so have thought of it as 
distant or solitary until all of her children had 
left the farm to seek their fortunes elsewhere; 
but now she confessed to a wish to leave it, not 
because it was in itself lonely, but because it 
was far from them. Consequently, she now 
hoped that 'he' would buy a farm nearer to 
other folds." 



Hints for Writers. 



Write one side of the sheet only. Why ? 
Because it is often necessary to cut the page 
into "takes" for the compositors, and this cannot 
be done when both sides are written upon. 

Write clearly and distinctly, being particu- 
larly careful in the matter of proper names, and 
words from foreign languages. 

Don't write in a mycroscopic hand. Why ? 
Because the compositor has to read it across his 
case, at a distance of nearly two ft. ; also, be- 
cause the editor often wants to make additions 
and other changes. 

Never roll your manuscript. Why? Because 
it maddens and exasperates everyone who 
touchs it — editor, compositor and proof-reader. 

Always write your full name and address 
plainly at the end of youv letter. Why ? Be- 
cause it will often happen that the editor will 
want to communicate with you, and because he 
needs to know the writer's name as a guarantee 
of good faith. If you use a pseudonym or ini- 
tials, write your name and address below it; it 
will never be divulged. 

Mind and Brain. 

Aristotle regarded the heart as the seat of 
the "rational soul." The brain was looked 
upon by this prince of philosophers as a com- 
paratively uselsse organ, whose only function 
was to cool the heart. According to the latest 
opinion of scientific authorities, the functions 
of the mind are performed in the rim of gray 
matter of which the outermost layer of the brain 
consists. There sensation ends and thought 
begins. There are the "end-stations" where 
the messages from the outside world are deliv- 
ered, and where volitions originate. But 
though anatomists have succeeded in following 
the trail thus far, and have, so to speak, cor- 
nered the mind and driven it into close quar- 
ers, they seem as far as ever from seeing the 
mind itself or from learning what it is. 



Mental science is as distinct from physical 
science to-day as it ever was. The nerves are 
excited by motions. These motions are deliv- 
ered to the brain, and there become transformed 
into things as different from the motions in 
which they originate as light is from darkness. 
The nerve of the eye when excited causes the 
sensation of light. This excitation may be pro- 
duced by undulations of the luminiferous ether, 
by electricity, by congestion, or by a blow on 
the head; in every case the message along the 
nerve is, in the brain, translated into the sensa- 
tion of light. The messages delivered by the 
nerve of the ear are translated into the sensa- 
tion of sound. But these various sensations are 
altogether different from the physical excite- 
ments producing them. So also are the 
thoughts and volitions radically different from 
the sensations. 



The Advantage of Perseverance. 

As we have just passed the c<_ uteri nary of the 
eminent engineer, George Stephenson — June 9, 
1781 — it is not out of place to remind strug- 
gling young mechanics or engineers that this 
great man did not achieve his distinction and 
fame without hard work, and that it was not 
his genius alone that saved him and made him 
what he was, but more his perseverance, energy 
and determination to succeed. It will not do 
for a young man, because he supposes he has 
genius or his friends suppose he has, to sit down 
and wait for opportunity to come to him. He 
must manfully sail forward and put aside the 
obstacles which impede his path, must perse- 
vere in his endeavors to perfect his knowledge 
and skill, and make the opportunities to use 
them. Samuel Smiles, who has written a life 
of George Stephenson, says of him that for the 
first 50 years of his life, he had everything 
against him. He owed nothing to luck, to pat- 
ronage, to the advantages of education. He 
owed everything to bravery, intense conviction, 
and prolonged perseverance. He had to teach 
himself everything from the A B C to the prin- 
ciples of mechanics. He had to conquer every 
inch of the ground on which he stood. His 
conquests were not easy, for arrayed against 
him were, first, his own ignorance which had to 
be subdued by silent, persistent endeavor; and 
second, the opposition of men of knowledge and 
science, who stood united to oppose him and 
could only be silenced by success. At first, 
Stephenson stood almost alone in his belief in 
the powers of the locomotive engine. His ex- 
periments were carried on in silence and ob- 
scurity. They were quite unknown to the j ui- 
nalists, . historians, and writers of the day. 
The great work was done withont any help 
from authors and orators. He never contented 
himself with dwelling in the regions of fpacu- 
lati'in and abstraction. He worked energetical- 
ly in giving life to a dormant principle, and 
practical realization to an abstract proposition. 
Vet the facts which he developed by experi- 
ence were laughed at as "moonshine." 

There is something tragic in witnessing the 
determined hostility which obstructed his ef- 
forts. The whole prejudice of the scientific 
world opposed him. When he invented the 
safety lamp he was "pooh-poohed," and re- 
garded as an interloper. The civil engineers op- 
posed him to a man. He was not "one of us," 
he had never received an engineer's 
education. They would not admit his facts. 
They would not even inquire into his experi- 
ments. Everything that he proposed to do was 
demonstrated to be impossible. The civil engin- 
eers declared that it was impossible to drive a 
locomotive at the rate of 12 miles an hour. The 
engine would be driven back by the wind. If it 
traveled it would be beaten by the canal boats. 
But it could never go at all. The smooth 
wheels could never "bite" upon smooth rails. 
The wheels would merely turn round and round, 
and the whole machine would stand still. It 
was also declared to be impossible to make a 
railroad over Chat Moss without stopping short 
of the bottom. "No engineer in Ins senses," 
said a distinguished civil engineer, "would go 
through Chat Moss if he wanted to make a rail- 
road from Liverpool to Manchester." The 
whole thing was declared to be "impossible." 
And yet the impossible things were done. What 
George Stephenson proposed to do, he did. 
The impossible locomotive was run, not only at 
12 but at 50 miles an hour; and the impossible 
railroad was made from Liverpool to Manches- 
ter over the center of Chat Moss. 

Altogether the life of this distinguished roan 
affords an example of what one may do by per- 
sistent efforts, and unsubdued energy. The 
moral teaching of such a life is great, and the 
young men of the day will find that as far as 
the means of personal progress are concerned, 
the means have not changed since George 
Stephenson's time. 

An Improved Mortar. — Some time since the 
use of sawdust in mortar was recommended as 
superior even to hair for the prevention of crack- 
ing and subsequent peeling off of rongh casing 
under the action of storms and frost. Someone 
by the name of Siehr says that his own house, 
exposed to prolonged storms on the seacoast, 
had pieces of mortar to be renewed each spring; 
and after trying, without effect, a number of 
substances to prevent it, he found sawdust per- 
fectly satisfactory. It was first thoroughly 
dried and sifted through an ordinary grain 
sieve, to remove the larger particles. The mor- 
tar was made by mixing one part of cement, two 
of lime, two of sawdust, and five of sharp sand, 
the sawdust being first well mixed dry with the 
cement and sand. 



July 9, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



23 



Floral Exchange. 

Editors Press:— The following is my list of flower seeds 
and cuttings for the Floral Exchange; Sweet Alyssum, 
Princess Feather, Nolana, Pink, Petunia, Nigella, Phlox, 
Kose Champion, Marigold, Larkspur, Sweet William, 
Candytuft, Batchelor Button, Ageratum Clarkia, Tassel 
Flower, Mourning Bird, Portulacca, Ice and Dew Plant, 
Morning Glory, Nasturtiam, Mignonette. Pansy, Balsam, 
Daisy, Chrysanthemum, Ivy, Honeysuckle, Lemon Balm, 
Plain and Variegated Myrtle.— M. A. Henlkt, Covelo, 
Mendocino Co., Cal. 

Tidiness about the Homestead. — There is 
an old story to the effect that once upon a time 
there was a man in search of a housekeeper, 
and as applicants for the position arrived he 
arranged matters so that each one, as she en- 
tered, found a broom lying on the floor in her 
way. All the women but one stepped over the 
broom and passed serenely on. The one woman 
who stooped and picked it up secured the place 
of housekeeper solely from that fact. It was 
her only recommendation ; but her employer 
argued from that, that the woman was observ- 
ant and orderly — two qualifications that he 
highly appreciated. Whenever you walk over 
sticks and brush and rubbish in your yard, that 
disfigure its tidy appearance, instead of picking 
them up, remember that you are "stepping over 
the broom," and somebody will pass judgment 
upon you, by what you may be pleased to call 
very insignificant indices. But the judgment 
in most cases will be quite correct. If every 
man, woman and child about the premises were 
trained to pick up and remove from view all 
rubbish and litter that he or she comes upon in 
walking about a yard or lawn, there would al 
ways be an appearance of neatness secured at 
little cost. — Rural New Yorker. 




Vegetable Leather. — The London Mechan- 
ics' Magazine states that there are very exten- 
sive works at Stepney Green, London, in which 
great quantities of artificial leather, are manu- 
factured. Iu appearance it resembles common 
leather, and it is only by a very close scrutiny that 
the distinction between them can be detected. 
It is manufactured in webs 50 yards in length, 
and four-and-a-half feet in breadth, and is now 
much used for bookbinding, and several other 
purposes for which tanned calf and sheepskin 
are employed by us. It is also used by saddlers 
for making harness, and it may be made of any 
thickness desirable, and is capable of being 
stretched or cemented. India rubber is the 
principal substance of its composition, but there 
are other ingredients mixed with it, whereby its 
leather qualities are secured. The method of 
making it is not given, and it appears that this 
is kept secret; but that such a substance is man- 
ufactured, sold and used in large quantities is 
a fact of too great importance to be overlooked. 



Chaff. 

We hear of a man who has made a fortune 
by attending to his own business. This is au- 
thentic. But then he had few competitors. 

A young lady graduate may in after years 
forget the title of her essay, but she will always 
remember how her white dress was made and 
trimmed. 

A student at Oxford University, on being 
asked "Who was Esau?" replied: "Esau was a 
man who wrote fables, and sold his copyright 
for a mess of potash." 

A Philadelhia man who has found a bed of 
remarkably fine clay on his property in the 
suburbs, is undecided whether to start a brick- 
yard or a French candy shop. 

A story is told of a German shoemaker, who, 
having made a pair of boots for a gentleman of 
whose financial integrity he had considerable 
doubt, made the following reply to him when 
he called for the articles: "Der poots ish not 
quite done, but der beel ish made out." 

A newspaper canvassing agent, being told 
by an old lady that it was no use to subscribe 
for the papers now, as Mother Shipton said the 
world was coming to an end this year, said, 
"But won't you want to read an account of the 
whole affair, as soon as it's over?" "That I 
will," answered the lady, and she subscribed 

"Mother sent me," said a little girl to a 
neighbor, " to ask you to come and take a cup 
of tea with her this evening." "Did she say at 
what time, my dear?" "No, ma'am ; she only 
said she would ask you, and then the thing 
would be off her mind. That was all she said 

The people of a Western town are so fearfully 
lazy that when the wife of a minister who had 
just settled in that town asked a prominent 
citizen if the .inhabitants generally respected 
the Sabbath and refrained from business, he re- 
plied: "Confound it, ma'am, they don't do 
enough work in a whole week to break the Sab- 
bath, if it was all done on that day." 

The baby didn't feel pretty good anyway, 
poor little thing; the car was cold and the road 
was rough and everybody else was cross and 
glum, and the baby had only one way in which 
to express its emotions, so it cried. And how 
it did cry ! Twenty-eight miles of it, and no 
sign of a let up, and the tired mother just 
smothering it with baby talk and rocking the 
little thing in her arm3. Presently a testy 
looking man, an old bachelor if there ever was 
one, turned in his seat and snarled, "Can't you 
shut that child up ? " The light that gleamed 
from her eyes was dangerous, as she hugged the 
baby a little closer, and fired back at him, "I 
can shut you up a great deal quicker." The 
howl of approbation went up all over the car 
and he "shut up." 



Our Puzzle Box. 

Numerical Enigma. 
I am composed of 38 letters. 
My 14, 38, 21, 4 is a garden vegetable. 
My 8, 25, 37, 6 names an ancient empire. 
My 11, 36, 20, 9, 7 is a valuable domestic animal. 
My 1, 12, 4, 17 is a large cask. 
My 2, 28, 8 is an organ of the animal body. 
My 3, 15, 27 is sick. 

My (J, 16, 30, 8 is to change one's course. 

My 13, 10, 8, 34 is a greaur quantity. 

My 18, 32, 31, 27 is an elevation of land. 

My 19, 28, 23, 4 is a point of the compass. 

My 22, 24, 28 is a place of public entertainment 

My 26, 2, 27, 29, 35 is a delicious fruit. 

My 33 is in all knotty problems. 

My whole is a familiar assertion, which travel and wan- 
dering but verify. 

Old Jok 

Problem. 

The sum of three numbers is forty-eight. The smallest 
number is equal to one-third of the second, and the sum 
of the two smallest numbers is equal to one-third of the 
largest. What are the numbers '.' Cepha. 



Cross- Word Eniprna. 

My first is in man but not in beast; 
My second is in most, but not in least; 
My third is in use, but not in make; 
My fourth is in bun, but not in cake; 
My fifth is in try, but not in do; 
My sixth is in false, but not in true; 
My seventh is in life, but not in death; 
My eighth is in lungs, but not in breath; 
My whole is a natural land formation. 



als to the carpenter and back, realized how 
many weary weeks had passed since the first 
penny was earned and saved, and suddenly 
willed out. 

"Then we can never, never buy one, and ma's 
grave will be lost." 

But he left the shop with tears of gladness 
in his eyes, and when he returned next day 
little Bud and Jack were with him, and they 
had a cart. There was not only a head board, 
but one for the foot of the grave as well, and 
painter and carpenter had done their work with 
full hearts and done it well. 

"Ain't it awful nice — nicer than rich folks 
have !" whispered the children, as the boards 
were being placed on the cart; "won't the grave 
look nice, though, and won't ma be awful glad !" 

Ere this the mother's grave has been marked, 
and when night comes the three motherless 
ones will cuddle close together and whisper 
their gratitude that it cannot be lost to them 
even in the storms and drifts of winter. — De- 
troit Free Press. 




Jennie. 
* 



Riddle. 

My first and last are just alike, upon my soul! 

But who my middle reads?— my middle is my whole. 

Names of Authors. 

1. To purchase and to proceed rapidly. 

2. To tremble and a weapon of "ye olden time." 

3. A manufactory and a heavy weight. 

4. A feminine name and a male relative. 
6 A trifle and an expression of grief. 

6. A greater quantity. 

7. A domestic animal and a noise of animals of the fe- 
line genus. 

8. An important organ of the body. 

9. To peruse. Aunt Hannah. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 
Cross-Word Enioma.— Our fireside. 
Problem. — Twenty-four. 

Syllable Puzzles — 1. Mar-tin. 2. Li(e)on. 3. Night 
in-gale. 4. Buff-a lo(w). 6. Weasel (wee-sell). 
Word-Square.— ITEM 

TARE 

ERST 

METE 

Concealed Motto. — "Look before you leap." 



The Orphans' Love. 

A boy, not over 1 1 years old, whose pinched 
face betrayed hunger, and whose clothing could 
scarcely be called by the name, dropped into a 
carpenter shop on Grand river avenue the 
other day, and after much hesitation explained 
to the foreman. 

We waut to get a grave-board for ma. She 
died last winter, and the graves are so thick 
that we can't hardly find her to more. We 
went up last Sunday and we came awful near 
not finding it. We thought we'd git a grave 
board so we wouldn't loose the grave. When 
we thought we'd lost it, Jack he cried, and Bud 
she cried, and my chin trembled so I could 
hardly talk !" 

"Where is your father?" asked the carpen 
ter. 

"0, he's at home but he never goes up there 
with us, and we shan't tell him about the 
board. I guess he hated ma, for he wasn't at 
home when she died, and he wouldn't buy no 
coffin nor nothing. Sometimes, when we are 
sitting on the door step talking about her, and 
Jack and Bud are cryin', and I'm remembrin r 
how she kissed us all before she died, he says 
we'd better quit that or we'd get what's bad for 
us. But we sleep up stairs, and we talk and 
cry in the dark all we waut to. How much 
will the board be ?" 

The carpenter selected something fit for the 
purpose, and asked. 

"Who will put it up at the grave ?" 
"We'll take it upon our cart," replied the 
boy, "and I guess the grave-yard man will help 
us put it up." 

"You want the name painted on it don't 
you?" 

"Yes, sir, we want the board white, and 
then we want you to paint on that she was our 
ma, and that she was 41 years old, and that 
she died on the 2d of November, and that she 
was one of the best mothers ever was, and that 
we are going to be good all our lives and go 
up where she is when we die. How much will 
it cost, sir?" 

"How much have you got?" 

"Well," said the boy, as he brought out a 
little calico bag, and emptied its contents on 
the bench, "Bud drawed the baby for the wo 
man next door and earned 20 cents; Jack he 
weeded in the garden, and earned 40 cents, and 
found five cents in the road; I run two errands 
and made kites, and fixed a boy's cart, and 
helped carry some apples into a store, and ~ 
earned 65 cents. All that makes a hundred 
and thirty cents, sir, and pa don't know we've 
got it, cause we kept it hid in the ground under 
a stone." 

The carpenter meant to be liberal but he 
said: 

"A grave-board will cost at least three dol 
lars." 

The lad looked from hit little atore of met- 



A Barber on Baldness. 

Speak iDg of the credulity of many people 
touching the efficacy of hair tonics, an intelli- 
gent French hair dresser says: 

' 'Very often the hair falls out after sickness. 
In such cases it generally grows again without 
the aid of any hair tonic whatever; but when it 
falls out from natural causes it never grows 
again. The celebrated Dr. Bazin, who was 
formerly physician-in-chief of the St. Louis 
Hospital at Paris, and who is known through 
out the world as the most learned specialist for 
affections of the skin, told me one day that 
there was nothing that could make the hair 
grow after the baldness had come on gradually. 
This I believe firmly, or, if there was anything 
of the kind, we would not see so many New 
York doctors with heads as completely desti 
tute of hair as the backs of turtles. 

'I don t think I am far from the truth when 
I say that during the past 25 years that I have 
practiced the profession of hair dresser, I have 
made the trial upon different bald heads of 
more than 500 different hair tonics, and I am 
bound to admit that I never saw a single head, 
the hair of which was restored after baldness. 
At the end of so many failures, I am completely 
undeceived as to the value of all the prepara 
tions; and I would not now recommend any one 
of them, because I would be afraid to commit 
the crime that is designated by the words, 'ob 
taining money under false pretenses. ' In my 
pathological studies upon the hair, I have found 
that people who perspire a great deal from the 
head are apt to get bald. The bad habit of 
wearing hats indoors is also very hurtful to the 
hair. In 1800, after the famous battle of Jena, 
in which the Prussians were completely de 
feated by Napoleon I, Baron Larrey, the cele 
brated military surgeon, perceived that many 
of the German prisoners were completely bald 
Surprised, he made inquiries as to the cause of 
this, and he found that they owed their bald 
ness to the shape — as homely as unhealthy — of 
their caps. The foul air of their head gear, 
having no issue, destroyed the vitality of the 
hair." 



Man and his Food.— Of course, various con 
ditions of life, climate and locality, have to do 
with the quantity of food. Thus, an idle per 
son can get along very well with two and three 
quarter ounces of nitrogenous food and 20 
ounces of carbonaceous food (flesh and cereal or 
vegetable food), when, if the same individual 
were walking or in active out-door life, double 
this quantity might be used. Perhaps the Es 
quimaux represent the heaviest feeders in the 
world, for Parry tells of a young native who 
devoured in 24 hours 9£lbs of sea-horse — half 
raw, half cooked — lflbs of ship-bread, 1£ pints 
of water, not counting grog and spirits. Both 
Sir John Boss and Dr. Hayes, from personal 
observations, declare that the daily ration of an 
Esquimaux may range from 12tbs to 201t>s of 
flesh food. On the other hand, it is quite re 
markable how small a quantity of food a man 
may eat and still *retain his health, though, as 
to the point of mental vigor engendered by 
scanty fare, that is another question. Cornaro 
who wrote a treatise on long life, subsisted for 
58 years on 12 ounces of vegetable matter, and 
14 ounces of wine per diem, while another case 
is cited of a man existing for not quite 20 years 
on 16 ounces of flour per diem, made into some 
kind of pudding. 

A Heroic Remedy for Baldness. — In cases 
of confirmed baldness the new remedy proposed 
is to remove the scalp, bit by bit, and substi 
tute, by skin grafting, pieces of healthy scalp, 
taken from the heads of young persons. The 
success which has hitherto attended operationi 
of this nature in cases of scalp wounds, gives 
promising outlook for this new mode of curing 
baldness; and perhaps the day is not far distant 
when the shining pates of our venerable fathers 
will bloom with the flowing locks of youth. 



A Medicated Pillow has been devised, con 
taining receptacles filled with inhalent mixtures 
suited to different cases, as of headache, bron 
chitis, catarrh, etc., the fumes of which may 
be breathed at night, and for which much is 
claimed. 



ESJIC 



Hints for Honsewives. 

Written for the Rural Press by Jeanne C. Carr.] 

Honey from fruits: Our honey crop is short 
this year, and I have already begun to put Up 
fruit syrups which I think are even more deli- 
cious with waffles and other breakfast cakes. 
This year I have made them in a little different 
manner from my former practice. I dissolved 
five lbs. of granulated sugar in sufficient water 
to cover it, let it come to a boil and set it away 
until cold. This is then poured over 10 lbs. of 
freshly gathered raspberries or strawberries and 
kept in a closely covered vessel for 24 hours. 
The syrup, which has extracted the aroma with 
the finer juices of the fruit, is then drained 
through a tine sieve or strainer, without press- 
ure, and boiled again, care being taken to skim 
it well. Five minutes' boiling will make it 
ropy if the fruit is at the proper condition of 
ripeness; every housekeeper knows how to test 
the consistency of jellies, and this compound is 
simply a jelly "arrested in its development." 
It should be bottled and sealed as soon as it 
cools. The pulp which remains, with the ad- 
dition of a little more sugar, makes a good 
plain jam. 

Squeeze the juice of one lime into a tumbler, 
add two tablepoonfuls of the syrup, fill up 
with water, and a delicious drink is the result. 

Peaches make the richest fruit syrup for 
cakes. Quinces and grapes, especially Dela- 
ware grapes, are very delicate in this form. If 
peaches are used, the syrup should be boiled 
longer and to a greater consistence before bot- 
tling. 

Fruit Syrup Pudding: I invented a pud- 
ding for four persons, last week, which proved 
very acceptable, viz. : To one large cup of sift- 
ed breadcrumbs or rolled crackers add a salt 
spoon of salt, well stirred in. Add a cup full 
of any of the above mentioned syrups, which 
the crumbs will absorb. Melt a tablespoonful 
of butter in two cups of sweet milk, and add 
to this when cool the beaten yolks of two eggs. 
Stir into this custard mixture the syruped 
crumbs, and bake in a shallow pudding or deep 
pie dish. When nearly done, make a meringue 
of the whites of the eggs and sugar, spread 
over the pudding, return to the oven long 
enough to "set," and serve cold. 

Lima Bean Soup: Boil a pint of lima beans 
until soft enough to be beaten to a smooth paste 
with a potato masher. Stir into this paste two 
quarts of hot soup stock of any kind, and let 
it come to a boil. (The jelly which is left after 
boiling a ham may be used if not too salt. ) 
Stock from beef or mutton makes a more del- 
icate soup. Use a trifle of cayenne in the sea- 
soning. Serve with sippets of toasted bread. 

To Wash Lace. — Mix a teaspoon of pow- 
dered borax in a basin of strong white castile 
soapsuds. Baste the lace to be washed very 
carefully with tine thread upon two thicknesses 
of flannel. Soak the lace thus arranged in the 
suds mixture 24 hours or longer if very dirty, 
changing the suds two or three times. Then 
let it lie a couple of hours in clean water to 
rinse, changing the water once. Squeeze it out 
(do not wring it), and when partially dry place 
the flannel, with the lace on it, lace downward, 
on two thicknesses of dry flannel laid on a table, 
and smooth it with a hot iron. When the lace 
is quite dry rip it off. Its considerable trouble, 
but the lace looks beautiful. 



Ginger Snaps. — Two cups of molasses, one 
cup of butter, one tablespoonful of ginger, two 
teaspoonfuls of soda dissolved in a little hot 
water; put the ingredients together, warm them 
in cold weather, then stir in as much flour as 
possible, but do not knead; pinch off pieces the 
size of a marble and place on tins, with space 
enough between to allow them to spread with- 
out touching each other. After baking, let 
them stand on the tins a few minutes to crisp. 

Rabbit a la Minute. — Clean, skin, wash and 
cut up a rabbit; put in a saucepan with one- 
fourth pound of butter; salt, pepper, a couple 
blades of mace powdered. When about three- 
fourths done, add two teaspoonfuls of flour, a 
pint of water, two glasses of sherry, two table- 
spoonfuls of minced parsley, and if you have 
them, three dried mushrooms. Boil hard for 
10 minutes. 

Black Ink.— To 1 gallon pure rain water 
take 1 lb. of logwood chips, 1 oz. bi-chromate of 
potash and 15 grs. prussiate of potash. Boil 
and strain the logwood first, thoroughly, add- 
ing water to make it up to a gallon. Then add 
the other ingredients. Hundreds have paid a 
dollar each for this recipe. It is said to stand 
the test of oxalic acid. — N. Y. Tribune. 



Roast Lamb.— Put the meat in the dripping- 
pan with a little hot water in the bottom. 
Sprinkle with salt and a little pepper. Baste 
often, and allow 8 or 9 minutes to a pound. 
When done, take the grease off the gravy, make 
it bubble on top of the stove, and make a thick- 
ening of browned flour. 

Omelet. — A plain omelet was made with four 
eggs, beaten with a spoon, two tablespoonfuls 
of milk, one tablespoonful of salt. The pan ic 
which it was cooked was very hot when the 
mixture was put in, and while cooking the pan 
was kept in rapid motion. 



24 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PHESS. 



[July 9, 1881. 




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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 9, 1881. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS — The Wheat Crop of 1881; The Date 
Palm in California; The Cinchona Industry, 17. Th 
Week; Editor and Contributors; The Olive in IuJv, 24 
California Weed Orape Stock; Sutter's Mill, 25. Notices 
of Recent Patents. V.H. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— The Date Palm in California, 
17. Suiter's Mill, Where Gold was first found In Call 
foroia, ,.'5. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Oakland to San Lcandro 
18- 

HUttTICDLTDRE.— Santa Cruz for Fruit-Growing 
Meeting of the Horticultural Commission, 18. 

AGRICULTURAL. ENGINEER. - Noies on Ir- 
rigation, No. L 18 9 

SHEEP AND WOOL — Wool Trade of the Half 
Year, 19. 

SEttlCuLTURE — The Women's Enterprises. 19 

THE VINEY A KD.— Meeting of the Viticuuural 
Commission, 19-21- 

PATRONS Or 1 tlUSBANDRY.-Questl-.ns for 
Subordinate Grange; St. Helena Grange and the Rail 
road Commission, 20. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun 
ties of California and Oregon, 20-1. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 21 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Threnody (Poetry); To the Girls 
Home Making in Miniature; Use of Dre>s; Two Farm- 
ers' Wives; Hints for Writers; Mind and Brain; The 
Advantage of Perseverance; An improved Mortar, 22 
Floral Exchange; Tidines* About the Homestead; Veg 
etable Leather; Chaff, 23- 

YOUNG FOLKS' ^ObOMN. — Our Puzzle Box 
The Orphan's Love, 23- 

GOOD HEALTH —A Barber on Baldness; Man and 
H;s Food; A Heroic Remedy fur BaMness, 23- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY -Hints for Housewives; 
To Wash Lace; Ginger bnaps; Rabbit a la Minute; 
Black Ink; Roast Lamb; Omelet, 23- 

QUERIES AND KEPLIES-Catilpa Trees. 24. 

MISCELLANEOUS— Cling to California; Mechanics 
Fair, 26- 

Business Announcements. 

Fresno Colony— T. E. Hughes & Sons, 8. F. 
Rifles- C. D. Ladd, S. F. 

Washington College — 8 S. Harmon, Principal- 
Williams' Evaporator— F. B. 8eeley, Oakland, CaL 



The Week. 



The country and the world has been appalled 
by the attack of an assassin upon the life of the 
President of the United States. Lying in wait 
for Mr. Garfield the wretched miscreant, Chas. 
Guitteau, fired upon him iu the waiting room 
of the Washington railway station on Saturday 
morning. The bullet, fired from behind th, 
President, penetrated his back, pierced his liver 
and lodged near the skin in front having pene. 
trated his body. For days the President has 
tarried between life and death and the conn 
try has held its breath hoping to catch 
assurance that he would live and not die. From 
end to end of the nation there is but one desire, 
and that is a longing, deep and prayerful, that 
the people should not be robbed, by a wretch's 
freak, of its chosen chief magistrate, who has 
entered upon his course with such determina- 
tion and manliness, and bids fair to serve the 
country well by his stand against political evils 
which are so generally condemned. There has 
been undisguised rejoicing and thanksgiving 
that thus far there is reason to believe that the 
President will survive a wound which but rarely 
spares a life. For, up to this writing, on Wed- 
nesday, he has progressed favorably and his 
physicians are gaining more courage. 

The stroke which felled the President has 
drawn all the people to him, and, should he sur- 
vive and rule wisely, he will be always held in 
honor and affection. His opportunity for well 
doing will be great, and it is to be sincerely 
hoped that he will live to embrace it. The 
assassin is a disreputable person whom it is 
charitable to believe insane, but who is now 
held in execration by the whole nation. 

In his trying hours the President is reported 
brave and hopefnl, and his devoted wife, her- 
self just escaped the vale of shadows, is a true 
heroine. These two honorable ones are just 
now held firm in the affection of a loving people, 
and their rufferings will not be without value, 
for the nation has found that it has a heart. 



Editor and Contributors. 

It has always been one of our editorial tenets 
that the strength and usefulness of a journal lie 
not alone in its subscription list and in its edi 
tortial chair, but in its power to draw out the 
thoughts, observation and experience of its 
readers, in order that each may enjoy the truth 
and success which all have discovered, or at 
tained. Our ideal journal is one which shal 
present each subject in the light of the freshest 
research and the widest experience. If a comet 
flash in the sky, let one who has made astron 
omy a careful study tell the people, in a styl 
every one can comprehend, just what is known 
about it, and what, according to the best knowl 
edge of such bodies, will be its future. For the 
lack of snch authoritative statement and from 
the unbridled fancies of reporters, which occu 
pied space which should have been better nsed 
there are doubtless some people who believe 
that the comet now visible is revolving around 
the polar star. And, dropping to mundane af- 
fairs, the papers are filled with the imaginings 
of uninformed writers on social and industrial 
subjects until the public mind is charged with 
ideas on nearly all themes which are crude, nn 
true, and apt to mislead. For such deception 
and misguidance of the popular mind, the edi 
tor is responsible. 

There is scarcely an issue of a journal which 
does not contain some statement of fact or de 
duction therefrom which is in reality an un- 
truth, in essence and iu inference; and there are 
readers, few or many, who know it. la the 
public interest it is the duty of the knowing 
one to correct the error, and the editor should 
welcome the new light and haste to shed it 
forth. In this way the public would be edu 
cated in the truth, both in small things and 
great, and the result is delightful to contem 
plate. We admit that editorial conceit would 
receive a stunning blow, and we see no reason 
why editorial conceit should be spared 
the crushing. It is an old dQgma that an edi 
tor should be omniscient, and that journalistic 
dignity will not admit a correction of any kind 
The journal will never be true to its mission 
until such narrow ideas are swept away. 

But we did not intend to write a homily upon 
editorial conduct in general, but rather to 
point out clearly what we believe to be one 
way in which a journal may be brought up to 
the highest intelligence of the time and press 
most closely to the popular heart, and that is 
by encouraging its readers to freely contribute 
the truth which in tbem lies, whether it be 
point of international law or the growing of 
turnip. Much depends upon the editor whether 
bis journal shall have a reputation for the full- 
est truth and accuracy on the subjects it dis 
cusses, or whether it shall slash around so that 
the lawyer may laugh at its ignorance one day, 
and the farmer denounce it as a pack of non- 
sense the next. If the editor is courteous 
toward contributors and welcomes their favors, 
the lawyer will be glad to set him right in the 
public interest, and the farmer will ransack his 
house for writing materials to tell him that he 
can't make a pound of butter from five lbs. of 
milk. But if the editor shows that he cares 
more for what he has said than for the truth and 
if the waste basket is proclaimed the largest 
piece of furniture in the sanctum, the editor 
will naturally be left alone with his conceit and 
the propagation of error and fallacy will con 
tinue. 

We are led to these remarks by the perusal of 
an interesting article in an English magazine 
concerning Dickens as an editor, and we are 
proud to know that ideas and methods which 
we have held and practiced in our modest ex 
perience, were characteristic of him in his edi- 
torial condupt. The writer shows that he was 
most kind in his treatment of contributors, and 
in this way drew out their best efforts and en 
riched his journal by them. We have not space 
to cite the many instances of this behavior 
which are given. In one place, alluding to 
Dickens, the writer says: 

It is in his relations with writers in his periodical, and 
indeed, in all connections with his "literary brethren," as 
he modestly calls them, that this amiable and engaging 
man appears to the most extraordinary advantage. As I 
read over his many letters on those points, I am amazed 
at the good-natured allowance, the untiring good humor, 
the wish to please and make pleasant, the almost defer- 
ence, the modesty in one of his great position as head, 
perhaps, of all living writers — to say nothing of his posi- 
tion as director of the periodical which he kindled with 
his own perpetual inspirations. There was ever the same 
uniform good nature aud ardor, the eagerness to welcome 
and second any plan, * reluctance to dismiss it, and this 
done with apologies; all, too, in the strangest contrast to 
the summary and plain-spoken fashion of the ordinary 
editor. This patient interest should, in these editorial 
matters, become more wonderful when it is considered 
that his position as head of an Important periodical made 
him a marked figure for importunity. I believe every 
composition was Beriously glanced at, and some estimate 
made — and many an obscure, clever girl was surprised to 
fiud her efforts appreciated. 

The writer of this tribute to Dickens as an 
editor, and who, we imagine, is himself one of 
the best known of living novelists, proceeds to 
show the patient labors of the editor in "touch- 
ing up" contributions, which it must be 
knowledged is often a severe task, but which 
no trne editor will shrink from, providing there 
merit in the article. He writes: 
I nave many proof-sheets by me, corrected by his own 
ind in the most painstaking and elaborate wav. The 
way he used to scatter bis bright touches over the whole, 
e sparkling word of his own that be would insert here 
d there, have a surprising point and light. The finish, 
o, that he imparted was wonderful; and the "dashes," 
stops, shiftlngs, omissions, were all valuable lessons for 




writers. Now, this was all encouraging and cordial to _ 
degree. I frankly confess that, having met innumerable 
men, and having had dealings with Innumerable men, I 
never met one with any approach to his genuine, unaf 
fected, unchanging kindness. 

It would be well for journalism if the spirit of 
Dickens were invoked in every sanctum in the 
world. If all the mole-eyed conceit which rules 
in editorial chairs could be melted away in the 
sunny welcome to worth, which was his 
constant disposition, how much that is trne 
and valuable would push from the columns the 
vapid generalizations, the gross inaccuracies and 
the glaring untruth and injustice which are too 
prevalent. We believe that this will be the fu 
ture of journalism. Such policies are gaining 
ground and the people are every day learning 
to distinguish more and more in favor of true 
gentility, and love of truth for ill own sake, in 
the journals which they support. 



Catalpa Trees. 



Editors Pkiss:— We are very much interested In put- 
ting out trees for wind-breaks and timber. The catalpa 
Is recommended. Can you inform us whether it is of 
quick growth, liable to be killed by frost, durable for 
timber and suir-able for firewood? Can it be easily raised 
from seed, and if so, how, and can it be obtained at seed 
stores?— J. W. Wiss, Lompoc, CaL 

There have been several interesting para 
phlets on the catalpa written by the late Mr, 
Barney, of Dayton, Ohio. They give all the 
points on the growth of the tree in the Western 
States. The conclusions reached, as nearly as 
we can recall them, were, that of all the trees 
suggested as adapted to the formation of timhei 
plantations in the Eastern States, the catalpa 
stands pre-eminent. Its exceedingly rapid 
growth ; its adaptation to almost all soils and 
situations; its wide range of latitude, extending 
from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico ; its extra 
ordinary success on the Western and North 
western prairies ; the ease and certainty with 
which it is transplanted; its strong vitality and 
freedom from diseases aud insects ; the incom 
parable valt-e of its timber for the most impor- 
tant as well as minor uses for whioh timber is 
needed ; the almost imperishable nature of the 
wood when nsed for posts, railroad cross-ties, 
and in other exposed situations, to say nothing 
of its handsome and stately appearance and the 
unrivaled beauty of its flowers — all are cited to 
point to the catalpa as the tree to plant. These 
remarks apply to the hardy, Western, early 
blooming Speciosa catalpa, and not in any de- 
gree to the common C. Bignonioides, which, nn 
fortunately, is the one generally met with in 
cultivation in the Western States. 

Although these points seem to indicate great 
value in the right kind of catalpa for Eastern 
situations, what is most needed by California 
inquirers is the local experience. We are not 
aware that there has been any general collection 
of information on this point, although the trees 
have already been introduced in different parts 
of the State. We would like to have all readers 
send us their experience and observation con 
cerning the growth of the tree under California 
conditions. 

We believe the trees are easily grown from 
the seed — at least they are produced in large 
quantities and at a low price by the Western 
nurserymen. Whoever has the seed for sale, 
or knows who has it, may address our corre- 
spondent. 



Journalism. — President Garfield, in his ad 
dress before the Ohio Editorial Association, at 
Cleveland, said: "It belongs to the honor of the 
press to have developed within the past few 
years as gallant a body of men, of as bright in- 
telligence as the world knows in any profession 
— men who have illustrated what heroism is by 
bringing from remote and dangerous quarters 
those items of intelligence that do so much to 
enlighten the world. Two forces are needed to 
improve, enlarge, and ennoble the sphere of 
"ournalism. The first rests with us who are ont- 
iders. If by all the means in our power, we can 
make the people so intelligent that they will 
only patronize the best and worthiest journals 
within their reach, we shall have done our 
part. And if on your part you do so enlarge 
the sphere of your work, and increase its intel- 
ligence and justice and force, that ignorant and 
weak men will not want your journal — and only 
the worthy and honorable will deserve it — be- 
tween you and us, the profession of journalism 
will go in no noble inprovement, bettering that 
growth, and increasing the security of liberty 
in your country." 

Coloring Vegetables Green. — M. Wnrtz, 
the well-known French savant, describes a sim- 
ple process for coloring vegetables green. It 
consiBta in the use of an excess of chlorphyl ob- 
tained from spinach, which holds in its cells a 
large amount of coloring matter. A watery 
solution of this, rendered alkaline by soda, is 
added to the boiling vegetable, which is slightly 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid. The chem- 
ical result is common salt and a deposit of color- 
ing matter on the organic tissue. There cannot 
now be any possible temptation for the unwar- 
rantable dyeing of perserved vegetables by salts 
copper or the employment of adulterants for 
obtaining a vivid coloring. 

Henry Grosser, who had been held to an- 
swer on a charge of the murder of C Smith, in 
Marsh Canyon, on May 11th last, and whose ap- 
plication for bail had been denied, hung himself 
in bis cell in the Martinez jail. 



The Olive in Italy— No. 4. 

[Translated for the Rcral Press from V Italia AgrUola, 
by Da. J. I. Blrabdali.) 

On Making Olive Oil. 

Oil, unlike wine, is not a product of rural in- 
dustry,, but we may consider it so, though the 
nature of it be different, in so far as we treat 
simply of the extracting of it from the fruit in 
which it already exists ready formed. Human 
industry is limited to working out the best 
methods to accomplish that end without loss or 
waste of the smallest part, as well as to master 
every means of refining it. Our intention then 
will be to explain in most? brief and simple man- 
ner, the methods of proceeding in the various 
operations comprised under what is called in 
Italy oleificazione. 

We write with no view of tilling the columns 
of a journal, but purely with the intent to 
familiarize the less educated in this branch of 
industry, with a method of making oil which, 
even if it be not the most perfect, will certainly 
at least not fall below that traditional one which 
is still at the present day retained by not a few 
cultivators. 

The process of oil-making comprises the fol- 
lowing separate operations, viz: 

Crushing the olives. 2. The extracting of 



the oil from the paste. 3. The process of clear- 
ing the oil. 4. The means for avoiding the 
least loss or waste. 5. The care indispensable 
in purifying the oil, and storing it for keeping. 
Crushing 

After the olives have been gathered and 
spread out on the floor of the store-room for 
some days, in thin layers, to prevent fermenta- 
tion, they ate submitted to the action of the 
crushing mill (frantois), to separate the pulp 
from the stones, mash it, and burst the oil cells. 

A simple oil mill consists of a vertical beam, 
turning on its own axis, to which are fixed one 
or two millstones, placed vertically, and in such 
a way, that they can be readily rotated within 
a basin in which the olives are placed, and from 
which the crushed pulp can be conducted into 
a suitable receptacle. 

Motion is communicated to these millstones 
by means of a horizontal lever some six or eight 
ft. long, fastened in the vertical beam and pass- 
ing through the center of the millstones. The 
lever is worked either by men or animals, and 
sometimes by water power. As mechanical arts 
advanced an oil mill, far more handy and easy 
to work, was invented, in which rollers were 
substituted for the old-fashioned millstone. 

Reverting to the method of crushing the 
olives, it is worth while to mention that one of 
the principal matters to be kept in mind is to 
avoid, by all means, the smashing of the ker- 
nels or stones, to which end the following ob- 
servations will prove useful: 

That placing the olives on the mill platform, 
they should be in sufficient quantity and spread 
evenly. 

That the crusher or millstones, without being 
too heavy, should still have weight enough to 
crush the fruit promptly; and be fit to be 
easily raised, together with the axis on which 
they are supported, in case of the crushed mass 
being too much. 

To keep the mass always changed and soft, 
especially where the mill has already done its 
work, which one man can easily do, by going 
round the basin of the mill with an iron shovel. 

The first crushing should be speedily done; 
rather than have to delay, it were better to stop 
crushing, even if the mass be not equally done, 
so long as there are no whole berries left in it 
It is worth while also to recommend tho 
greatest cleanliness in every single utensil, 
which can easily be done by washing them with 
lye and rinsing with cold water and vinegar, in 
order to remove any offensive smell. 

Over and above the already mentioned uten- 
ils, there are others of an accessory kind, viz: 
brushes, baskets, hair mats, etc. The most 
part of these Bhould be renewed every year, 
using the new for the first pressing and the 
others for the crushed stones. As soon as the 
olives have been pressed the mass is put aside 
a suitable place, and is afterwards put 
through another crushing; after which it is then 
packed in strong hair bags, divided in layers, 
one above another, by means of small hair mats. 
A single bag is sometimes divided into as many 
as 12 layers by these mats. In an ordinary oil 
mill, with only one millstone, worked by horse 
power, about 16 hectoliters (352 Ibi. ) can be 
crushed in a day. 

Presses.— f Strettojo). Since the most remote 
times this wooden implement has been in use, 
and was made, as it is now made, of the follow- 
ing parts, viz. : 

Of the worm or screw of walnut wood, well 
seasoned and frequently of one piece; of a nut 
of sorba wood also well seasoned ; of legs, and 
a tablet of oak or sometimes stone, upon which 
the material to be pressed is placed. 

The press is worked at first by the hands, and 
then by using a windlass placed vertically, and 
moved by four or five men, in order to bring 
sufficient pressure to bear. 

To the old wooden or stone oil-press, there 
succeeded the Trappeto, which was nothing 
more than the strettojo made of iron, with which 
the work of pressing ean be done with much 
more precision and the employment of less 
force. More recently hydraulic presses have 
come into use, by which a far greater pressure 
can be exerted, and which allow of a greater 



July 9, 188J.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



25 



saving of time and fatigue, since two or three 
men can do the work of five or six. 

Catching the Oil. 
A small vat (Tinello). — This is a receptacle 
placed about three ft. below, into which, as the 
press is worked, the oil flows through a little 
circular channel wrought in the tablet. Above 
the small vat it is customary to fix a wicker bas- 
ket, lined with a net to catch and hold back 
grosser substances, which would fall into the 
oil. The pressure under which the first press- 
ing is conducted, must be regulated very nicely, 
because if it should be excessive, some of the 
oil of the kernels might become mixed with that 
of the pulp — a matter always to be avoided 
where the best oil is sought to be made. 
Clearing. 

When the crushing or pressing is done, the 
oil is drawn out of the small vat and placed in 
a suitable vat in a dark place where the tem- 
perature must be maintained at not lower than 
10° Reamur, to prevent the oil from freezing. 
The best vessels to use in this operation are 
large earthen ones, glazed on the inside, of the 
shape of a truncated cone, the small end being 
the bottom. Even these vessels need a good 



Agriculturists call such residue lees. If the 
mill is at work work continuously these lees 
may be collected once a month and put in 
places apart from others. Authors assure us 
that an oil mill without this important acces- 
sory gives nearly 5% less oil, which, however, 
only serves for lamps. 

Straightening Shafts. — A correspondent 
of the Blacksmith and WheelwrigM asks how he 
can straighten a lathe-finished shaft, four inches 
in diameter and three ft. long, without dam- 
aging it by hammer blows. The editor of that 
journal answers as follows: "I would try this 
way: I would got a hard- wood plank or timber 
the length of my shaft, heat the shaft as hot as 
I could and not scale it; lay it on the piece of 
hard-wood plank or timber, crowning side up; 
take another smaller piece of hard wood and 
put it on the shaft, end up, and then let some 
one strike with the sledge hammer on the end 
of the small piece." Another correspondent of 
the same journal suggests the following method: 
"Let him get his bent four-inch shaft red hot, 
rest it horizontally level by pieces placed under 
each end, and apply water to the rounding side 
of it. This will contract that side. When the 



California Wild Grape Stock, 

Monsieur C. Mottier, half a mile above the 
celebrated Harbin Springs, four miles from 
Middletown, Lake county, is a busy man at 
present, converting the wild land of a wild 
sloping ravine into a fruitful garden. He has 
12 varieties of bearing foreign grapevines graft- 
ed on wild stock, all of which seem to thrive 
well. The White Muscat and Black Ham- 
burgs produced remarkably well last year, and 
have set for large fine clusters this season. 
The growth of grafted vines appears strong. A 
graft inserted the first week in April measured 
eight ft. in the middle of June. Although his 
principal object is to raise anti-phylloxera 
seedlings of the best varieties of wild vines, he 
will harvest a fine table crop for the local mar- 
ket this season. His new land is overgrown 
with wild grapes, and in clearing it off he saves 
roots enough in place to graft to make a well- 
stocked vineyard. As long as 20 years ago he 
was observing and experimenting in this line, 
and he is satisfied that this method of grafting 



Sutter's MilL 

The accompanying illustration will call to the 
minds of many pioneers of California pleasant 
reminiscences of those favored and long to be 
remembered days, the "days of '49." It repre- 
sents Sutter's mill, where the first practical 
discovery of gold was made, which led to the 
"excitement" of 1849, and the immense influx 
of people from all parts of the world to our 
shores, ultimately resulting in the opening of 
the gold fields of the Sierras, the civilization 
and settlement of our State; the discovery of 
the unbounded field of mineral country on the 
Pacific Coast; and the development of the num- 
berless resources of much-famed California, as 
well as adjacent States and Territories. 

Sutter's mill was situated on the South Fork 
of the American river, in El Dorado county, for 
a time known as the Empire county of the 
State. The site was in a pleasant valley, as 
the engraving shows. The mill, we believe, 
was never completed, and the sketch shows it 
as it was left at that time. Among the persons 
who were there sit the time of the discovery of 
gold were J. W. Marshall, E. Pierson, John 





SUTTER'S MILL. WHERE GOLD WAS FIRST DISCOVERED IN CALIFORNIA. JANUARY 19, 1848. FROM A PAINTING BY NAHL. 



cleansing with vinegar and watt r before being 
used to insure their sweetness. When remov- 
ing the oil from the small vat the greatest at- 
tention must be paid to avoid the intermixture 
of any other substance. 

Treatment of the Pomace. 
When the oil of the first pressing has been 
removed, the mass is again put in and subject- 
ed to another crushing, which in this instance 
may be more violent; and while this is going 
on, a kettle of hot water is to be got ready, at 
a temperature of 70° or 80° R , to pour little by 
little on the mass during the grinding. The 
amount of water used should be about as much 
as that which ran from the olives in the first 
pressing. This being done, the mass is placed 
in suitable bags and at once put in the press, 
and pressed up to the full capacity of its power. 
The oil obtained by this second pressing should 
be placed in the clearing room, in separate 
jars. 

There is a dark underground reservoir (inferno) 
closed and subdivided into two or three com- 
partments, communicating with each other, 
which communicate with a small vat by means 
of another small subterranean channel. The 
object here aimed at is to collect the water and 
other vegetable substances remaining in the 
oft-used small vat after the oil of the second 
pressing had been removed, in order that with 
rest the remainder of the oil still held in the 
water may rise to the surface and be separated, 



shaft is black hot about one inch deep, get it 
red hot again as before and repeat the opera-^ 
tion, and so on. This is a wrinkle worth know- 
ing, for it will straighten a shaft of any diame- 
ter without damaging it by blows." 

Alcohol in Nature. — A paper on the pres- 
ence of alcohol in the earth, in water and in 
the air, was recently read before the French 
Academy of Sciences. The author, M. Muntz, 
has developed the method depending as the 
change of alcohol into iodoform, so that one- 
millionth of alcohol in water can be detected. 
Alcohol is found in all natural waters except 
very pure spring water, and in greater quan- 
tity in snow. Rain water and the water of the 
Seine contain about one gramme per cubic 
metre. Alcohol, no doubt, also exists as vapor 
in the atmosphere. In soils, especially those 
which are very rich in organic matter, there is 
a considerable quantity. The wide diffusion of 
alcohol in nature is due to the destruction of 
organic matter by various agents of fermenta- 
tion. 

The Rural Press. — With this week's issue 
the Pacific Rural Press concludes its 21st 
volume. The Press is one of the ablest agri- 
cultural journals in the country, and, published 
in California, naturally contains more valuable 
suggestions for the agriculturists of the Pacific 
coast than all the rest combined. — San Jose 
Herald, 



roots produces a stronger and more fruitful 
vine than will grow in the same soil from a 
Mission grape cutting without grafting. While 
wdd grape cuttings, grafted, may appear to 
flourish Tor a time, it is his opinion that they 
will fail in a few years' time. Consequently 
the true way to secure anti-phylloxera vines, is 
to bud or graft in wild seedling stock. He has 
no difficulty in grafting seedlings. Is trying 
budding, but cannot yet report the result. He 
has found five distinct varieties of wild grapes 
growing in his locality. He points to the dif- 
ference in the indentures of the leaves, differ- 
ent color of the "veins" of others, and other 
differences, decided by appearance. Tame 
grapes embrace male and female branches or 
qualities, but (at least some of) the wild vines 
are single in gender, and a portion non-bearing, 
the blossoms blasting and falling every season 
and failing to fruit. There are no produciog 
vineyards near Mr. M., and no chance has been 
offered the wild grape to mix with the culti- 
vated, as happens in some places where the 
prunings from vineyards have been thrown into 
creeks and thus distributed by streams and 
flood?. 

Last season Mr. Mottier made some 50 gal- 
lons of wine from wild grapes, which may now 
be considered very clever claret for its age. It 
has a deep color, full, agreeable, but decidedly 
unique flavor, suggestive of medicinal or re- 
storative virtue. 



Weimer, Peter Weimer, W. H. Scott, A. 
Stephens, H. Bigler and C. Bennett. The en- 
graving of this historic locality was made from 
a painting by the late Charles Nahl, which was 
from a sketch made by him in 1851. The 
painting formerly belonged to A. Roman, E q., 
but is now the property of Mr. Julius Jacobs 
of this city. 

Carriage Building is becoming one of the 
most extensive interests in the country. Some- 
thing like 1,000.000 carriages, representing a 
value of over $100,000,000, is about the average 
of our annual prod uction. It may not be generally 
known that more carriages are annually made 
in the United States than are turned out by 
Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany, to- 
gether. Since carriages are kept only by the 
smaller portion of our well-to-do citizens, the 
vast number in use speaks volumes in regard 
to the general wealth and prosperity of the 
American people. 

Significant declarations were made at the 
sitting of the Monetary Conference on Saturday 
last, by Thurman, the American delegate, who 
expressed the conviction that the offers of En- 
gland and Germany would not warrant the Uni- 
ted States in allowing the free coinage of silver. 
The United States did not insist on immediate 
and unqualified bi-metilism, but were ready to 
accept approaches thereto, believing it would 
eventually prevail, 



26 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July g, I881 



Cling to California. 

The Mining and Scientific Press last week had 
a wise article appealing to California miners not 
to forsake the State for the mooted and oft- 
times deceptive cries of treasure in some dis- 
tant part. Although the words are directly ad- 
dressed to miners, they contain considerations 
which are applicable to dwellers in California 
generally; hence we quote as follows: 

In the tirst place, then, when tempted to leave 
California for any of the remote and much 
bepraised discoveries let the staid and thought- 
ful miner consider how, almost always, the im- 
portance of these reputed new finds is grossly, 
not to say shamefully exaggerated, the story of 
their exttnt and richness arising often from 
misapprehension and ignorance, or being the 
villainous fabrication of interested parties. 
Never have the first reports of these discoveries 
been subsequently verified, the most of them, 
as is quite notorious, having had no foundation 
whatever in fact. In so far as any benefit ever 
accrued to the masses who left California for 
Frazer river, Washoe, or any other localities 
outside her borders, every one of these move- 
ments may be pronounced dead failures, not 
one man in a hundred of those who were carried 
away by these excitements but would have been 
better off had he remained where he was. Let 
the miner who contemplates a journey to any of 
these outside places ponder well this significant 
fact. 

Then there arises to the man who remains 
and pursues his calling in a neighborhood where 
he is acquainted, this advantage: he not only 
saves his time and money, but he is pretty sure 
to earn something. Making available his 
knowledge of the diggings, he can hardly fail .to 
earn enough to pay his way and a little more. 
This the sttimpeder does not always do; on the 
contrary, he is apt to spend what he had and 
return to his old home "dead broke." Seventy 
per cent, of this kind come back from their cam- 
paigns in a worse plight than the Prodigal Son 
— out their expenses and incontinently 
"strapped." In this we have another phase of 
the question for a prudent man to ponder. 

Again, California is a pleasant, healthful coun- 
try for a man to live in. Even if he does not 
make so much money, he can enjoy life here and 
otherwise get a great deal more out of it than 
is possible in these sage brush, alkalied lands 
with their cloud-bursts, saud-storms, and their 
siroccos, their brigands and blizzards. As re- 
gards health, this Stato is a vast sanitarium, in 
which men, but for their bad habits or inherited 
disease, would live until old age. Bare ex- 
istence amounts to something in a country and 
a climate like this. Better live here, under 
the wide-spreading boughs of an umbrageous 
oak, than in a palace almost anywhere else. 
And are not the mining regions the most desir- 
able places of abode in all this broad and do- 
lectable land ? Is there another such place for 
the homes of white men as these foothills of the 
Sierra, with their salubrious atmosphere, their 
magnificent rivers, stately forests, rich, red 
soil and their gold ? Not another in all the 
world. Go where you will — traverse the face 
of the earth over and you will not tind its like. 

And let the ^California miner think of this, 
too, and stopping where he is, let him take up 
some land, inclose, plant and cultivate it, and 
make there a home. While doing this, it will 
be an easy matter to secure also some mining 
interests uear by. And, certainly, these are 
things to be looked after. If not very valuable 
now, they will bo by-and-by. Quartz veins 
that possess no value to-day will, with the im- 
provements that are being made, be worth a 
good deal in the course of a few years. Our 
advice to miners, therefore, is that they take up 
these properties and hold onto them. A gold 
mine will, after a while, be a handy thing to 
have on the premises. 

To the waiters and toilers in our own mines, 
we would say, then, stop in California; abide 
where you are; take up mines and stay by them; 
get land; own, beautify and plant it. This will 
be better than a pilgrimage to Tombstone, 
Yankee Fork or Wood River, even if you could 
be assured that it would be attended with 
much more than the average success. 



Mechanics' Fair. 

On Tuesday evening another meeting of the 
Hoard of Managers of the coming Mechanics' 
fair was held, and from the reports of the vari- 
ous committees a most satisfactory showing for 
the success of the exhibition was made. The 
announcement that £1,000 would be paid for the 
tirst successful trip of a flying-machine around 
the pavilion, carrying a man, has had the effect 
of bringing to light a number of wonderful in- 
ventions, and an eminent professor of aero- 
nautics has exhibited a perfect model, from 
which a large machine will at once be con- 
structed. The identifying season ticket used 
this year will be designed by A. R. Wells, a 
member of the Board, and used so successfully 
at previous fairs. The prices of admission this 
year will be: Double season, S5; single season, 
§3; single admission, 50 cents. The display of 
agricultural and miniug machinery in opera- 
tion, combining the latest improvements in 
those two important elements of our prosperity, 
will be a special feature, for which a large and 
inclosed space has been set apart. Another 
new triumph of California, from invention and 
manufacture, will be shown for the first time 
by an improved steam fire-engine and a rotary 
engine of novel construction. 



The Fresno Colony, 

On the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad and adjoining Fresno City and the Central Colony- 
Has the most favoroble location of any Colony, as well as other superior advantages. Abun- 
dant water secured. Land unsurpassed for Vine Raising and Fruit Culture. Send for Map and 
Circular, or come and examine. Address 

THOMAS £. HUGHES & SONS, Fresno City. Cal. 



Hotels and Summer Resorts. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 
iarFree Coach to the House. O. F. BECKER, Proprietor 



HIGHLAND SPRINGS, 

LAKE COUNTY, CAL. 

BEAUTIFUL. AND HEALTHFUL SUMMER RESORT 
FOR FAMILIES, INVALIDS. CAMPERS 
AND PLEASURE SEEKERS. 

Hotel and Cottages Newly Furnished. 



Board and Room, $10 per week, including Mineral Baths. 
Children under 6 years, and Servants, Half Rates. 

Direct route by steamer 11 Donahue'* to Donahue Land- 
ing, connecting with S. F. & N. P. R. R. to Clo.crdale, 
thence by Stage to Highland Springs. 



The springs are situated at an altitude ol 1700 feet 
above sea level; and for nature! beauty of scenery, health- 
ful climate, hunting and fishing, are unsurpassed in the 
State. The surrounding forests and valley are particu- 
larly inviting to campers, who will be especially enter- 
tained at the Springs. 

The waters have produced many wonderful cures in 
the following diseases: Dyspepsia, Paralysis, Ery- 
sipelas. Hheumatlsm. Sciatica. L.tver and 
Kidney. Bronchitis, Pulmonary Complaints, 
in tneir earh stages, General Debility, and a never- 
failing remedy for Chills and Fever. 
For further particulars, address 

MRS. J. C. COODS, Highland Springs. 



Adams' Spring. 

"The Best." 

By many who hart well tested the Adams and other 
Spriwrs for Dyspepsia, Rheumatism, Kidney, Liver and 
other kindred diseases, the cool . palatable water of this 
spring isdeclaredtobe Si pkkjok. Persons unacquainted, 
who wish to make sure of striking the best water first, 
should inform themselves as to the merits of the Adams' 
Springs by inquiry of those well posted, or by sending to 
the proprietor fosa copy of the thoroughly reliable anal- 
ysis made of this water, and reference to trustworthy 
persons, who have practical knowledge of its well au- 
thenticated virtues. Situated four miles from Glen- 
brook P. O., Lake County, Cal., surrounded by beautiful 
hills covered with Pine, Spruce and other mountain tim- 
ber. Comfortable accommodations and good board at 
very reasonable rates. E. R. MOSES, Proprietor. 



ANDERSON'S SPRINGS, 

LAKE COUNTY, CAL., 
Nineteen Miles from Calistoga. 



Hot Sulphur Water for Rheumatism, Paralysis, etc.; 
Cold Sulphurs for Diseases of the Bowels and Stomach; 
Climate Beautiful; Scenery Magnificent; Abundance of 
Trout Fishing ; Good Cooking. Board, $10 to (12 per week. 

ANDERSON & PATRIQUIN, Proprietors. 



BATHING SEASON 

AT SANTA CRUZ. 



FURNISHED HOUSES for rent, and full information 
for strangers and visitors on application to the Real 
Estate EXCHANGE St MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 



BftRTLETTJPRINGS. 

THESE WELL-KNOWN AND 

Celebrated Health-Giving Springs 

Are Situated in Lake C o., Cal., 
ABOUT 150 MILES from SAN FRANCISCO. 
HOW TO GET THERE. 

Tonrinta can have the choice of two routes, one by boat 
to Donahue, then by rail to CloverdaJe, the balance of way 
by stage. Second, train to Wil iama, i . through the 

thriving towns of DstlMUa. Woodland and Cachcville, 
changing cars at DavisvilU-. Stage from Williams to Springs 
over a beautiful road of 28 miles. 

(iRLEX liAKTLKTT & T 8. McMAHON", Proprietors. 
To be under the supervision of JOHN CRRJLER, of 
Lake county, and 0, R. CLARKE, of Nevada county, who 
will sparu tio effort in making guests comfortable. Hotel 
has beeu retited and refurnished throughout. 



THE DUROC or RED HOG. 



This celebrated breed of Swine whs imported from New 
Yoil: State a few yearn ago at great expense. They 
are the most 

HARDY THRIFTY and GENTLE 

Breed of Hog* and better adapted to the climate of this 
State than any others. We m.ike the breeding of this 
stock a special*}', and are now prepared to furnish young 
pigs at reasona'olo prices, delivered at Monterey, Cal., 
ooxed ready for shipment. The largest hog on our place, 
now two and a half ycSrs old, weighs over 1,100 pounds, 
and we have others 10 months old weighing over 
400 pounds each. 

Address HINCKLEY St GETCHELL, 
Laurelles Ranch, Monterey, Cal. 



A NEW BOOK. 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases. 

By I. J. Kendall M D. 

35 Fine Engravings showing the 

Eositlons and actiuua of sick 
orses. Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and bust treatment of dis- 
eases, lias a table giving the 
dosei, effects and antidotes of all 
the principal medicines used for 
the horse, and a few pages on the 
action and uses of medicines. 

Rules for telling tho age of a 
horse, with a fine engraving show 
ing the appearance of the teeth 
at each year. 

It is priut«;u on fine paper aud has nearly 100 pages, 7Jx5 
Debet Price only 25 cents, or 5 for #1, on receipt of which 
we will scud by mail to any address. 

DEWEY & CO., 

202 Sansome St.. S. F 




ML COOKE 



R. J. COOKE 



PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

W Communication! Promptly Attended to. "M 
COOKE St SONS. Successors to Cooei Jt Gregory 



SHOPPING 

Done in SAN FRANCISCO for Ladies and Gentlemen, 
and COMMISSIONS OF ALL KINDS EXECUTED with 
judgment and taste especially in 

Dry Goods, Fancy Work and Music. 

Simples sent free. Circular and reference* given on 
application to MISS E. H. MAYNARD, 

1521 Washington St., S. F. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



50 



Landscape, Chromo Cards, etc. , name on, 10c. 20 Gilt 
Edged Cards, 10c. Clinton & Co., North Haven, CV 



TEXAS LANDS. 



1 am prepared to Bell lands in various counties of Texas 
and at prices ranging 

From 50 Cents to $5 Per Acre, 

Owing to nearness to Railroads and improvements, sup- 
ply of wood, water, etc. These lands are carpeted with a 
rich and nutritious growth of MESQUIT GRASS, green 
the year round. 

I have a solid body of 9,200 acres iu Zavalla County, 
fronting Leona River. 

Plenty of Grass, Timber and Water, 

At $1.25 per acre, unfenced, and 15 miles from Rsilroad. 
Also tract in Frio County, of 10,000 Acres, fronting on 
Frio River. NEVER-FAILING water, well coated with 
Grass; ALL FENCED. Well adapted to Cattle, Sheep, 
Swine or Farming, five miles from Railroad Station, at 
$3 per acre, one-half cash, balance in one and two years 
at 8/.' interest. 

Also 4,005 acres on same river, two sides fenced and 
near County Beat at #2 per acre. 

Also some 640-acre tracts of rich land at $2.50 per acre, 
and near Railroad, besides many other pieces in other 
counties. 

JAMES M. THOMPSON, 
San Antonio or Prio Town, Texas. 



275 Acres of No. 1 Bottom and 225 Acres 
of No. 1 Upland for Sale, 

Known as the Her Ranch, and situate three and a half 
miles from the town of Elk Grove, on the Cosumnee 
river, 350 Acres Growing Grain, well improved, 
arge House and Barn and plenty of Timber. 

PRICE, $40 PER ACRE. 
Inquire of GEORGE H. ILER, on the premises, 0' of 
ILER & SONS, at the town of Gait, or of 

JAMES H. FERRIS. Agent. 



FRANK RITTERS RANCH FOR SALE. 

It is well improved, and consists of 1O0 Acres of 
No. 1 Bottom and 140 Acres No. 1 Upland, and 

is situated nine miles east of the town of Gait, on Dry 
creek, California. 

Price $ I 2,000. Terms one-half Down. 

Deferred payment todraw 10°£ per annum, Interest. Time 
to suit purchaser. Inquire of FRANK RITTER on the 
premises, or of 

JAMES H. FERRIS. 

Agent, at Gait. 



FRUIT RANCH TO RENT. 

The undersigned wishes to rent his Orchard and Ranch 
to a responsible man with a family, who understands the 

Frui'. business and can give good references. On the 
place there are between 

5,000 and 6,000 Trees 

Of the best quality of F.-uit. The place is situated in the 
foothills three miles from Auburo, Placer Co. 
[Correspondence solicited J 

J. W. HULBEBT, Auburn, Placer Co. 



A GOOD BARGAIN. 

Twenty-five acres Old Bearing Vineyard; 10O acres 
New Vines; iiOO Old Bearing Orange Trees; 75 acres 
prepared for Setting Vines; 200 acres in all with a good 
site for a Wine. Factory. All good Vegetable Land, with- 
out irrigation. Adjoins Mr. Rose's Vineyard, and is half 
a mile from the Railroad depot at San Gabriel, Los An- 
geles county, Cal. Income this year, $3,000, and when 
all is in good bearing, income will be from (10,000 to $20,- 
000 per annum. Price. $20,000. Inquire of 

MORFORD St BROWN. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms. In 
the best parts of the State. 

MCAFEE BROTHERS, 
202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



RAMS FOR SALE. 

S50 THOROUGHBRED 
And Graded 

SPANISH MERINO 

Rami for Sale. 

Bred from the first impor- 
tation of Spanish Merino 
Sheep to California. In 1854 
Thoroughbred and High 
Grade Ewes for sale. Pi ices reasonable. Residence, one 
miln north of McDonnell's Station, Western Paoiflo Division 

C 'p r 'o R 'addrees, MRS. E. McCONNELL WILSON, 
Elk Grove. SacramemtoCo., Cal. 




FOR THE LADIES. 

TURKISH RUO PATTERNS 

A Pleasant and Profitable Fancy Work. Patterns 
stamped in colors on heavy burlaps; Animals, Flowers 
and Scrolls. C»n be made of rags or waste yarn. Full 
printed directions furnished with pattern. Send for 
Catalogue. Addross 

CHAS. PEAKS St CO., 209 Kearny St. S. F. 



July 9, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



27 



Porcqaskrs of Stock will find ih this Dimctoey thi 

NaMSS OF 80MB OF TUB MOST RBLIABLB BRKBDBR8. 

Orm Ratbb.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. 



Thorough- 



HENRY PIERCE, 723 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of most of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba Buena," of noted butter strains on the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
" King of Scituate," son of the famous 705 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought here. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pedigreed. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep. 

M. WICK, Oroville, Butte County, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Cattle, Short-Horns. Young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale at all times of the year. 



HORSES. 



HENRY MILLER, San Francisco, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Norman Horses of the Stock Imported 
by Mr. Perry, of Illinois, took First Premium at San 
Jose Fair, 1880. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



JOHN S. HARRIS, Hollister, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred registered Goats. Took Eight Premi- 
ums at the State Fair of 1880. I had one Buck at the 
State Fair with staple 10 inches long. Correspondence 
solicited. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Lauding, Solano Co., Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 



E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep: City office, No. 418 California 
St., S. F. 



POULTRY. 



GEO. TREFZER, Napa, Cal. I have a fine lot of 
Brown Leghorns for sale, all one year old, for 86 per 
trio, if taken soon, in order to make room for my young 
stock. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducka^ctc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Sonoma County, Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of all the varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls. Eggs for hatching sent any distance with safety. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. Send for price list. 



MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown and White Leghorns, Plymouth Rock, 
Pekin Ducks. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Slieep Labels. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hauford, Cal., Breeder of Poland 
China Swine. Stock recorded in American Poland 
China Record. Are descendants of the celebrated Mc- 
Crary-Blsmarck, bred by D. M. Magie, Oxford, Ohio. 
Took five First Premiums at State Fair in 1880. 



TO BEE FANCIERS. 

I am now ready to furnish PURE ITALIAN QUEENS, 
Colonies.Nuclei, Comb Foundation, Veil, Smokers, Knives, 
Bee Books, etc. SAMPLE HIVE. Address for Circular, 

JOS. D. ENAS, 
Sunnyside, Napa P. O., Cal. 



ITALIAN SHEEP WASH. 



Extract of Tobacco, free from poison. Prepared by the 
Italian Government Co. Cures thoroughly the 

SCAB OF THE SHEEP, 

And is an excellent Sheep Dip. The best and cheapest rem 
edy known for curing the Soab. Successful in every case 
For particulars apply to 

CHAS. DUISENBERG & CO., Sole Agents. 

314 Sacramento St., San Francisco. 



A. W. LOOEHART, 

N. E. Corner 11th & J Sts., Sacramento, Cal 
Sole Manufacturer and Proprietor of 

Loekhart's Patent Self Feeder and Elevator. 

Admitted by those who have used it, for regularity of 
Feeding, Simplicity, Cheapness and Durability to be Un- 
equaled by any other Feeder in use. Call and examine 
before purchasing elsewhere. Threshing Machines Re 
paired on short notice. 



$400 to_$60,000. 

Farms to suit all; Grain, Grape, Fruit, Stock and gen- 
eral Farming Lands and Suburban Homes, some very 
cheap. PACIFIC LAND AGENCY, 806 Kearny St., S. F 



50 



Varieties French Chromo Satin, Pearl Finished'Etc 
cards, name in gold, 10c. Card Mills, NorthfordCt. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 
■ In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

Reserve Fund and Paid up Stock, 23,7 00. 

OFFICERS: 

0. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLLER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Co 

J. 0. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Co 

1. O. STEELE San Mateo Co 

DANIEL RHOADS Mussel Slough, Tulare Co 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way, bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER deuoBics receivru 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on de- 
mand. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 4% per annum if left for 3 months; 5% per annum if 
left for 6 months: 67 per annum if left for 12 months. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 
and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1881. 



SEASIDE! 
MOUNTAINS! 



Wherever you go, take one of onr spark- 
ling Collections of the best Songs, or the best 
Instrumental Music. All are choice collec- 
tions, and will be invaluable for amuse- 
ments on dull days, at evening entertain- 
ments, and at all hours of leisure. 

GEMS OF ENGLISH SONG. 

Great favorite. Enlarged and improved. 
80 grand songs. $a 50 

SUNSHINE OF SONG. 

All brightness. 68 songs. $2.50 

GEMS OF STRAUSS. 

Music always new and inspiring. 
Dance to it. $2.50 

GEMS OF THE DANCE. 

Great variety. Dance also to this. $2.50 

GEMS OF SCOTTISH SONG 

108 of the sweetost ballads ever made. $2.50 
Also many other books. Send for List! 
Books mailed to any address for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITSOrT&CO., BOSTON. 

O. H. Ditson St Co.. 843 Broadway. N. 'S 



FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE. 

The Thoroughbred Roan Bull, New Year's 
Gift 17818. Bred by Cyrus Jones of San 
Jose, Cal. Calved, January 1, 1874. 

Got , by Grand Commander 12085 

1st dam, Duchess 9th, by Baron Airdrie 9176 

2d dam, Duchess 7th. by Duke of Airdrie 2743 

3d dam. Duchess, by D Otley 432 

4th dam, Henrietta, by Sir Alfred 969 

5th dam, Lucilla, by imported Romulus (12019) 

6th dam, Helen, by Bertram 2d (3144) 

7th dam. Ruby 2d, by Bertram (1716) 

8th dam, Ruby, by Young (sir Dimples (971) 

9th dam, Daisy, by Wellington (678) 

10th dam, Beauty, by Duke (224) 

11th dam, Lucy, by Young Cornet (905) 

12tn dam, - — , by J. Biown's Red Bull (97) 

Grand Commander 12085. by imported Royal Commander 

10914, out of imp. Goody Two Shoes, by Lord Lyons (26677) 
Baron Aiidrie 9176, by 12th Duke of Airdrie 6534, out of 

Baroness 6th, by Royal Oxford (18774). 
This splendid Bull is in fine condition and warranted kind 

and gentle. A child cau handle him. Address 

R. THOMPSON. San Jose, Cal. 

CARRIAGES, WAGONS 

AND 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS! 

Having recently purchased the entire Btock, toola and ma- 
chinery of the late Kimball Manufacturing Company's works, 
aud having the best appliances in the way of machinery for 
Wood and Iron Working, also Painting and Trimming, on 
the Pacific Coast, I am enabled to till all orders promptly, 
such as Carriages, Farm, Freight and Ore Wagons, also all 
kinds of Agricultural Implements, R. R. Horse Cars, 
and R. R. Hand Cars, Scrapers and Excavators at short 
notice. 

B. SOULE, 
341 Fourth St., Corner Bryant. 

GOLD MEDAL AWARDED 

the Author. A new and great Medi- 
cal Work, warranted the best and 
cheapest, indispenwable to every 
man, entitled the "Science of Life or 
Self- Preservation;" bound in finest 
French muslin, embossed, full gilt, 
300 pp. Contains beautiful steel en- 
gravings; 125 prescriptions Price, 
only $1.25, sent by mail; illustrated 
sample, 6 cents. Send now. Address 
•nTiT n Peabody Medical Institute or Dr.W. 
KNUW InlSliLl. H. PARKER, No. 4 Bulfinch street, 
Boston. 

ANGORA GOATS. 



1,600 Graded Angora Goats for Sale 




Apply to 



H. W. CHAPPEL. 

Redding, Shasta Co., Cal. 



Educational. 



The Berkeley Gymnasium. 

A First-Class Academical Institution. 

—AFFORDS A— 

CLASSICAL, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC, OR 
BUSINESS EDUCATION. 



The Next Term Will Begin July 11th. 

For Catalogues or particulars address 

JOHN F. BURRIS, Superintendent, 

BERKELEY, CAL. 



r. a. Mjunioa. 




Life Scholarships, $70. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



LAUREL HALL. 

Home School for Young Ladies and Children. 

The Eighteenth Annual Session will commence Thursday 
August 4. 1881. 

This iustitution offers to a limited number Advantages o 
the highest order, baring a large corps of well-known 
teachers who give individual care and treatment to each 
pupil. Address MRS. L. MANSON-BUCK MASTER, 

San Mateo, Cal. 



SNELL SEMINARY, 

668 Twelfth St., Oakland, 
(TWO BLOCKS WEST OF BROADWAY.) 

For Boarding 6c Day Pupils. 

Next Term Commences, Tuesday, July 26th, 1881. 
MARY K, SNELL, RICHARD B. SNELL, 
PRINCIPALS. 



ST. AUGUSTINE COLLEGE. 

27TH TERM BEGINS 
Tuesday, July 26th, 1881. 

For Catalogues please address 

BISHOP WINOPIELD, Benicla, Cal. 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY, 

OAKLAND, UAL. 

Boarding and Day School for Boys and Young Men. 
Classical and English Courses. 

The next season begins Tuesday July 26, 1881 For infor- 
mation visit the Institution, or address 

REV. H. E. JEWETT. Principal. 



HOME SCHOOL 
FOR YOUNG LADIES. 

1825 Telegraph Avenue, - - Oakland, Cal. 

The next year will begin on Wednesday, July 27, 1881 
MISS H. N. FIELD, Principal. 



NAPA COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE. 

NAPA, CAL. 

Twenty-THird Session begins July %7, 1881 

Send for Catalogue. 

A. E. LASHER, A. M., Principal. 



YOUNG LADIES SCHOOL, 

No. 1036 Valencia St., San Francisco, Cal. 
THE NEXT SESSION WILL BEGIN JULY 25, 1881. 



REV. EDWARD B. CHURCH 
MISS MART B. COCHRANE, 



Principals 



CALIFORNIA MILITARY ACADEMY, 

AT OAKLAND. 

The next term will begin on 

Monday July 18, 1881 

REV. DAVID McCLURE, Ph. D., 
Principal. 



BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL 
Tot Young Ladies. 

Oak Street, bet. 10th and 11th, Oakland. 

Will open JULY 27th. A special course of study will be 
arranged. Thorough preparation given for admittance 
to the State University and Eastern Colleges. For cir- 
cular address 

MISS S. B. BISBEE, Oakland, Cal 



50 



All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards. (No 2 
alike). Nameon,10c. Clinton Bros., ClintonTille.Con 



Agricultural Articles. 



THE CALIFORNIA ADJUSTABLE 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

CULTIVATOR & SEEDER. 




As IMPROVED and PERFECTED for 1881 will work 
equally as well on loose or wet land as in hard or dry 
soil, and are what every farmer needs to destroy vegeta- 
tion on the summer fallow. Will savereplowing and put 
the land in the best possible condition for early sowing. 

LOOK TO YOUR INTERESTS 

And make money by saving time and working your fal- 
lows before harvest. Our new size six-foot ORCHARD 
or VINEYARD HARROWS are provided with handles, 
rendering them as easily 'jontrolled as the Cultivators. 
These implements are acknowledged by all who are fa- 
miliar with their work, to be the most practical for gen- 
eral use in the orchard or vineyard of any yet offered to 
the public. Manufactured only by 

BATCHEL0R, VAN GELDER & CO., 

Nos. QOO & 902 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

Under the original patents now owned by 

D. C. & H. C. REED & CO., Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Beware of Infringements. 



MATTES0N & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match la 
Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who have 
been long in the business aud know what is required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal. 




Wells, Fargo & Co's 
U.S. Mails. 



Clear Lake and Calistoga 

STAGS XiXXTE, 

Carrying 
Express and 

STAGE LEAVES CALISTOGA 

On Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, for Lakeport, via 
St. Helena, Mountain Toll House, Middletown, Cobb 
valley, Glenbrook and Kelseyville, returning on alternate 
days. Connections are made on this route with the 
Great VVestern and Oat Hill quicksilver mines; the An- 
derson, Adam's, Siegler, Highland, Allen, Wittier, Pier- 
son and Bartlett springs, Soda Bay and other steamer 
points on Clear Lake. 

On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays coaches leave for 
Sulphur Banks (on the east shore of Clear lake), follow- 
ing the fame route to Middletown, and thence via Guenoc 
and Lower Lake, making connection with Howard and 
Siegler springs and the steamer on Clear lake. 

Passengers leave San Francisco at 8 A. If., and reach 
Lakeport and Su'phur Banks early in the evening, in less 
than 11 hours from the city, carrying the U. S. mail and 
Wells, Fargo & Co 's express. 

The best SIX-HORSE CONCORD COACHES and stock 
are provided for the safe and prompt transport of pas- 
sengers. W. P. FISHER, Proprietor, 
Lodl Stables, Calistoga, Napa Co , Cal. 



IMPROVED MACHINES 

FOR LAYING 

Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Pipe 

For sale at Daviaville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to L. A. GOULD. 



Lowest prices Pverknowu 
on Htn-j - Loademt, 
Klfl«*M, and Revolvers, 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

} at greatly reduced price, 
F Send stamp for our New 
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r> r\ I 1% by Watchmakers, By rnnil. 30 cts. Circulars 
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28 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. [July g, 1881 



* A TENTS AND I NVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents for Paciflo Coast 
Inventors. 

From Official Reports for the "Mining »nd Scientific 
Press," V. 8. aud Foreign Patent Agouti. I 

For thi Weik Ending Jcnk 21st, 1881. 

243,0^5 —Tally Board— H. J. BKldeley. Napa, Cal. 

•213 2U2.-OIL Siovs— B U Brown, S. F. 

2»S 136.— Dry Plats Holdir for Phoiooraphic Ca- 
mbkab— I. M. Howe, S. F. 

2»3,071.— Pockkt K.mfk — A. Keyser, S. F. 

243,160.— Fanning Mill— Thos. B. Rosier, Dayton, 
W. T. 

243 161.— Latch— J. W. Ross, Santa Clara, Cal. 

24^321. — Harrow— Geo. S. Spring, Willows, Cal. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest lime possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign, Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Sofa Bed.— Frank Laeremaus, 525 Washing- 
ton street, San Francisco. Dated June 14, 1881. 
No. 242,941. The patent which covers this in- 
vention, though modest in title, really covers 
several in one. It relates to that class of furni- 
ture which combines the sofa with the bed, 
wherein the back of the piece of furniture 
folds forward on the arms. It consists in a 
pair of grooved arms and a shifting back, pro- 
vided with studs entering said grooves, and 
upon which the back swings in combination 
with projecting raiis secured to the ends of the 
back, and which sustain the back when it is in 
a horizontal position to act as a bed. When 
used as a sofa, it looks like one — and is one: 
when used as a bed, it is a good wide one on a 
firm foundation. The uner does not lie on the 
upholstering, but on tht> ticking, and this is 
made with slates like a regular mattress. With 
it is a movable frame for mosquito bars. ' An- 
other combination of this principle is the sofa 
and operating table for the use of physicians. 
In one position, it is an office oofa; in the other, 
an operating table, with all necessary appliances, 
and so made as to take the patient in any posi- 
tion. Many of these have been sold, and for 
country physicians they are excellent. The 
combination is also formed as a chair and a 
crib. During the day-time it is a good easy- 
chair for bed-room use. At night a single mo- 
tion makes it a crib, the side uufolding and be- 
ing properly held in position. The most pecu- 
liar arrangement, however, is the sofa and table 
in combination. The back of the sofa, when 
tipped over horizontally, makes a table capable 
of extension. Its edges project over sufficiently 
to allow room for the limhs under the table. 
The eud-leaves draw out and admit of inserting 
any number of leaves. This is a very useful 
arrangement for residences, steamers, etc., be- 
ing very convenient. The frame can be made 
in black walnut, but a cheaper form is, of 
course, in pine. For sitting-rooms in the coun- 
try this is handy, the table being out of the 
way when not in use, and being, at the same 
time, available as a sofa. A G-ft. sofa makes a 
12-ft. table. The slide is peculiarly arranged 
so as to leave no chance to get out of order. 

Pocket Knife.— A. Kayser, S. F. Dated 
June 21, 1SS1. No. 243,071. This invention 
relates to that class of pocket knives the novelty 
in which is the peculiar construction of the 
handle and arrangement of the blades, whereby 
the said blades may be easily removable, and 
contained complete within the handle when 
not in use and pushed out therefrom when re- 
quired, being held in place to prevent their un- 
expectedly closing up and hurting the hand. 
The object of the invention is to provide a knife, 
the blades of which can be easily removed and 
others substituted, and which, when not in use, 
will be convenient and harmless, the blades not 
being able to open in the pocket, and when in 
use will be held firm and rigid, the whole knife 
being substantial and not likely to get out of 
order. 

Harrow. — Geo. S. Sperry, Willows, Yolo 
county, Cal. Dated June 21, 1881. No. 243,- 
321. This is a peculiar sectional harrow, the 
two parts of which are connected by peculiar 
links, with notched or corrugated surfaces which 
give to the two sections a zigzag or vibratory 
motion aud conform them to the character of the 
ground. An extended heel, or tube, carrying 
the teeth, is journaled on the frame; theBe teeth 
revolve between the interstices of the frame 
timbers, and are long enough to cut the straw 
or stubble beneath. 

Oil Stove. — B. C. Brown, S. F. Dated June 
21, 1881. No. 243,202. This invention relates 
to an oil stove for heating and cooking purposes, 
the novel features of which are the details of 
construction of the oil- holding tank. The con- 
struction of the stove makes it possible to 
warm the room at the same time a cooking ves- 
sel is used. 



The Color of the Sun. 

Prof. S. B. Langley, Director of the Alle- 
ghany Observatory, famous in the line of dis- 
covery in solar physics, is about starting on an 
expedition of scientific and popular interest. 
The main object of this expedition is to deter- 
mine by actual experiment the amount of heat 
given by the sun to the earth, and also the true 
color of the sun, as it would appear to an ob- 
server beyond our atmosphere. Numerous ques- 
tions of importance to meteorology are closely 
involved in this inquiry, and hence it has a di- 
rect practical bearing. A liberal citizen of Pits- 
burg, Pa., who wishes that his name should not 
be made public, has defrayed the large cost of 
the requisite apparatus, and also of the inciden- 
tal expenses of the expedition. The co-opera- 
tion and hearty assistance of Gen. Hazen, Chief 
of the Signal Service Bureau, has been given to 
the enterprise, and it proceeds under his official 
direction. To attain its special object the ex- 
pedition must seek one of the most elevated 
summits on the continent, in an extremely arid 
region, these two conditions being essential. 
These are only to be found combined in the re- 
mote localities of Arizona and Southern Califor- 
nia, in places far from civilization, and where 
the aid of government by the War Department 
is indispensable both to provide transportation 
and protection. 

Oue of the objects of the expedition will be 
to prove by a new class of experiments a curi- 
ous conclusion which Prof. Langley has already 
arrived at: to the effect that the sun is not re- 
ally a white, or yellow, or even a red object, 
but that sunlight is in reality "deeply, darkly, 
beautifully blue." We, however, see sunlight 
only through the delusive medium of an atmos- 
phere. We are in the position of people who 
nave been looking through colored spectacles 
without knowing it. If we had always looked 
at the electric light in this way — say through 
yellow glasses — we should have fully believed 
it yellow. The proof that we have a blue sun 
is, however, somewhat conclusive at present, 
and this expedition is likely to add to the 
strength of the proof. This is not merely a 
subject of curious inquiry. If our atmosphere 
in reality has played the part of yellow glasses, 
it follows that an enormous proportion of the 
sun's heat has never been taken into account 
in those questions of scientific meteorology 
which have a special bearing on climate, and 
hence upon agriculture and other practical af- 
fairs. Two adjacent stations will be selected, 
respectively at hights of 3,000 and 14,000 ft. 
for purposes of comparison, through their very 
different thicknesses of atmosphere. The per- 
sonnel of the expedition will include at least six 
specialists, of whom one will be an officer from 
the army, three from civil life, and two non- 
commissioned officers of the Signal Service. 
The expedition starts July 1st from Pittsburg. 

Speed at Which Wings are Driven. — The 
speed by which some wings are driven is enor- 
mous. It is occasionally so great as to cause 
the pinions to emit a drumming sound. To 
this source the buzz of the fly, the drone of the 
bee, and the boom of the beetle are to be refer- 
red. When a grouse, partridge or pheasant 
suddenly springs into the air, the sound pro- 
duced by the whirring of its wings greatly re- 
sembles that produced by the contact of steel 
with the rapidly-revolving stone of the knife- 
grinder. It has been estimated that the com- 
mon tiy moves its wings 330 times per second, 
that is, 19,800 times per minute, and that the 
butterfly moves its wings nine times per second, 
or 540 times per minute. These movements 
represent au incredibly high speed even at the 
roots of the wings; but the speed is enormously 
increased at the tips of the wings, from the 
fact that the tips rotate upon the roots as cen- 
ters. — Eraser's Magazine. 



Formation of Mountains. — Speaking of the 
formation of mountains, Prof. Favre, of Geneva, 
has said that the three systems which account 
for the origin of mountains do not differ greatly 
from each other. Those who admit the system 
of elevations as the principal cause would prob- 
ably admit the formation of depressions as a 
secondary cause, while those who give depres- 
sion the first place would also admit elevation 
as a secondary factor. Lastly, in the system of 
lateral crushing there is a general depression of 
the earth, since there is a diminution in the 
length of the radius of the globe, and yet there 
result elevations of the ground in the midst of 
this general depression. 

Measuring Stellar Light. — An apparatus 
has been described by M. Janssen for measuring 
the intensity of the light received by us from 
the stars. It is, of course, necessary for com- 
parative purposes that the photographs of dif- 
ferent stars should be taken under identical 
conditions. M. Janssen hopes to be able 
shortly to obtain by this method additional 
data for ascertaining the relative dimensions 
and distances of the stars, and also additional 
evidence concerning the phenomena which take 
place in them. 

Blacking Piano-Forte Keys. — A good black 
ink is as effectual as any stain to blacken the 
sharps of a piano. It is, perhaps, not generally 
known that, though made of ebony, these keys 
always require staining, as true ebony is rather 
brown than black, and full of a yellowish grain. 
Old keys are probably saturated with grease ; 
they should therefore be treated with potash 
first. — English Mechanic, 



New Method of Inlaying Wood. 

A new method of inlaying wood has been 
contrived by a furniture manufaeturinghouse in 
England. The process is as follows: A veneer 
of the same wood as that which the design to 
be inlaid consists — say sycamore — is glued en- 
tirely over the surface of any hard wood, such 
as American walnut, and allowed to dry thor- 
oughly. The design is then cut out of a zinc 
plate about one-twentieth of an inch in thick- 
ness, and placed upon the veneer. The whole 
is now subjected to the action of steam, and 
made to travel between two powerful cast iron 
rollers of eight inches in diameter by two ft. 
long, two above and two below, which may be 
brought within any distance of each other by 
screws. The enormous pressure to which the 
zinc plate is subjected forces it completely into 
the veneer, and the veneer into the solid wood 
beneath it, while the zinc curls up out of the 
matrix it has formed and comes away easily. 
All that now remains to be done is to plane 
down the veneer left untouched by the zinc un- 
til a thin shaving is taken off the portion forced 
into the walnut, when the surface being per- 
fectly smooth, the operation will be completed. 
It might be supposed that the result of this for- 
cible compression of the two woods would leave 
a ragged edge, but this is not the case, the 
joint being so singu'arly perfect as to be unap- 
preciable to the touch; indeed, the inlaid wood 
tits more accurately than by the process of tit- 
ting, matching, aud filling up with glue, as is 
practiced in the ordinary mode of inlaying. 

Treatment of Si"«jstrokr. — The peculiar 
atmosphere of California admits of much more 
exposure to the rays of the summer sun than 
can be endured in the Eastern States. But it is 
still well to know what to do in case of sun- 
stroke, as prompt action is generally necessary 
to avoid serious results. An exchange says: In 
case of sunstroke, loosen the patients clothes and 
bathe the head and entire body with cool water, 
and with moistened hands rub the extremities, 
the neck, and the whole length of the spine, 
rubbing in a downward direction to draw the 
blood from the head. As soon as boiling water 
can be obtained, put a dry blanket round the 
body, then ring flannels f rom the hot water and 
apply them quickly to the region of the stom- 
ach, liver, bowels and spine, over the blanket; 
also, immerse the feet in hot water, or wrap 
them in hot tl innels as far as the body. Re- 
wring the flannels once every five or eight 
minutes for half an hour or more, then remove 
them and apply cold water in the same way, 
either by cool towels or sponging with cool 
water; dry well and rub the surface lightly aud 
briskly with the hand until a glow is produced. 
As soon as the patient can swallow, give him 
hot water to drink, and plenty of it, with oc- 
casional bits of ice or sips of cold water. Often, 
of course, the attack is so slight that so 
thorough treatment is not necessary. 

Washington College. — The next term of 
this well. known institution will begin July 
28th. The school is beautifully situated upon 
a rise of ground overlooking the Alameda val- 
ley, in a most healthful location. The build- 
ings are well adapted for the comfort of pupils, 
and the educational appliances are of high or- 
der. The grounds are beautifully laid out and 
covered with a handsome growth of trees. The 
faculty is able, and the government of the 
school, in the hands of such well known in- 
structors as Rev. and Mrs. S. S. Harmon, 
needs no encomium. Youth of both sexes are 
admitted, and each has its own buildings and 
grounds. The catalogue shows the attendance 
of scholars from all parts of the Pacific coast. 
Young people from rural homes will find the 
school a charming one in every respect. 

Camping Oct. — C. J. and Albert Cressey, 
with Mr. Briggs, their families and others, of 
Modesto, are out on a long camping trip. The 
writer met them at Siegler's springs, recently, 
where they were happily situated for a few 
days' stay. Favorable mention was made by 
membeis of the party concerning the springs 
for bathing and drinking purposes. They 85- 
pect to visit Clear lake, and most of the 
resorts in Lake county, the Geysers and other 
noted places in Sonoma and other counties. 
The company number 16, including children. 
Their outfit seemed complete, with large tent, 
11 animals, saddles and covered spring wagons. 
Rural readers would like a "report" from such 
rovers, who see and enjoy so much. 



A GREAT REVELATION. 

Some Valuable Thoughts Concerning Hu- 
man Happiness and Timely Sug- 
gestions About Securing It. 

Synopsis of a Lecture Delivered by Dr. Chas. 
Craig Before the Metropolitan Sci- 
entific Association. 

"The public speaker of the present day labors under 
difficulties of which the speakers of the last century never 
dreamed, for while the audiences of the past received 
what was said without question, those of the present day 
are usually the menu! equals or superiors of the ones 
who address them. Rev. Dr. Tyng, when a theological 
student, supplied a church in a neighboring town, and 
on his way to preach one morninf met an aged colored 
man. 'Well, TJnclo, do you ever go to hear the young 



preacher T asked the unfledged doctor. 'No, Mam ' re- 
plied the negro, 'dls chile don't let none o' dem students 
practis on him.' The darkey had begun to think 
The free and independent thought of this age accepts 
statements only where they are proven to be truth, 
while the development of mental power seems equally 
great in every other department of life. The valuable 
Inventions of the day are counted by thousands. The in- 
crease of scientific study is universal. The spirit of In- 
quiry in all fields is so marked as to cause 

Comment on Every Side, 

While people seem investigating and advancing in every 
direction which can help them morally, mentally or 
physically. This is specially true of the human body and 
everything which concerns it, and the truths which the 
people have found, even in the last 50 years, are simply 
marvelous. How really ignorant some cultured and 
supposeably scientific people were only a few years ago, 
as compared with the present day, may be better under- 
stood from a few illustrative facts. A prominent writer 
prepared an elaborate essay to prove that steamships 
could never cross the Atlantic, and his pamphlet was is- 
sued just in time to be carried by the first bteamer that 
went to England. People once believed that the heart 
was the seat of life and health It is now known that 
this organ is only a pump, simplv keeping in motion 
what other and more important organs of the body have 
created and transformed. It was once supposed that If a 
person felt a pain in the back, the liver was deranged; if 
a pain came in the lower chest the lungs were affected 
and consumption was uear; it is now known that a pain 
in the back indicates diseased kidneys, while troubles iu 
the lower chest arise from a disordered liver and not im- 
perfect lungs. A severe pain in the held was once 
thought to come from some partial derangement of the 
brain; it is now known that troubles in other parts of 
the body and away from the head, cause headaches, and 
that only by removing the cause can the pain be cured 
It is a matter of 

Private History 
That Gen. Washington was bled to death. His last ill- 
ness was alight, and caused principally by weariness. A 
physician was called who 'bled him copiously.' Strange 
to say, the patient became no better. Another doctor 
was called, who again took away a large amount of the 
vital fluid. Thus, in succession four physicians drew 
away the life of a great m»n, who was intended by na- 
ture for an old age, and who prematurely died— murdered 
by malpractice-bled to death. That was the age of 
medical bleeding !" 

The speaker then graphically described another period 
which came upon the people, in which they assigned the 
origin of all diseases to the stomach, and after showing 
the falsity of this theory, and that the kidneys and liver 
were the causes of disease, and that many people are suf- 
fering from kidney and liver troubles to-day who do not 
know it, but who should know it and attend to them at 
once, continued: 

"Let us look at this matter a little more closely. The 
human body is the most perfect and yet the most deli- 
cate of all croated things. It is capable of the greatest 
results and It Is liable to the greatest disorders. The 
slightest causes sometimes seem to throw its delicate ma- 
chinery out of order, while the most simple and common 
sense care restores and keeps them in perfect conditiou. 
When it is remembered that the amount of happiness or 
misery we are to have in this world is dependent upon a 
perfect body, is it not strange that simple precautions 
and care are not exercised ? This is one of the most vital 
questions of life. People may avoid i; for the present, 
but there is certain to come a time In every one's expert' 
ence when it must be faced. 

"And here pardon me for relating a little personal ex- 
perience. In the year 1870, I found myself losing both 
in strength and health. I could assign no cause for the 
decline, but it continued, uutil finally I called to my aid 
two prominent physicians. After treating me for some 
time, they declared I was suffering from Blight's disease 
of the kidneys, and that they could do nothing more for 
me. At this time I was so weak I could not raise my 
head from the pillow, and I 

Fainted Repeatedly. 
My heart beat so rapidly it was with difficulty I could 
sleep. My lungs were also badly involved; I could retain 
nothing upon my stomach, while the most intense pains 
in my back and bowels caused me to long for death as a 
relief. It was at this critical juncture that a physical 
longing which I felt (and which I most firmly believe 
was an inspiration) caused me to send for the leaves of a 
plant I had once known in medical practice. After great 
difficulty I at last secured them and began their use iu 
the form of tea. I noticed a lessening of the pain at 
once; I began to mend rapidly; in Ave weeks I was able 
to be abou.., aud in two months I became perfectly well 
and have so continued to this a>y. It was only natural 
that such a result should have caused me to investigate 
most thoroughly. I carefully examined fields In medi- 
cine never before explored. I sought the cause of phys- 
ical order and disorder, happiness and pain, and I found 
the kidneys and liver to be the governors, whose mo- 
tions regulate the entire system." 

After describing at length the offices of the kidneys 
and liver, and their important part in life, the doctor 
went on to say : 

"Having found this great truth, I saw clearly the 
cause of my recovery. The simple vegetable leaf I had 
used was a food and restorer to my well nigh exhausted 
kidneys and liver. It had come to them when their life 
was nearly gone, and by its simple, yet powerfu' Influ- 
ence had purified, strengthened and restored tbem, and 
saved me from death. Realizing the great benefit which 
a knowledge of this truth would rive to the world, I be- 
gan In a modest way, to treat those afflicted, and in every 
cane I found the same. 

Happy Results 
Which I had experienced. Not only this, but many who 
were not conscious of any physical trouble, but who, at 
my suggestion, began the use of the remedy which had 
saved my life, found their health steadily improving and 
their strength continually increasing. So universal, 
where used, was this true, that I determined the entire 
world should share in its results, and I therefore placed 
the formula for its preparation in the hands of Mr H. H. 
Warner, of Rochester, N. Y.. a gentleman whom I had 
cured of a severe kidney disease, and who, by reason of 
his personal worth, high sunding and liberality in en- 
dowing the Astronomical Observatory and other public 
enterprises, has become known and popular to the entire 
country. This gentleman at once began the manufacture 
of the remedy on a most extensive scale, and to-day, 
Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure, the pure remedy 
that saved my iife, is known and used in all parts of the 
continent. . 

"I am aware a prejudice exists toward proprietary 
medicines, and that such prejudice is too often well 
founded, but the value of a mire remedy is uo less be- 
cause it is a proprietary medicine. A justifiable pre|u- 
dice exists toward quack doctors, but is it right that this 
prejudice should extend towards all the doctors who are 
earnestly and intelligently trying to do their duty? Be- 
cause Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure saved my 
life before it became a proprietary medicine, is it reason- 
able to suppore that It will not cure others and keep still 
more from sickness now that it is sold with a Govern- 
ment sump on the wrapper? Such a theory would be 
childish." . , . „ , 

The doctor then paid some high compliments to Ameri- 
can science, and closed his lecture as follows: 

"How to restore the health when broken and how to 
keep the body perfect and free from disease must ever be 
man's highest study. That one of the greatest revela- 
tions of the present dav has been made In ascertaining 
the true seat of health to be in the kidneys aud liver, all 
scientisU now admit, and 1 can but feel that the disco»- 
ery which I have been permitted to make, and which 1 
have described to you, is destined to prove the greatest, 
best and most reliable friend to those who suffer and long 
for happiness, as well as to those who desire to kesp the 
joys they now possess." 



July g, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS, 



29 



The Berkeley Gymnasium. — This well- 
known preparatory school for the University 
will begin its fall term July 11th. Daring the 
vacation extensive repairs have been made in the 
buildings to accommodate the large patronage of 
the school, and the coming year bids fair to be 
one of unusual activity and success. This school 
has been exceedingly well sustained from its 
start, and many of its graduates pass the Uni- 
versity examinations triumphantly each year. 

Highland Springs.— This popular resort has 
had a fine company of visitors in June, who 
seem to have enjoyed their recreation exceed- 
ingly. 

Boarding and Day School for Young La- 
dies. — The young ladies' boardirjg and day 
school, on Oak St., between 10th and 11th Sts., 
Oakland, will open on Wednesday, July 27tb. 
The sohool is now under the principalship of 
Miss S. B. Bisbee, an educator of experience and 
repute. It is the school formerly managed by 
Mrs. Poston. 



Our Agents, 



, by lending their in- 
We intend to send none 



Ocr Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science.by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassin 
fluence and encouraging favors. * 
but worthy men. 

J. F. OaBORNB — San Francisco. 

A. C. Knox— Napa and Lake counties. 
G. W. McGrew— Santa Clara county. 
M. P. Owen- Santa Cruz county. 

J. W. A. Wright— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties 
.Tared C. Hoaq — California 

B. W. Crowell — Yuba and Sutter counties. 

D. W. Kblleher — Solano and Sacramento counties. 

Geo. W. Fahrion— Plumas county. 

Geo. H. Hopkins — Amador county. 

A Leonard Meyer— Utah and Idaho Ter. 



Attend to This. 



Our subscribers will find the date they have paid 
printed on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de- 
sired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If wc are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 



Sewing Machines. 

Several first-class styles, good as new, will be sold at a 
bargain. Call on, or address H. F. D., this office. 

Anderson SrRiNOS, in Lake county, 19 miles from Calis 
toga (over a grand, picturesque route, via Mt. St. Helena) 
are amonr the best in this State. They are situated in 
the midst of a natural park, full of beauty and interest to 
the naturalist. Good home-like accommodations at rea- 
sonable rates are invariably furnished by the Anderson 
family. 



Important additions are being continually made 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. The number of sea Houb is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varioties of performances The floral 
department is replete and the wild animals in good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 



How to Stop this Paper.— It is not a herculean task t.o 
stop this paper. Notify the publishers by letter. If it 
comes beyond the timt desired, you can depend upon it 
we do not know that the subscriber wants it stopped. So 
ne sure and send us notice by letter. 




Notr— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. ETC. 



San Francisco, Wednesday, July M, 1881. 

The week has been broken, as is common at the Fourth 
of July season. Every one who could has flown to the 
springs, and this, added to the excitement about the at- 
tack on Pres. Garfield, has drawn the minds of men away 
from trade. The markets are therefore of little import- 
ance, and there is little to say of them. 

The latest from abroad is as follows: 

Liverpool, July 5 — Good to choice California Wheat, 
9s 6d<»9s 8d. 

The Foreiaro Review. 

London, July 6 — The Mark Lane Express, in its re- 
view of the British Grain trade for the past week, says 
Wheat passed through the critical blossoming period 
favorably. The general condition of the crops appears 
healthy. Barley in appearance indicated good crops on 
the best land, and variable elsewhere. Oat prospects ap- 
pear to be the worst. Regarding trade, on account of 
the scarcity of native Wheats, they advanced both in 
London and in the province, and the advance was main- 
tained, but at the close buyers operated less freely. For 
eign trade has been on the wane the whole week. Wheat 
Friday was cheaper all round. The advance which was 
made out on Monday was due to a «iu\ll supply. This 
advance nvweme rl was changed last Friday, particularly 
regarding American Ked Winter Wheat on the spot. The 
decline amounted to 6d@ls. yet buyers hesitated. The 
amount on passage is increased and tho week's supply is 
chiefly Indian, Russian and American. Flour maintains 
Monday's advance, but the demand, which has been only 
consumptive, is still a slacking. The foreign supply is 
chiefly Australia u and European. Prices were lower in 
London and the provinces 00 Friday. Barley was dull 
and rates were lower where business was transacted. 
Oats, native and foreign, are firm and higher. Business 
is quiet in tone and in the buyer's favor. Sales of Kng 
fish Wheat in the past week were 19,387 quarters, against 
17,974 for the corresponding week of last year. 
Freights and Charters. 

British ship CUomene, 1,739 tons, Wheat to Cork, L 
K., £A — prior to arrival. British ship fiarenstcood, 1,123 
tons, Wheat to Cork, U. K, £3 2s 6d— prior to arrival 
Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

Nbw York, July 5.— Wheat, lower, $1 2201.26. Flour 
quiet. 

Chicago, [July 5.— Wheat, unsettled and lower, at 



$1.09f@1.09i cash, J1.11J for August, $1,091 for Septem- 
ber. Corn, weak and easier, at 45 J cash, 45J@46 for Au- 
gust, 46J for September. Oats, weak and lower, at 37 
cash, 28J for August, 26J@27 for September. Rye, Barley 
and Whiskey are steady. Pork, firm and higher, at $16.- 
42J cash, S16.52J for August, 816.621 for September. 
Lard, strong and higher, at $1.55 bid cash, $11.45 bid for 
August, $11.15 bid for September. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, July 1.— The market for Wool is firm. Prices 
are well sustained, but the demand of the manufacturers 
is not so pressing. Luyers are now withdrawing from 
the interior on account of the high prices very generally 
demanded. Supplies of the new clip are arriving quite 
freely. There is now a good assortment offering. Sales 
of washed fleeces have been quite small, as moat of the 
supplies are held above the views of the buyers. The 
sales of X and XX Ohio and Pennsylvania have been at 
42@42tc, and choice XX is held at 45c; not over 43c could 
be obtained for medium. Ohio has been sold at 45c and 
is firm. Michigan and Wisconsin fleeces range from 40@ 
41c 'for X, and are firm. The entire sales of the week 
have been 2,800,000 lbs. All kinds of delaine fleeces have 
been in demand at 44(t/;45c; for fine, mostly 45c. In Ken- 
tucky combings there was considerable sale9 at 43c; coarse 
ombing continues dull. California Wool has been in de- 
mand, and iales have been made at 24@36c for Spring. 
The transactions in all kinds of California Wool have been 
aboui 1,000 000 lbs. Unwashed fleeces have been in de- 
mand, at 35c for Georgia, 32c for Kentucky, 24@42ic for 
Texas, 25@33c for fine Western and 27@35c for medium. 
Pulled Wools are firm and in steady demand at full pre- 
vious prices. In foreign Wool the business has been light, 
but including some lots of Montevideo, Cape and Aus- 
tralian at full prices. 

New York, July 5.— California Wool, steady; Spring 
fleece, 17(«;S2c; burrv, 14w24c; pulled, 33@38c. Fall clip, 
12<ai5c; burry. 15(S17c. 

The London Wool Sales. 

London, July 1. — At the Wool sales yesterday 8,300 
bales of New South Wales and Victorian were disposed of. 
There was a good demand and prices were firm. At the 
sales to-da.v 890 bales were offered of Sydney and New 
Zealand. The present series of sales closed to-day. The 
next series begins August 23d. The sales closed with 
firm prices. Of 331,000 bales sold during the present 
series of sales, 131,000 were for home consumption and 
200,000 for export. There has been a good demand 
throughout, and the prices obtained show an advance of 
Jd on the March series. 

RAGS— Bags are quiet. Wholesale lots are said to be 
purchasable at 9@9}c. 

BARLEY— Til -re is no change and few sales: 1,000 sks 
Bay Feed sold at 92{c and 210 sks at 90c. 

BEANS— Unchanged, exceptjthat Ihe top price for Pea 
Beans is now $2.30. 

CORN— Small round Corn is a shade lower; other sorts 
unchanged; 400 sks Large Yellow sold at $1.02j. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Fancy dairies have shaded off a 
fraction, and 27c is the top of the market to-day. Much 
fine Butter goes at 26itf26}c. The market is quiet- 
Cheese is unchanged. 

EGGS— Eggs are about tho same. There are some ship- 
ments of Utah Eggs, which are selling closer than usual 
to fresh Califomias. 

FEED— Hay prices are as before, to- wit: Wheat, old, 
$10@*12.50; do, new, $8.50£$9; Barley, $7<*89; Wild Oat, 
new, $7.50@$9.50; do, old, $I0@$11.50; Stock, $7@$8; 
Stable, $8(ce$10.50 %1 ton. 

FRESH MEAT— Dressed Pork is higher, sales reaching 
to 8Jc for fine firm meat. 

FRUIT— What change there has been has been in the 
line of improvement, as many concluded there was no 
money in Apples, Pears and Peaches at last week's prices. 
The reduced supply has put up values. Cherries and 
Currants are going out and are scarce. Berries are still 
abundant and cheap. 

HOPS — Lots to brewers are still held at 20(r«25c. 
OATS— The market is quiet and sales obscure. 
ONIONS— Receipts have been large and prices are at a 
low ebb. The choicest Silver Skins are not going above 
75c ¥ ctl at present. 

POTATOES— Potatoes, too, are abundant, the choicest in 
boxes bringing not above 90c and sacks 75c. The average 
is, of course, much less. 

PROVISIONS — Last week's advance is sustained and 
the tendency upward, in sympathy with the advance of 
the raw material. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Hens have gone forward a 
little. Turkeys are a shade weaker. 

VEGETABLES— Tomatoes are abundant again and 
cheap. Carrots are lower. Other fluctuations have been 
e\v and are noted in our price list. 

WHEAT— There has been but little done either by 
shipper or millers, and values are stationary. We note 
sale of 1,200 tons Milling at $1.42i. 
WOOL — The market is quiet and prices unchanged 



General Merchandise. 



WHOLESALE. 



Wednesday m., July 6, 1881. 



t AM»11S. 

Crystal Wax 16 @18 

Parafifine 20 @— 

Patent Sperm 25 —28 

CANNED GOODS. 

Assrtd Pie Fruits. 

1\ lb cans 2 25 

Table do 3 5C <» — 

Jams and Jellies. 3 75 (ot) — 
Pickles, hf gal ... .3 25 ® — 
Sardines, qr box . . 1 67 <& — 

Hf Boxes 2 504@1 90 

Merry. Faull&Co.s 
Preserved Beef 

21b, doz 3 25 @3 — 

do 4 lb doz 6 50 @6 — 

Preserved Mutton 

2 lb. doz 3 25 <»3 50 

Beef Toneue 5 75 @6 00 

Preserved Ham , 

21b. doz 5 50 @5 60 

Deviled Hani, 1 lb, 

doz 3 00 @3 50 

do Ham J lb doz 2 50 @ — 
Boneless Pigs Feet 

3tt,s 3 50 @3 75 

2 lbs 2 75 (ffl — 

SDiced Fillets 2 tbs3 50 @ — 
Head Cheese3 lbs. 3 50 @ — 

€OAL— Jobbing. 
Australian, ton. — @ 8 50 

Coob Bay 6 50 @ 7 00 

Bellingham Bay - (S> 
Seattle 7 50 



2 25 
4 50 



@ 5 00 



69 



@ 



Cumberland. 

Mt Diablo — 

Lehigh — 

Livemool — 

West Hartley.. — 

Scotch - 

Scranton — 

Vancouver Id. .. — 

Wellington — 

Qharcoal, sack. . — 

rjoke, bush — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Id lb. — @ 

Costa Rica 13J@ 

Guatemala 13J(a 

Java 24 <a 

Manilla 15 (a> 

Ground, in cs. .. 

FISH. 

Sac'toDryCod. C« 

do in cases.. @ 

Eastern Cod. . .— 7 ft* 
Salmon, bbls... 7 00 (» 
Hf bbls 3 50 



1 lb cans 1 12J<» 1 22J 

PklaCod, bbls. @ 

Hf bbls <3 

Mackerel, No. 1 

Hf bbls 9 50 (<i 10 00 

In Kits 1 75 <g> 1 85 

Ex Mess 3 50 ® 4 00 

Pickled Herring. 

box 3 00 (» 3 50 

Boston Smoked 

Herring 65 (cb - 70 

LIME, etc. 
Plaster, Colden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 l» 3 25 
Land Plaster, 

ton 10 00 @ 12 50 

Lime, Snta Cruz 
bbl 1 25 @ 1 50 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

[wholesale.] 

Wednesday m., July 6, 1881. 
Figs, pressed....— 7 (ct — I 

do, loose — 5£(cG — 6 

Pt aches — 10 (*— 13 

do pared — 18 ®— 20 

Pears, sliced.... — 9 @ — 10 

do peeled — 9 @— 11 

Plums — 5 — 

Pitted — 14 <&— 15 

Prunes — 11 (<*— 13 

Raisins, Cal, bx. 1 25 (a 1 50 

do, Halves 1 75 @ 2 00 

do, Quarters. . 2 00 @ 2 25 

Eighths 2 25 ® 2 50 

Zante Currants.— 8 @— 10 

VEGETABLES' 
Asparagus, bx..— — @ I 00 

Artichokes, doz. m— 10 

Beets, ctl @— 75 

Beans, String,..— — @ — 
do, Wax B§- 



FBI IT MARKET 

Apples, bsk - 25 @- 30 

do, Astracan.bx— 50 @- 75 

Apricots — 75 @ 1 00 

Bananas, bnch,. 2 50 @ 5 00 
Canteloupes.crt. 1 50 <g 2 50 
Cherries, chest. . 9 00 @10 00 
Cocoanuts, 100.. 6 00 <a 7 00 
Crab Apples....— 50 @— 75 

Cranberries, bbl <&— — 

Currants, chest. 4 00 @ 4 50 

do, black. @12 00 

Figs, bx — 50 @- 75 

Gooseberries.... O 

do, English . <3> 

Grapes — 65 (fM 25 

Limes, Mex. ... 8 00 f* 9 00 
do, Cal, box.. 5 00 @ 6 00 
Lemons, CaL bx 2 00 ^ 3 00 
Sicily, box.... 8 50 @ 9 00 

Australian @ 

Oranges, Cal, bx.l 00 (<» 1 50 
do, Tahiti M 20 00 <»22 50 

do, Mexican. ("* 

do, Loreto... & 

Peaches, bx.... - 50 @- 75 

do. bsk — 50 @— 75 

do, Crawford — 75 @ 1 00 

Pears, bsk — 25 &— 50 

do, bx - 40 @— 75 

do. Bartlctt. 1 50 (S 2 00 Gr'n Pepp'rs.sk 
Pineapples, doz 6 00 (g 8 00 [Lettuce, doz„ . 



Plums, "bx...... - 40 <<?— 75 

Prunes, German.— 60 @ 1 25 

Quinces, bx @ 

Blackber's, ch't. 3 00 C* 5 00 
Raspberries, ch't 6 00 @ 6 50 
Strawber's, ch't.. 4 00 (" 5 00 

Sugar Cane, bdle @ 

Wafmiel'nB.lOO.lO 00 @20 00 

DRIED MCI 1 1 
Apples, sliced, lb— 6 (8>— 61 
do, quartered... — 5 @— 6 

Apricots — 18 Sj— 20 

Blackberries....— 12J@ — 15 

Citron — 28 «— 30 

Dates — 9@— 10 



do, Fountaiu..— li@— 
Cabbage, 100 lbs- 60 @— 65 

Carrots, sk — 40 @— 50 

Cauliflower, doz— 40 @ - 50 
Cucumbers, bx.— 25 @— 40 
Egg Plant, bx.. 1 25 (A 1 50 

Garlic, lb — 1 @- 

Green Corn, doz.— 7 @— 12. 

Green Peas, lb., @ 

do Sweet..— lj<a>— 2J 
40 <a- 50 
10 @- 

Mushrooms, lb. (W— 

Okra, bx 1 00 @ 1 25 

Parsnips, lb (® — 

Horseradish (5— 

Rhubarb, box. . .— 25 <fth- 50 

do. chest.. @- 

Squasn, Marrow 

fat, ton @15 00 

do Summer, bx - 20 @— 35 

Sprouts, lb (<0 — 

Tomatoes bx...— 25 @— 35 
do. River.— 60 @- 75 

Turnips, ctl — 60 @— 75 

Rutabaga — - (<*— 75 



(■i 13 U0 
@ - 
@ - 
@ - 
(rt 9 00 
@ 8 50 
@ - 
(<* - 
(8 9 00 



22i@ 25 



- 5 

- 

- 71 
7 50 
4 00 



Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 00 & 

Portland 4 00 @ 

NAILS 

Assrtd sizes, keg 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No. 1.1 00 @1 00 

Castor, No. 1 1 00 ®1 10 

do, No. 2 1 00 @ — 

Baker's A A — (ail 30 

Olive, Plagnoil...5 25 (5 5 75 

Possel 4 75 («5 25 

Palm, lb 9@ — 

L inseed. Raw, bbl 70 <5> — 

Boiled 75 <$ — 

Cocoanut 60 (u> 

China nut, cs 68 <0 

Sperm 1 40 @ 

Coast Whales 35 (ce 

Polar — (<* 

Lard 80 & 

Petroleum (110°).. 18 (& 
Petroleum (lf0°).. 28 @ 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead. 6J(<* 

Whiting ll«? 

Putty 4 (A 

Chalk H«» 

Paris White 245S - 

Ochre 31@ — 

Venetian Red 3J@ — 

Averil mixd Paint 
gal 

White & Tints. .2 00 @2 00 
Green, Blue and 

Oh Yellow 3 00 (S3 50 

Light Red 3 00 (ffl3 fO 

Metallic Roof ..1 30 @1 60 
BICE. i 
(Thina Mixed, tt>.. 5 @ 52 

Hawaiian 51@ 9 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay, ton... 14* 00 <»22 00 

Common 6 50 (ft 14 00 

Carmen Id 14 00 0)22 CO 

Liverpool fine. .14 00 (820 CO 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 9 (B 10 

Common brands.. 41@ 6 

Fancy Brands 7 ® 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, tt> 37im 40 

Cassia 19 <a> 20 

Nutmegs 85 <a 90 

Pepper Grain • 15 (a 16 

Pimento 10 d? 20 

Mustard, Cal 1 lb 

Glass — @1 25 

SLUAR, ETC 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, L 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co.] 

San Francisco, July 6, 3 p. M. 

Silver, J. 

Gold Bars, 890@910. Silver Bars. 10@18 $ oent. dis- 
count. 

Exchange on New York, par; London, 491@49|; Paris. 
5.20 francs $ dollar; Mexican dollars, 91@92. 
New York (4 per centl. 117J. 



Bags and Bagging. 

[JOBBING PRICES.l 

Wednesday m., July 6, 1881. 



Eng Standrd Wheat.. 10 (3101 

Cal Manufacture 

Hand Sewed, 22x36.10 (<*10J 

20x36 8i<a 8J 

23x40 12 @I3 

24x10 121@135 

Machine Swd 22x36. 10 "OlOi 

Flour Sks, halves 9 @101 

Quarters 53(cc 6J 

Eighths 3}«« 4J 

Hessian, 60 inch — @11} 



45 inch 91(3 9* 

40 inch 8}^ 8J 

Wool Sks Hand Swd 

31 tb - (<#47 

4 lb do 521(855 

Machine Sewed — (849J 

Standard Gunnies. .. .13i(»l4 

Bean Bags 6S@ 7 

Twine. Detrick's A...— (<i35 
AA.— (*37 



— @ 

— (S 

— (<* 

Zl 

65 (ffi 
25 @ 



Cal. Cube lb 

Powdered 

Fine Crushed 

Granulated 

Golden C 

Cal Syrup, kgs 

Hawaiian Mol'eses 
TEA. 

Young Hyson, 
Moyune, etc 

Country pkd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 35 ($> 

Hyson 30 (fr 

Fcoo-ChowO 27i<@ 

Japan, 1st quality. 40 @ 
2d quality 25 @ 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco.— Week endinc July 5. 1881. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST BAROMETER. 



June 29 


June 30 


July 1 


July 2 


July 3 1 


July 4 


July 5 


29.953 


30.041 


30103 


30.176 


30.172 1 


29.9H5 


30.043 


29.891 


29.936 


30.038 


30.075 


29.921! 


29.926 


29.969 




MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM THERMOMETER. 


60 




64 1 


65 


76 1 


83 


1 70 


51 


li 1 


52 


53 


54 1 


59 


1 56 






MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 






77.3 


77.7 : 


77.3 


75.3 


65.3 


54.3 


1 77.7 






PREVAILING WIND. 






W 


w : 


w 


W 


1 w 


W 


1 W 






WIND — MILES TRAVELED. 






504 


334 I 


269 | 


245 


201 


123 


1 240 






STATE OF WEATHER. 






Clear. 


1 Fair. I 


Fair. 


Fair. 


I Clear. 


1 Clear. I Fair. 



RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 

[^..Ja, I 



Total rain during the Beason, from July 1. 1881. inches. 



40 (» 65 



Domestic Produce. 

WHOLES AXE. J 

Wednesday m„ July 6, 1881. 

BEANS Jt PEAS. IBrazil 13 @ 14 

Bayo, ctl 1 00 @1 15 Pecans 13 (8 16 

Butter 1 10 Si 40 I Peanuts 4 <w 5 

Castor 3 00 S*3 50 Filberts 15 (ft 16 

Pea 2 00 @2 30 | O.VIONS. 

Red f6 M 871 Red — m 50 

Pink 85 @ 871 Silver Skin 50 <a 75 

Small White 2 00 09 30 Oregon — @ — 

Lima 2 25 (d2 40 | POTATOES. 

Field I-eas.b'lk eyel 40 dpi 50 I New 62J 

do, green.. 1 35 (dl 40 Petahima, ctl.... 

KKOOM COKN. Tomales 

Southern 3@ 31 Humboldt 

Northern 4 ig 6 " Kidney 

CIIH'COKY. " Peachblow. 

California 4 4$ 41 Jersey Blue 

German 61@ 7 Cuffey Cove. 

DAIK Y PRODUCE. ETC. ~ 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, tb. 25 (» 27 

do Fancy Brands. — @> 27 

Pickle Roll 26 <g 271 

Firkin, new 25 @ 26 

Western 18 @ 22 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb... 111(3 12! 
do, boxed.... — @ 13 

EGGS. 

Cal. Fresh, doz... 23 @ 24 

Ducks 19 <& 20 

Oregon — (<* — 

Eastern.br expr'ss 18 @ 19 

Pickled here — @ — 

Utah 221® 23 

FEED. 

Bran, ton ®M 00 

Corn Meal 24 00 («25 00 

Hay 6 50 (312 50 

Middlings (319 00 

Oil Cake Meal..— - @>20 00 

Straw, bale — 40 (3— 45 

FLOUR. 
Extra, City Mills . 4 871(85 00 
do, Co'ntryMills.4 25 @4 75 



do, Oregon 3 75 (34 371 

do, Walla Walla. 4 00 (<r4 25 

Superfine 2 50 (»3 25 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y.lb. 51® 6 

Second 41(<b 41 

Third — <* 4 

Mutton 31(3 32 

Spring Lamb 4 (3 41 

Pork, undressed . . oB<3 5J 

Dressed 8 <a 81 

Veal 7 (3 V, 

Milk Calves 74(3 8 

do, choice 81(3 9 

GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed. ctl.. 80 @ 95 
do, Brewing.. 1 10 Ml 20 

Chevalier 1 15 (*1 20 

do, Coast . 85 @l 00 

Buckwheat 1 60 C*l 75 

Corn, White 1 07 @l 15 

Yellow 1 02i<ffl 07; 

Small Round... .1 05 (31 07; 

Oats 1 40 (31 60 

Milling 1 70 (31 85 

Rye 1 371(31 45 

Wneat, No. 1 1 40 (31 45 

do, No. 2 1 35 («1 37j 

do. No. 3 1 10 @1 20 

Choice Milling.. — ®1 45 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 19 <& 20 

Wet salted 9 (3 10} 

HOMEY, F:TC. 

Beeswax, lb 20 (3 24 

Honey in comb... 10 (3 124 

do, No. 2 8 (3 10 

Dark 5 (3 6 

Extracted 6 @ 7 

HOPS. 

Oregon — (3 — 

California, new... 20 (3 25 

Wash. Ter — % — 

Old Hops — @ — 

nits— Jobbing, 

Walnuts, Cal 8 (3 9 

do, Chile... 71® a 

Almonds, hdshl lb 8 (3 10 

Soft shell 12 (3 14 



River, red 

Sweet — @ 

POI LTRY A G4SIE. 

Hens, doz 5 50 ® 7 00 

Roosters 6 00 ® 7 50 

Broilers 2 50 (3 4 50 

Ducks, tame, doz. 3 50 (3 4 50 

Mallard — (3 — 

Sprig — (3 — 

Teal — & — 

Widgeon — @ — 

Geese, pair 1 00 (31 50 

Wild Gray, doz. — ® — 

White do — (tf — 

Turkeys 14 @ 18 

do, Dressed.... — @ — 

Snipe, Eng 2 50 @3 00 

do, Common.. 1 00 (31 25 

Quail, doz — ® — 

Rabbits 1 25 (31 50 

Hare 2 00 (32 50 

Venison — (3 — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 13J(3 131 

Medium 12}® 12* 

Light — ® 13? 

Lard 12J@ 



Cal. Smoked Beef. 10 ® 

Shoulders 8J@ 

Hams, Cal 11 (3 12 

Dupee's — @ 16 

Whittaker — (3 16 

Royal — ® 16 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 15 ® 17 

do Chile — (3 — 

Canary 4 ® 5 

Clover, Red 14 ® 15 

White 45 @ 50 

Cotton — ® 20 

Flaxseed 21® 3 

Hemp 7® 8 

Italian Rye Grass.. 25 @ — 

Perennial 25 ® — 

Millet, German 10 ® 12 

do, Common... 7 @ 10 
Mustard, White... 3@ 4 

Brown 1J® 2 

Rape 3 ® 8 

Ky Blue Grass 20 ® 25 

' 2d quality 16 @ 18 

Sweet V Grass — ® 75 

Orchard 20 (3 25 

Red Top — ® 15 

Hungarian 8 (3 10 

Lawn 30 ® 40 

Mesquit 10 ® 12 

Timothy 10 ® 11 

TALLOW 

Crude, lb 65® 6! 

Retined 7S® 7J 

WOOL, ETC. 

SPRING— 1880. 

Oregon, Eastern. . . 24 ® 27 
do tine, heavy 21 ® 24 

SPRING — 1881 . 

San Joaquin, choice 19 ® 21 

do fair.. 17 ® 181 

Southern Coast 20 (3 21 

Slightly Burry. . . 181® 20 

Burry and Seedy. 17 (3 18 

Northern choice... 25 ® 30 

Burry or Seedy 22 @ 25 

Sonoma. Mendo- 
cino, Humboldt, 

fancy 31 @ 321 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

PERKINS' PATENT .,#8Sfo 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Mills and Pumpt are 
reliable and always give uu 
lsfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearings (orthocranli 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 

do. Mills in use six tb nine years in good order now.that 
have never cost one cent for renal in. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infer 
mation 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORK, 

ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 
San Francisco Agency, L.INFORTH, RICE 
& CO.. 323 <sc 335 Market S etu 





■JL" 1 1 i *, Wonderful Improved 

SAW MACHINE 

is warranted to ta\vaa-fo«»l l»s in lliroe min- 
utes and more curd wood or logs of any size In s 
day than Inomcu ran (diopor saw the old way. 
Every Farmer and l.iiiiilii-riiiait needs one. 
AGENTS WANTED-* lrc.il enn« Fr<-,.. 

BBND FOR CIRCULAR TO 

LINFORTH, RICE & CO.. 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 
323 and 3ii5 Market Street. San Francisco- 



Grangers' Business Association of Cal- 

ifornia. - Principal place of busiuups. No. 38 California 

Street, Sau Francisco, State of California. 

Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Directors 
of said corporation, held on Monday, the Tweuty-eeventb 
(27) day of June, A. D., 1881, an assessment baa been levied 
of ten {10) per cent, upon the capital htock of said corpora- 
tion, amounting to the sum of two and one-half (£2.£,0) dol- 
lars uoon each and every share of said capital stock, paya- 
ble July twenty-eighth (28). 1881, to Amos Adams, the Sec- 
retary of said corporation, at his office, No. 38 California 
Street, S. F., State of California. 

Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain un- 
paid on the Sixth (ti) day of August, A. D., 1881. will be de- 
linquent, and advertised f^r sale at public auction, and un- 
less payment is made before, will be sold on Monday, the 
Twenty-second (22) day of August, A. D.. 1881. to pay the 
delinquent assessment, together with costs of advertising 
and expenses of sale. AMOS ADAMS, Sec'y 

Grangers' Business Association of California, office. No. 
33 California Street, S. F. 





CLARK & McKENZIE. 

SKAKCHEKS OF RECORDS, 

Real Estate Agents 

AND CONVEYANCERS, 
Office in C^urt House, Fresno, Cal. 

43TSEND FOR INTORKATIOH. 



30 



fH£ PACIFIC R URAL PRESS. 



[July g, 1881. 




The Capital of this old and favorite company has been 
increastd to 

$600,000.00, 

All of which has now been fully paid up in 17. S. Gold Coin, 
and invested in «uch securities as are not liable to loss by 
fire, and are readily convertible into coin. 

Assets, S840, 004 .43 . 

Having but a very limited amount exposed to loss in this 
city, and its business being so conducted as to be free from 
serious loss by conflagration anywhere, the "Old" California 
is now prepared to offer a quality ot indemnity second to 
that offered by no other insurance instituti'mi, whether do- 
mestic or foreign. C. T HOPKINS, r.v-Meiit. 

L. L. BKOMWKLL, Vice President. 

ZKNArt CliOWKLL, Secretary. 

E. T. BARNES, Ass> Secretary. 



FIRE INSURANCE. 

The undersigned begs to announce that he has con- 
nected himself with the well-known firm of 

BUTLER & HALDAN, 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast of the following 
Sterling Companies : 

PHOENIX ASSURANCE CO., of London. 
BRITISH AMERICA ASSURANCE CO., 

— AND — 

WESTERN ASSURANCE CO., of Toronto, 

Representing CASH ASSETS of | 

$7,967,607.28. 

Thanking my friends for past favors and soliciting 
continuance of the same, I remain, respectfully, 

FBRD. K. RULE. 
413 California St., San Francisco 

ZIMMERMAN 

IMPROVED, GALVANIZED IRON, 
PORTABLE, FIRE-PROOF, 

Fruit and Vegetable Drier, 

SIMPLE IN CONSTRUCTION. ECONOMICAL 
IN FUEL CUKES THE FRUIT IN 
FROM 2 TO 8 HOURS. 

It has the approval and hearty indorsement of nearly 
all the leading Fruit and Agricultural Journals of the 
country- 
Over 13,000 in Successful Operation ! 

Awarded a Silver Medal by the Mechanics' Institute, 
San Francisco, September, 1S80. Send for Illustrated 
Catalogue with Testimonials to 

LINFORTH, RICE &. CO.. 

323 & 325 Market Street. San Francisco. 
4WLOCAL AGENTS WAXTED.^jr 



WINDMILLS HORSE POWERS. 




Bl'ILT ami RRTA1RKD AT 

No. 51 Beale Street, - - - San Francisco. 
Send for Circulars. 
P. W. RROGH <b CO.. (Successors \V. I.Tustin.) 

METALLIC WINDOW SCREENS. 

No House Should be Without Them. 

GUARANTEED TO KEEP ROOMS CLEAR OF FLIES, 
MOSQUITOES, ETC. ONLY PRACTICAL AND 
MOST DURABLE WINDOW SCREEN IN USE. 

They are applicable to Top and liottom of the Window. 
No Swelling or Shrinking, as the frames are made of the 
beat Charcoal Galvanized Iron, and work between the in 
side blinds and Sash, on the inside stops. All sizes. Prices 
from 32.00. Iu sending orders, send size and number of 
lights iu Hash. 

ADAMS & REARDON. 
MANUFACTORY US Mission St, , San Francisco 



COOPER'S RANCH FOR SALE. 

FIVE HUNDRED ACRES, all rich Valley Land. 1 mile 
from Kelseyville, and 1J miles from Clear Lake in Big 
Valley, Lake county. Good Schools and Churches near 
by. Place well watered, well improved and all under 
cultivation. Price, $-27 per acre. Terms, one-half cash 
and balance on time. And the whole or one-half sold to 
suit the purchaser. H.J. COOPBR, 

Uncle Sam P. O, Lake Co. 

P_ _ Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 

rnHTflvin*? ing, Electrotyping and Sterootyp- 

■_ ■ ■ Q I MI I I I Q • j ng done at the o|nco of tne MlK1N0 

and Scientific Press. San Francisco, at favo-ahla rate* 



THE PIONEER 

ACCIDENT COMPANY 

OF AMERICA. 




ONE OF THE BEST 

LIFE COMPANIES 

IN THE WORLD. 



TRAVELERS INSURANCE CO, 

OF HARTFORD, CONN., 

LIFE or ENDOWMENT POLICIES of all Safe and Desirable Kinds' 
LOW RATES, AMPLE SECURITY, DEFINITE CONTRACTS. 
GENERAL ACCIDENT POLICIES, by the Year or Monlh. 
CLAIMS PAID OVER $4,000,000. 
GENERAL ACCIDENT TICKETS, One lo Thirty Days. At Agencies or 
Railway Stations. 

Agencies in almost every tow n on the coast. Apply to the nearest agent. 

THOMAS BENNET, Gen'l Agt.. 319 California St.. S. F. 



IMPERIAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
LONDON ASSURANCE" CORPORATION. 



NORTHERN ASSURANCE COMPANY. 
QUEEN INSURANCFCOMPANY. 



Aggregate Capital, 
Aggregate Assets, 



$37,092,750. 
$41,896,923. 



A Joint Policy Issued by the Four Companies on the Pacific Coast. 



W. LANE BOOKER, Agent and Attorney. ROB'T DICKSON, Manager. 

PACIFIC BRANCH OFFICE: 

S. E. cor. California and Montgomery Streets, 



SAFE DEPOSIT BUILDING, 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



Nathaniel Curry <fc Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Franeiseo, 




Sole Agents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefagt, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
ill kinds of GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit 



THE KENNEDY REPEATING RIFLE. 



50 



Lit'iographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10c. Naive 
in fancy typo. Conn. Card Co., Norttford, Ct. 




24 and 28-inch Barrels. 15 Shots in Magazine. 
Weight, 8 1-2 to 9 Pounds. 

USES THE WINCHESTER MODEL 1873 CARTRIDGE, 44 CALIBRE, 40 GRAINS, CENTER FIRE. 
Out of 600 Glass Balls thrown from a trap, 479 were broken with this Rifle. Prices Low. Circulars on application to 

E, T. ALLEN, Pacific Coast Agent, 

416 Market St ,'San Francisco. 



RECORD OF SUPERORITY. 



is;* awarded 

J. H. HTROBRIDGE, 
Plral Premiums: 

Pen 5 Breeding Ewes 822 60 

Pen 5 Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Pen 5 Ewe Lambs 22 50 

Pen 3 Ram Lambs 22 50 

Yearling Ram (1st and 2d) 38.50 

Two year-ol.l Ram 22 50 

Ram and 5 of his Lambs 30.00 

Sweepstakes! 

For bent Ram of any age or breed, 
and 5 of his lambs $75.00 




1HT9 AWARDED 
J. H. 8TROBRIDGE, 
llrst I'l-emlum*: 

Peu 5 Breeding Ewes $22.60 

Pen 5— Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Pen 5 Ewe Lambs 22.50 

Two-year-old Ram 22.50 

Yearling Ram 22.50 

Rain and live of his lambs 30.00 

Peu of 3 Ram lambs 22.50 

SweepstsHnsi 

For best Ram and 5 of his lambs, 
of any age or breed $75. 00 



THOROUGHBRED SPA N IS II MERINO SHEEP. 

We offer for sale this season 200 head Superior Ranis. Yearlings and two-year-olds. Also 100 head Yearling Ewes and 
50 head »ned Ewes. These sheep are a l free from disease Are LONG STAPLED, WHITE WOOLED and HEAVY 
SHEARERS Have a faultless constitution. Are larger and in better condition than any nock of Thoroughbred hjianlsh 
MtiitMi Sheen in the State orders by mail promptly tilled. Our ranch is only 14 miles from Oakland, by rail Trains 
running ea-:h way every- few.hours. .1. H. STROB RIDGE. Haywards, Alameda Co.. Cal, E. W. Pert, Agent. 



HEALD'S PATENT 

PORTABLE STR AW-BU RNING ENGINES. 

The above Engine is the safest and most powerful in the m arket, lighter than other En- 
gines, and no danger of explosions. An explosion of Heald's boiler has never occurred. Two 
sizes are made; either size will run the largest separator. All the latest improvements have 
been added to the boiler and engine. Is ready to stand a test any time. Is guaranteed perfect 
in all its parts, and will do the same work with less water and fuel than any other engine in the 
market. With one of 

HEALD'S BARLEY MILLS, 

It will thresh and grind at the same time, all the separator can thresh. For further particulars, 
Address J. Xi. HEALS, Vallejo, Cal. 

/tar Engine can be seen at D. M. OSBORNE & CO., 33 Market St., S. P."«l 



Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 




E. CT. WOOLSEY & SON, 



FULTON. SONOMA COUNTY. 



- CALIFORNIA 



There is not only a constant demand for Improved stock, 
but among intelligent sheep farmers is the demand equally 
constant lor purity of blood and reliability of pedigree. We 
aim to meet this requirement, and in our importations have 
secured the best pedigreed Rams to be found on the Ver- 
mont State Register. It is tbis blood and quality we are 
offering, and upon these have been awarded First Premiums 
from the State Board of Agriculture at Sacramento for the 
past two years, and we were awarded :■ the same Board a 
majority of all premiums in 1880, viz.: 1st I remium on Best 
Stock Ram of 2 years of age and upward; 1st Premium on 
Best Buck Lambs; 1st Premium on Best Ewe Lambs; 1st 
Premium on Best Ram and Five Lambs. We were also 
awarded three First Premiums and the Sweepstakes at the 
Golden Gate District Fair of 1880. We will simply state 
that for leDgth and beauty of staple, weight of fleece, with 
vigor of constitution our sheep cannot be excelled. We 
shall welcome our patrons at the ranch or orders by mail. 

City Address 418 California St, San Francisco. 



This space will be used by H. 
D. NASH & CO., 906 K street, 
Sacramento, Cal., Manufacturer 
of "The Improved Nash & Cutts 
Grain Cleaner," giving a full de- 
scription of their new combina- 
tion Gang of Seives, for separa- 
ting Barley, Oats and Cheat from 
Wheat. 

LOOK OUT FOR IT! 




Patent, Nov. 11,1879, 
Patent, Nov. 9, 1880. -~; Q'l) 

Medical Electricity. ^vyTV^ - 

HORNE'S ELECTRO-MAGNETIC BEL.T." 

I The Only Genuine.) Received 1st Premium State Fair. 
Klcrlr.-Mwi.dlr KrIU. Sew Slfl*. *lUt EI*»tro.aa*n.Ui- B.lu. 
KilraAiipllanr.-, fl S i Flrrtro-Maio. HelU.O lmpr...mr»ls S20 

GUARANTEED ONE YEAR. BEST IN THE WORLD. 
Will positively cure without medicines — Rheumatism, Paralysis. 
Neuralgia. Kidney Disease. Impotency. Rupture, Liver Disease 
Nervousness. Dyspepsia. Spinal Disease. Ague, Piles and other 
diseases.. Send for i lustrated catalogue, free Also. 

n u ■ nr guaranteed, relieved 

HIIUTIIKa* or Cured. Send for Illustrated 
llUr I U Ilk Catalogue. Hundreds of cures. 
W. J. HORNE, Prop, and Manufr. 

Joa Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



BEFORE BUYING OR RENTING AN 
ORGAN 

Send for our LATEST Illustrated Catalogue (32 pp. 
4to), with newest styles, at *f>l and upward; or 16 38 
per quarter, and up. Sent free. MASON & HAMLIN 
ORGAN CO., 164 Tremont St., BOSTON; 46 E. 14th St., 
NEW YORK; 149 Wabash Av., CHICAGO. 



Mason and Hamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER & CHASE. 



Post Street, near Dupont, 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Dewey & Co. ffi*^ Patent Ao'ts 



fir Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed & Chromo Carda.name 
«i0 in gold and Jet, 10c. Clinton Bros., ClintonviUe, Co 



July 1881.] 



TIE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS, 



31 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers In 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT AND OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS. — Our Dkscriptivr Illus- 

TRATKD CATALSOUB OF SKSD8, TREF.S, PLANTS, ETO. 

B. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. P. 



PHYLLOXERA "\ 
PROOF. ) 



CLINTON CUTTINGS ( 

$10.00 PER 1,000 AT 

Magnolia Farm Nurseries, Napa Valley. 

Send for Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 
All free from disease and grown without irrigation. 
Address 

LEONARD COATES, 
Yountville, Napa County, Cal. 




B. K. BLISS &. SONS, 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flower- 
ing Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. 
Catalogues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established in 1858. 

For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised without irrigation. Also, a gcnoral assort- 
ment of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower- 
ing Shrubs; Roses in assortment. Conservatory and Bed- 
ding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List »f Prices. Address W. H PEPPER, 

Petaluma Sonoma County, Cal. 



Attention, Fruit Growers ! 

As the Budding season is at hand, I am prepared, 
where quantities are wanted, to grow any variety of 

Fruit Trees for 1882 at Reduced Rates. 

Correspondence solicited. ISAAC COLLINS, 

NURSERY, Haywards, Cal. 



COTTON SEED 

For sale in quantities to suit, by McAFEE BROTHERS, 
202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. 



Giles H. Grat. James M. Haven. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

530 California St., SAN FRANCISCO 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse 

San Francisco, Cal. 
65.000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., S. F. 

First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity, 10,000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the C. P. 
R. R. and S. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rates. Advances and Insurance effected. 



SECURE PATENTS 




Through 
Dewey & Co. '8 



Scientific Press 



Patent 
Agency. 



Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency pre- 
sents many and important advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by reason of long estab- 
lishment, great experience, thorough system, in- 
timate acquaintance with the subjects of inven- 
tions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library containing 
official American and foreign reports, files of 
scientific aod mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or a 
description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of Patent 
business, and obtain Patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices a; e 
as low as any first-class agencies in the Eastern 
States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
inventors are far superior. Advice and Circu- 
lars free. DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG. 



ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 
716 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco 



This Hourp is i I v designed as a comfortable home for 

geptloiueu and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms, (ias and running water in each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussols carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes aud keep up a constant lire from 
6 A. M. to 7 P. M. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano — ah free to guests. Price 
singlerooms per night, 50 cts. ; per week, from $2.50 upwards 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
to corner Third and Howard. 



Adams' Patent Pillow Sham Holder 

Prices reduced Can be adjusted to any ordinary sized bed 
The best In the market. Try one. Sent post paid by mail. 
Send for Illustrated Circular. G. TP. W A U ii O IV K It . 408 
Tenth St, Oakland, Cal., Gen. Ag't for Paciflo Coast. 



Q 

w 



GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

IMPORTlR, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



2 Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc. 
ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives. Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 




ALBERT DICKINSON, 

Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian. Millet, Red-Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds, etc. 

POP CORN. 

\ Warehouses: 

115, 117 & 119. hinzie St., Office t 115 Kin /.in St. 

104, 10(1, 108 & 110 Michigan St. CHICAGO, ILL. 




Cold Medal Awarded 

AXFORD'S 

National Incubator, 

AT TORONTO INHIBITION, 1879. 

Thirty - Two Public Exhibitions. 
LoDg Looked for, Come at Last! 
The Baby National Incubator 
Holds lOO Egers and Costs 
ONLY $25. 

Self-Reg-uIatinir. Durable, Practical and easily 
Understood. Will II itch where none other 
will, Netd not '* Regulate" a room to insure 
success. 

AXFORD & BRO , 

4£th St, & Langley Av , Chicago 
ILLINOIS. 



In consequence of Spurious Imitations oj 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

Which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature 
thus, 



Which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 

SAUCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA <t PERRINS' Sauce, and See Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper, 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
<tc, <£c; a,nd by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 



CALIFORNIA DRIED FRUITS. 

CROP 1881. FRUIT GROWERS, ATTENTION! 

GrEORGE ^\7\T. MEADE cfc OO., 



(SUCCESSORS TO SPEAR, MEADE & CO.) 
Offices and Warehouse— 416 & 418 Front Street, - - - 



SAN FRANCISCO 



WHOLESALE DE ALERS I N DRIED FRUITS. 

We are prepared, as usual, to make direct purchases of the next crop of DRIRD FRUITS of all kinds in small 
quantities or the entire crop, paying cash therefor, on delivery aud inspection. Do not lot any of your green fruits 
go to waste; neither allow youreelvea to bo imposed upon by canners. When your Dried Fruits are ready for market deal 
with us direct and thus save the profits and commissions of middlemen. Write to us for any information you desire, as 
to style of packages best suited tor this market. 



BERKSHIRES A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
reat care from the beat herds of imported stock in the- 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit cane 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 

18th and A StrcetB, Sacramento City, Cal. 



Caledonian Mills 

ABSOLUTELY PURE!! 

MADE FROM SELECTED WHITE OATS. The most 
delicious breakfast food. No other preparation makes 
such sweet, wholesome porridge. Greatly superior to 
ordinary oatmeal mush. For sale by all the principal 
grocers. 

CALEDONIAN OATMEAL MILLS. 

Sansome Street, near Pacific, San Francisco 



Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates Etc. 

E . I* RANSOHE, 402 Montgomery St., S. P. 
ARTIFICIAL STONE. Send for Circular. 



To Fish Raisers. 



I am uow ready to sell Carp which were imported from 
Germany in 1872, in lots to suit Address 

J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 



WHEELER'S 

Carbon Bisulphide, 

FOR KILLING 

Phylloxera, Squirrels, Gophers, Rats, Vermin, Etc 

CHEAP AND EFFECTIVE. 

A.ny Person Can Use It Without Harm. 

6-th Cans, each $1.00 

12-lb Cans, each 1 75 

50-lb Cans, each 5.50 

Address JOHN H. WHEELER, 

111 Leidesdorff St., San Francisco. 
Shipping Point— West Berkeley, Alameda Co. 

WONDERFUL INVENTION. 

THE DAVIS IRON WAGON. 



Header, Farm and Freight. Manufactured expressly 
for the Pacific coast. Send for Circular and Price List. 
Also the following masterpieces of mechanical Bkill: The 
Davis Steel Doui.letree. The Davis Spring Tongue Sup- 
port. The Davis Spring Holster. The world-renowned 
La France Steam Fire Engine. 

E. A. SCOTT & CO., 
P. O. Box 293. Sacramento. Cal. 



NEW WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Repository of Eastern Carriages, 

BUGGIES AND WAGONS, 

From the largest Carriage Manufactory^ in New England. 
Our work is good. We sell it low. Satisfaction guaran- 
teed. Send for cuts and price list. 

P. A. BRIGGS, Manager, 

Nos. 220 and 222 Mission Street, San Francisco. 



BUCKS. 

We have 40-Comer l«th anil Howard Sts.— Thorough- 
breds, extra fine animals. " LONGWOOL" and "EURE- 
KA" blood. Never Exposed to Scab' Prices 
Low Down. Wish to sell. HOMER P. SAXE & CO, ' 
Lick House, S. F. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH. 

$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON. 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



TKADK 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALiKNER, BELL & CO., 

Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. P. 

' ' A complete 

Manual and Kei- 
erence Book on 
all subjects con- 
nected with suc- 
cessful Beo Culture, by E. Kretchmor, of Coburg, Mont- 
gomery County, Iowa. A new edition, containing 244 
pages of plain and full instructions by a practical and 
scientific apiarist, and illustrating the new system of Bee 
Culture with the Honey Extractor. It also tells how to 
rear Italian Queen Beos. Bound in cloth. Price, post- 
paid, $1. Sold by DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome St., San 
Francisco. 




ers hub. 



54 



All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards, no 2 alike, 
name on, 10 cts. C. DePuy, Syracuse, N. Y. 



32 



if H E PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 9, 1881. 



TsTo Drouths! Siare Crops! 

READING RANCH 



Shasta Co., Cal. 

Good Land ! 
Sure Crops! 
HEALTHY CLIMATE I 
Prices Low. Terms Easy. 



TITLE PERFECT. 



BTlLADJ 



3F- 



5X 



I * 1 N 1 



The R*a«ln| 

Ranch, In the Up- 
p o r Sacramento 
valley, originally 
embracing over 
26,000 acre* ol 
choice grain, or- 
chard and pasture 
land, is now 
offered for 
ale at low 
k prices and on 
If avorable 
' terms of pay- 
ment, in sub- 
division! to 
suit purchas- 
ers. 

The ranch 
was selected 
at an aarly day by Major P. B. 
Reading, one of tbo Unrest pioneer 
land owners in California. It is 
situated on the west side of the 
Sacramento River and extends 
over 20 miles along Its bank. 

1 he average rainfall is about SO inches 
per nnDum. and crops have never been 
known to fail from drouth. 

The dinidte is gf nrrslly hialtby. The 
near proximity of high mountain peaks 
give cool nights during the "heated 
term" which oc-urs in our California 
bummers. Pasturage, wooii and good 
uatemre abuni'ant. The tillage land is 
mostly lei el, with complete drainage. 

Figw, Cnpes, Peache6, Prunes, Al- 
monds. English Walnuts, Apricots, Cur- 
rents, Berries and other common fruits 
can be raised with success on most of the 
tract without irrigation. Also, Alfalfa, VerretahleM, Corn 
and all other cereaN ordinarily grown in the State 

Tbo soil throughout the tilled portions of the ranch 
proves to be of great depth and enduring in Its good 
qualities. It Is quite free from foul growths. The virgin, 
soil among the large oak trees on the bottom land is eas- 
ily broken up and cultivated. 

The title is U. S. patent. Prices range principally from 
$& to $30 per acre. < i 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses nearly 
the entire length of the tract. There are several sec- 
tions, stations and switches, besides depots at the towns 
of Anderson and Reading, all of which are located 
within the limits of the ranch. 

The Sacramento River borders the whole tract on ths 
southeast. Its clear waters are well stocked with fish. 
Good hunting abounds in the surrounding country. 

Producers have a local market, which enhances the value 
of their produoo. The railroad transportation route Is level 
throughout to San Francisco. A portion 
of the land is auriferous and located near 
rich mines now being worked. Land 
rft suitable for settlers In colonies can bs 

fJ < obtained on good terms. 

Town lots are offered for sale In Read- 
ing, situated on the Sacramento river, at 
the present terminus of the railroad. It 
Is the converging and distributing point 
for large, prosperous mining and agricul- 
tural districts In Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lots in the town 
of Anderson, situated more centrally on 
the ranch. Lots In both these towns are 
offered at a bargain, for the purpose of 
building up the towns and facilitating 
settlement of the ranch. 

Purchasers are Invited to come and 
see the lands befors buying here or 
elsewhere. Apply on the ranch, to 
*the proprietor, 

EDWARD FRISBIE, 
Anderson. Shasta Co.. Cal 

Location of Shasta County. 

Shasta County lies not far from 
mldwty between the two most im- 
portant ports on the Pacific shore, 
i. «., San Francisco and Portland. 
Oregon, and directly on the route 
from Mexico to British Co'umbia. 
The town of Redding, at present, 
and probably for yearBtucome, the 
head of railroad transportation on 
the California side oi the mountains 
intervening bcluw Oregon, is dis- 
tant from San Francisco by rail- 
road fvia Vallejo) 255 miles; from 
Sacramento City, 160 miles; from 
MarjBville 11" miles. 



7A 



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LAND FOR SALE OR RENT IN SUB-DIVISIONS. 



C. D. Ladd, 

821 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Cal , 

D. LADD & CO., Branch House, 49 First St., Portland, Oregon. 



Sole Agents for the Pacific 
Coast for the 

BALLARD RIFLE. 

Full line of Winchester, Burgess and Kennedy Magazine Rifles. Sharps and Remington. 
Complete Assortment of Breech and Muzzle Loading Snot Guns of all Makers- 
Pistols of all Descriptions. Ammunition of all Kinds, Wholesale and Retail.. 

SEND TOR 1381 PRICE LIST- 




L J. TRUMAN. 



BYRON JACKSON. 



JACKSON & TRUMAN, 



Manufacturers of 



Feeders and Elevators, 



With recently invented Spreader. 
Horse Forks for Headings or 
Hay. Folding Derricks. Hoad- 
ley Straw - Burner and Auto- 
matic C'ut-ofl Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repair?. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Threshers 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. 





-SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 



JACKSON & TRUMAN, 

Cor. 6th and Bluxome Sts., San Francisco. 



Engraving.! 



Superior Wood and Metal Engruv. 
ing, Eloctrotyping und Sterootyp- 
_ 1 ing done at the office of thoMlMNU 
AND ScmHTUMC Press, San rranciseo, at favorable rates. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 

Washington Corners, Alameda County, Cal 

THE FALL TERM WILL BEGIN 

Thursday, July 28th. 

Catalogues cau he had at the Bookstores of A. L. Ban- 
croft & Co , San Francisco, and W. B Hardy, Oakland. 
For Catalogues or other particulars, address 

S. S. HARMON, Principal, 

Washington Corners, Alameda County. Cal 



FRUIT GROWERS, ATTENTION! 

The attention of Fruit Growers is called to the 

WILLIAMS EVAPORATOR, 

Now beine introduced on this Coast hy the Goneraj 
A,'ent, F. B. SEELEY, Oakland Cal., to whom address 

for circulars. 

This machine requires no shifting of seives, is contin- 
uous in its action, and put up under a guarantee, there 
fore costing nothing unless it DOES WHAT IS CLAIMED 
FOR IT. 

F. B. SEELEY, General Agent, 

Oakland, CaL 



A CHANCE TO VISIT FRESNO COUNTY. 

The Fresno Colony, 

Which adjoins the Town of Fresno, being one of the finest locations in the County for Colony purposes, is now being 
sold off in 20 acre lots at $50 per acre, with undisputed title to both land and water, and ou terms to suit all. 

We asaer' without any fear of contradictory proof, that the grapevines on irrigated land in Fresno County, pro- 
duce at least one-third more grapes per \ inc than anv other portion of the State. G. G. Brlggs, of Yolo County, a 
few days since remarked, "of n truth, this seems to be the home of the Grape, Pear, Peach and Apricot " 

We only ask all who are seeking homes or profitable investments to come and see what we have; none go away 
without expressing surprise at the productions of our soil 

A GRAND EXCURSION will leave Stockton and San Francisco on August 15th, for Fresno. Tickets 
good for five days, and only oust 87 for the round trip; free conveyances from Kresno to all tbe Colonies. 

THOMAS E. HUGHES & SONS, Fresno, and 314 Montgomery Street, 8. F. 



At the SANBORN WAGON DEPOT, 

24 and 26 Beale Street, S. F. Cal. 

Three Blzes of THOFOUGH-BRACE WAGONS, with ). 2 or 3 seats. 
Eigb« sizes of EXPRESS AND DELIVERY WAGONS. Tnrce size* of 
FOUR SPRING WAGON8, with 1, 2 or 3 seats. Besides Business 

Wagons and Buggies. 

Also, all sizes of FARM WAGONS, made by Mitchell, Lewis & Co.. of 
Racine, Wis., who make the best Farm Wavons in the world All oar 
Wagons are fully warranted. A. W. SAMBOK* Jk CO., 



Commission Merchants. 



J. P. HULME. 



Wool and Grain 

Corr\missioi\ Merchants. 



10 



Davis Street, near Market, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



feeTLiberal advances made on all consignments, and 
prompt personal attention given to all sales. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants, 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



PETER MEYER LOUIS MEYER. 

MEYER BROS. & CO., 

— IMP0K1EKS AND— 

Wholesale Grocers, 

— AND DEALERS IN— 

TOBACCO AND CIGARS. 

412 FRONT STREET, 

Front Street Block, bet. Clay A Washington. San Francisco. 
**4T Special attention givon to oountry traders.^7 
P..O. Box 194Q. 



COSTIGAN, COHEN & CO. 
COMMISSION 

Grain and Wool Brokers. 

OFFICE i— 28 California St., San Francisco, 

REFERENCE — LAZARD FRERES, BANKERS. 



D&LTON & GRAY. 

Commission Mercha nts 

And Wholesale Dealers In all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 408 Davis St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, BAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



HATCH &. BARCLAY, 

Con\missior\ Merchants, 

(Members of San Francisco Produce Exchang 



20 California Sf r*«t. 



Han Francisco. 



Sf nd your Consignment* to 




SAN FRANCISCO 

The Oldest Iloxue. 



NEW WOOL AND GRAIN 

Commission House, 

J. H.CONGDON&CO., 

No, 6 Steaart Street, s, F. 

To our friends and the Wool Growers and Farmers gen- 
erally, having established ourselves In a General Oommis- 
sitiu Busioeas for the sale of Wool, (■rain. Hide*, 
IVKn, Tallow, Alfalfa Seed. etc. A strict attention 
to the business, as well as a careful study of the interests of 
Wool Growers and farmers, during an experience of 13 
years with the well-known house of Miller k Co., enables us 
to anticipate the wonts of the consignors. 

We shall do a Commission Business exclusively, giving 

Kentonal attention to all consignments Our facilities for 
;i lulling Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., bolng unsurpassed. 



we can make it an object for our friends to consign to us. 

We are prepared to make liberal oash advances on Con- 
signments, at a low rate of interest. To those who need the 
services of a Commission Merchant we would say, giro us a 
trial, we will guarantee satisfaction. 



' Bend for Circular to 
J. 



H. CONGDON & CO. 



GEO, F. COFFIN cfc CO*< 

Commission Merchants, 

NO. 13 PINK STREET. 
UNION BLOCK, 8 AN FRANCISCO. 

Special attention given to Consignments of Grain and Fruit 

DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

I s — Tradesmen's National Bank, N. T. ; Ell- 

wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. V.;C W. Reed; Sacra- 
mento, Cal ; A. Lusk & Co., Shu Francisco, CtL 



DAIRY COWS WANTED. 

Wanted, from TWENTY to FORTY GOOD DAIRY 
COWS that will come In between August and October. 
Address, with particulars, B.MARKS, 

Fresno, Cal. 

"NEW" 
Hydraulic Rami 

The only Horizontal Ram made. Will do 
good work on light fall. Send for Circular 

H. F. MORROW, Chester. Pa. 



70 



YOUR NAME !>" 7o w cIr8S 10° 

N. » trim, b? M*t snlSWI B^uautls, U'riU, IrM 



, by baai 

OkronKtf , LaiuUcapa, Water Scene., MC.— uo . niiui. 
_ Asenf, Compli-le Smnplf Uook ■*"«- r.ru.l \ txi.lj 
AictrtUiu, and Bevei-Edgl Card,. Uwc.1 prlc« u> cW.Ur. 
ami DrioK-r». IOO •*"**« ra*e$ A lvertwtig Card, snc. 
ildr°M TttiVaH BEOS., Box «. NorUUori. tu 



Volume XXII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 16, 1881. 



Number 3 



Notes on Eucalypts. 

We notice that Baron Von Mueller has writ- 
ten to Prof. Thos. Meehan, editor of the Oar- 
dener's Monthly, concerning other eucalypts 
than E. globulus, which we have to our hearts' 
content in this State. It is true that we have 
immense areas of hillside and hilltop which 
might still be planted with the blue gum for 
timber and to tangle up the winds in their 
courses, but the blue gum as a wind-break in 
orchards and as a street tree in villages, has 
come into sad disrepute. Everything his its 
proper place, and this includes the blue gum — 
in such appropriate field let it multiply. 

But we thought to allude to Baron Von 
Mueller's letter to present somecharacteristics of 
other eucalypts ascompared with those of the blue 
gum. The leading idea is to show the hardi- 
ness of some of the other species, and this will 
be of interest to many dwelling in parts of the 
Pacific coast where the blue gum has shown itself 
too tender to survive the heavy frosts prevalent 
there. Baron Von Mueller thinks Eucalyptus 
amygdalina, E. parvijlora and E. Ounnii, (all 
tall timber trees) may endure winters of your 
more nor thernStates, as they adorn the Australian 
Alps. Von Mueller advised the Italians under 
the leadership of Count Torelli, to plant E. 
amygdalina on the malarian swamps near Kome, 
after E. globulus (but only in its young, sappy 
state), was largely destroyed by the unusually 
severe winter cold of the year before last. But 
this time the experiment is made with E. 
amygdalina, the richest oilyielder of all euca- 
lyptus, and one which will live in a cold climate 
where no E. globulus will stand through the 
winter months. For timber, however, the E. 
amygdalina is far inferior to E. globulus and 
many other sorts. E. Ounnii and E. parvijlora 
yield good timber, but their hygienic value is 
not equal to that of E. amygdalina, and the 
growth of none of them is as fast as that of E. 
globulus; still they are all trees of compara- 
tive celerity of growth, especially in somewhat 
humid soil. Baron Von Mueller believes that 
much might be done to subdue the yellow fever 
of New Orleans and other southern places in 
the States, if all back-yards were planted with 
eucalyptus; but should the climatic condition not 
admit of it, he would earnestly impress on all 
concerned to plant our most terebinthine pines 
at New Orleans, and by the millions. 

The distinguished botanist adds some notes 
of the way by which the exhalations fro-n trees 
act upon the dangerous matter in the atmos- 
phere, and these are of interest to all growers 
of eucalyptus, and other trees having the proper- 
ties considered. The action of the terebin- 
thine pines is by the liberation of a volatile oil, 
whioh acts much like that of the eucalyptus, as 
from its emanations originate dioxyde of hydro- 
gen and ozone, the most powerful oxydizers, and 
therefore destroyers of micro-organism and the 
gases in which they dwell. Von Mueller is en- 
gaged, at present, on determining the per cent- 
age of volatile oil in the twigs (leaves and young 
bark aud young wood) of various pines, as this 
has an important bearing on the sanitary value 
of each species of fir. The result of these in- 
quiries will be of much interest in this country. 



Mildew on Roses. — The Journal des Roses 
gives two recipes for destroying mildew. The 
first is from M. Verdier. It recommends to 
boil for ten minutes 500 grams (about 174 oz ) 
of flowers of sulphur, and an equal quantity of 
lime, in 6. litres (about 5£ quarts) of water, oft. 
en shaking the mixture. This solution is al- 
lowed to settle, and afterwards put into well- 
corked bottles. When required for use, one 
litre (about If pints) of this composition is put 
into 100 litres (about 21 £ gallons) of water, and 
the rose plants are syringed with the mixture. 
The second is that of the Comte de Buisson: 2 
or 3 grams (about 1 1-7 or 1 5-7 drachm) of 
sea salt is dissolved in 10 litres (about 2 316 
gallons) of water, and the foliage of the rose 
plants on both the upper and under, sides is 
syringed with this solution. 



The Colombia River. 

Our engraving gives a glimpse of the Colum- 
bia, the great river of the Pacific coast, and 
one of the great rivers' of the world. The view 
is only one of many which have attracted the 
eye of the artist, and of course presents only a 
single phase of the infinite variety which char- 
acterize the river and its surroundings. The 
engraving is from a photograph by E. Conklin, 
and is to be used in his promised book, entitled 
"Picturesque Northwest." 

In our issue of November 6, 1880, we gave 
some interesting facts concerning the Columbia 
river, to which the reader is referred. We find 
other statements in a recent pamphlet on ' 'Pa- 




cific Coast Harbors, " by Chas. G. Yale, of this city : 
The Columbia drains a country along the west- 
ern slope of the Rocky mountains for about 600 
miles, which includes a large portion of Oregon 
and Washington Territory. Several of its trib- 
utaries give access from the ocean to rich min- 
eral and agricultural localities on the coast. The 
greater part of the lower Columbia is obstructed 
by shoals and islands. The ship channels are 
tortuous and narrow. There are usually two 
channels through the bar but they are always 
shifting, and there is sometimes only one. The 
bar is without doubt the most dangerous in 
the world. 

During bad weather and especially in winter 
the sea breaks with the greatest fury clean 
across the entrance, and sailing vessels have 
laid off it for weeks waiting for a chance to en- 
ter. Those vessels inside can not get out at 
such times. This bar is probably one of the 
wildest of nature's scenes, during a southeast 
gale, and the hardiest mariner will not care to 
test its power. The currents here are very 
strong moreover and do their share in making 
the bad sea whioh prevails at such times. 



However, fewer disasters occur than one 
would imagine, at the entrance of the river, 
when the magnitude of its commerce is consid- 
ered. 

The river is to Oregon what San Francisco 
bay is to California. It is navigable to the 
Willamette, 100 miles from its mouth, and 
thence eastwardly with two interruptions, at 
the Cascades and Dalles, where there are rail- 
road portages to Priest's Rapids, in Washing- 
ton Territory, 396 miles from the ocean, and 
on its tributary, the Snake river, to Lewiston 
in Idaho, 470 miles from the ocean. The Wil- 
lamette is navigable for ocean steamers and 
small vessels to Portland, the principal city of 
Oregon, 112 miles from the sea. At Oregon 
city, it falls over a ledge of rocks for about 40 
ft. , and locks have been constructed at a large 




expense, allowing the direct passage of steam- 
ers. Hence, steamers now navigate the river 
up to Eugene city, 138 miles from Portland, 
during high water, and as far as Salem all the 
year. 

The Columbia affords a highway for travel 
to parts of Washington Territory and Idaho, 
and as these portions of our domain have at- 
tracted much attention of late, the traffic on 
the Columbia has be«n unusually brisk, and new 
and commodious steamers are now plying on the 
river. 



Pacific Rural Pb«ss. — This enterprising, 
instructive and reliable organ of the farmers of 
the Pacific coast has just entered its 22d vol- 
ume. The aim of the publishers is to zealously 
labor for , the best interests of their patrons, 
and the development of our agricultural indus- 
tries. Every farmer should subscribe for and 
read this journal. Each number contains valu- 
able information worth the annual subscription, 
iddress Dewey & Co., San Francisco. — Dow- 
nieville Messenger. 



Maturing of Wheat in Temperate and 
Tropical Zones. 

At first thought one would be likely to con- 
clude that earlier maturity in plants would be 
found within the tropics than in the temperate 
zones where the earth is held in icy fetters dur- 
ing a part of the year. It is interesting to 
know that this is not always the case, but that 
during the growing season in the temperate 
zones, say from the vernal to the autumnal 
equinoxes, there is so much longer days, and 
consequently more sun heat than at the tropics, 
where the days and nights are always of so 
nearly equal length that the wintry districts 
really grow earlier crops than the tropics. 

Observations affirming this conclusion are 
made by Victor Bart, and printed in the Journal 
of the Horticultural Society of the Department 
of Seine-et-Oise, France. M. Bart remarks at 
first that we know that in summer at St. 
Petersburg the days are very long. The sun 
remains above the horizon nearly eighteen 
hours, and the night is thus shortened to 
about six hours. At Senegal, situated within 
the tropics, they have alternately and uni- 
formly, during the whole year, about 12 
hours of sunlight and 12 hours of nocturnal 
obscurity. I say about because the equator 
alone presents an absolutely equinoxial line. 
In observing these two circumstances, it has 
been shown that wheat ripens earlier in the 
region about St. Petersburg than at Senegal, 
and it became necessary to explain this very 
surprising 'result. The explanation given is 
simple and satisfactory, and is as follows: 

Wherever wheat is cultivated, in order that 
it may ripen, it must receive a certain quantity 
of heat. At St. Petersburg, 18 hours of sum- 
mer sunshine does not leave sufficient time for 
nocturnal cold to be produced, and this is near- 
ly equivalent to the non-interruption of the 
solar inflence ; at Senegal, on the other hand, 
this influence is suspended for 12 hours of the 
24 ; from which it follows that the average heat 
of a summer day at the north, in the capital of 
Russia, is higher than the average heat of a 
quasi-equatorial day. We may therefore con- 
clude that it is because it there receives in a 
less number of days, the necessary amount of 
heat, that wheat ripens earlier at St. Peters- 
burg than at Senegal. 

It is true that in certain years the ripening 
of crops is earlier or later. But this earliness 
or lateness is due to causes purely atmospheric, 
such as the persistence of clouds which, form- 
ing a screen, enfeeble more or less the action of 
the sun's rays, and the superabundance of rain 
which produces those inconveniences whioh 
accompany all excesses. If these modifying 
or disturbing causes did not exist, and if it 
only depended upon the greater or less 
degree of obliquity in different places under 
which the solar rays are received, the sun, 
which constantly emits a quantity of heat, as 
it were, would invariably ripen the crops at a 
fixed period each year. 



A Good Woed for the Skunk. — Time, at 
last, makes all things even. For nearly three 
centuries the white man in America has been 
in mortal dread of a very small animal known 
to science by the emphatic name of mephitis 
mephitiea, butjmuch better known as the skunk. 
But at last he has found a friend. A legislator, 
from the interior of the State, demands that he 
be protected in his right to life, liberty, and 
pursuit of happiness; the reason being that he 
destroys grubs that would otherwise destroy 
hop vines, and a bill has been introduced in the 
New York legislature, for the protection of 
skunks in the hop-growing counties. 

Land Purchases. — Mr. C. J. Rifenburg, 
formerly of the Southern Stakes, and lately so- 
journing with his sister at Highland Springs, 
made important purchases of property, in May 
last, near San Gabriel, his new place of resi- 
dence. He contemplates improvements within 
the coming season that will be of notable inter- 
est in Southern California. 




SCENE ON THE COLUMBIA RIVER. 



34 



THE PACIFIC BURAL PRESS. 



[July 16, 1881. 



ORRESPONDENCE. 

Wc admit, anendorsed, opinions ot correspondents.— Eus 



Notes From Missouri. 

Editors Press :— I receive your paper regu- 
larly and am well pleased with it, except one 
thing I see you often omit, that is the weather 
report. I would like to see it in every number. 
I am thinking of emigrating to California, and 
I would like to see how your temperature runs. 
We have had very warm weather here this sea- 
son thus far, the mercury running up to 90° 
and above for several days at a time. We have 
had fine rains lately and cooler weather— 80° to- 
day. The wheat crop is very poor here; the 
worst for years, and the yield will not be more 
than one-third of what it was last year. We 
are cutting our wheat now, and the chinch 
bugs are very bad, and the heat is drying up 
the wheat that is not ripe. The winter wheat 
crop is very poor through the States as far as I 
can learn. I know it is in this State. I have 
been through the best wheat sectiou in this 
State. You in California had better hold on to 
your old wheat and not sell at such low prices 
as I see quoted in youi paper. Good wheat 
brings $1 here; corn, 30 to 35 cents per bushel; 
fat steers, f> to 51 cents per It>., gross; hogs, 4J 
to 5J cents, gross, in the country. We feed 
from 6,000 to 10,000 cattle in this county each 
year, and several thousand hogs, and this year 
feeders have made plenty of money. 

Thecorn cropisgenerally late; someis tasseling 
out and some are still planting. The cut worms 
were very bad, some plantf-d their corn three 
times. The season has been splendid for crops, 
and must remain so if we raise a good com crop. 
There is a large crop of corn planted, but much 
of it is late. Crass is the best we have had for 
years; timothy is good. I expect to commence 
cutting next week if the weather remains good. 
We have considerable tlax, and it looks very 
well; and oats look very well. Our early pota- 
toes are extra, and garden vegetables all good; 
strawberries and raspberries are short and sell- 
ing at 50 cents per gallon. Peaches were all 
winter killed, and apples, I think will be short. 
Short crop of cherrieB. 

I tli ink I would like to live in your climate. 
I have a farm of about 500 acres, and can make 
plenty of money raising cattle and hogs, and 
feeding the same. It is the best business here, 
and pays well, but the climate is not good like 
yours. It is very hot in summer and cold in 
winter. The hot weather hurts me very much 
when it gets above 80", and it is not often be- 
low that in summer. I have been trying to sell 
out at per acre; and have got as good a 
Btock farm as there is in the county, and all in 
timothy, clover and blue-grass; and a creek run- 
ning through it; all fenced into a number of 
pastures; three good wells, one of them with a 
good Eclipse 12-ft. wind mill. My calves, year- 
olds this spring and summer, weighed close to 
600 lb*. April 1st., and not all year-olds until 
August. Two-year-olds weighed at the same 
time 950 It>3., and I have some three-year-olds 
that weigh over 1,500 lbs. They have been fed 
on corn since February 1st. I expect to make a 
num!>er of them average 1,800 lbs. by next De- 
cember. But yet land is hard to sell here in 
tracts over 160 acres. Small farms are selling 
from $20 to $30 per acre. Land has advanced 
considerbly in the last year. 

Buying Fowls for California. 
There is a man from Oakland, California, 
buying fowls here, paying §1.75 to $2 for hens, 
and £1.50 for roosters, and 5 cents per lb. for 
turkeys. Eggs have been selling lately for 5 to 
li cents per dozen. This fowl man has shipped 
two carloads and is buying the third, and has 
not been all over the county. Four hundred 
dozen he counts a carload. We can beat you on 
fowls and eggs, especially low prices, but 
we beat you on priceB for cattle and hogs. In 
St. Louis, hogs are selling now at 53 to 6 cents 
per It), gross; cattle, 3 to 6 cents gross; but 
the 6-cent cattle have to be extra good. I 
expect to have some of that kind by late this 
fall or early winter. 

I would not think of leaving here if our cli- 
mate were as good as California's, for an in- 
dustrious man can make plenty of money here 
raising cattle anu hogs. Good cattle always 
bring a good price here — better than California, 
for I see 7 cents was the top price for San 
Krancisco; New York, 12i cents, net. 

I think some of taking a trip to California 
this summer over the new southern road 
through Southern California. I was over 
the Union Pacific railroad, about six years ago. 
Several of our neighbors sold out last spring 
and went to Los Angeles county, and some are 
back. They did not find anything to suit and 
said it did not rain any there. Land and 
everything was too high. They sold No. 1 land 
here for $25 per acre, and they said it was no 
place for a poor man or a man of small means. 
Please excuse all errors, for I am not used to 
writing to an editor. My bnsinsss is farming, 
stock raising and dealing in stock. 

Henry Howard. 
Shootman, Carroll Co., Mo. 
[Our correspondent's notes on crops, stock 
prices, etc., are of interest and will enable some 
of our readers to compare notes. Concerning 
temperature, it may be said that the whole 



State must not be judged by the record given I 
for San Francisco, for this city is directly on 
the coast and is one of the coolest places in the 
whole State. The interior sometimes shows from 
10° to 30° warmer, but the heat is much more 
endurable than at the East, for the air is dry. 
We do not have the oppressive summer heat of 
the East. Our correspondent's friends did not 
get a very good idea of Los Angeles county. It 
is a very well watered county, and gets much 
more rain than some of the adjacent country. 
It also has immense areas reached by water 
from artesian wells and the rivers. — Eds. 
Press.] 

Tethering Animals. 

Edi ior-s Press: — "Picketing stock" is the'ex- 
clusive term in use here, and probably nowhere 
else is it so universally practiced as in the 
"great valley" — the broad, treeless interior 
plain of California. Indeed it is a common 
ranch remark that "everything except wife and 
childen lives at the end of a picket rope. " With 
these "natural advantages," we who live here 
ought to be competent teachers in the art of 
tethering animals, and, reader of the Rural, if 
you can't tether a horse or other animal, at small 
expense, so that he can feed throughout the 
space between two rows of trees of indefinite 
length — travel rods of distance, the length of 
the row, without being able to reach or injure a 
tree close by him on either side — and do this, 
too, without the use of tie-rope, chain or picket 
pins, you have something yet to learn in this 
business. 

Wire Tethers. 
Cut your wire the length that you wish your 
animal to range along the row or space that you 
wish him to graze upon. Firmly fasten a stout 
stick, a foot or two in length, to each end of 
the wire. At one end of the space to be grazed 
over securely fasten one end of your wire, by 
completely burying the stick attached — say two 
ft. deep in the ground, and firmly tamping the 
earth above it. Then straighten the wire along 
the row to be grazed — by means of a lever, or 
otherwise; draw it perfectly tight, and fasten 
the other end of it securely to the ground by 
burying the stick attached to it a sufficient 
depth in the ground that no animal can pull it 
up when hitched to the wire. You now have 
your wire drawn taut in a straight line, along 
the surface of the ground, in the center of the 
space to be grazed over. Fasten your animal 
to the wire by means of a movable link, ring, 
or snap, to which tie the animal's halter. 

The length of halter determining the width 
of space each side of the wire that shall be 
grazed upon, while the ring to which the ani- 
mal is tied, sliding freely along the wire, allows 
him to range from end to end of it, however 
great the distance may be. 

Advantages of this Method. 

1. Wire, in this use, is practically imperisha- 
ble, and its first cost is not greater than rope, 
which, at most, will last only a few months. 
2. You can graze off the sides of your meadow, 
keeping the edges of the ungrazed portions in 
straight lines. 3. Spaces between tree rows 
can be grazed without the animal coming in 
contact with the trees on either side. 4. Ditch 
banks or the sides of roads can be grazed in like 
manner. 

Cost of Wire. — No. 8 wire is the best size for 
this use; as small as No. 12 or as large as No. 6, 
however, may be used. This wire is sold in 
bales of 63 lbs. each. No. 8 is about one-sixth 
of an inch in diameter; 100 ft. of it weighs 7 
lbs. It is worth about 10 ets. per lb. 

W. A. Sanders. 

Sanders, Cal. 



Lassen County Notes. 

Editors Press: — Haying is in full blast here 
now. Some say the hay is not as good in some 
parts as last year, but grain looks fine. We 
have had a good deal of wind the last 8 or 10 
days; yesterday was the first still day for some 
time. The thermometer stood 85° in the shade. 
There will be several headers start up during 
the next 10 days. We will start onr header a 
week from to-day. The grain seems to ripen 
ahead of the hay this season. 

Fruit trees are bending to the ground nnder 
the load of fruit. I nave been quite interested 
in reading those articles about fraud in eggs. I 
was thinking about sending for a setting of thor- 
oughbred eggs myself, but siuce others have 
had such hard luck, I had better stick to what 
we have got. I am keeping account of eggs 
laid and chickens raised for the first time, and 
would like to compare notes with others and 
see how mine average. We have 3 dozen hens, 
and they have laid for the first 6 months end- 
ing July 1st, 2,306 eggs, and we have raised 50 
chickens. We have sold up to June 14th, 
$20.50 worth of eggs, mostly at 20 cents 
per dozen. The hens have had no care. 
We feed them wheat screenings once a 
day, but they have plenty of range and 
good spring water to drink, and a feed of bran 
mash and sulphur once in a while, and we are 
troubled but very seldom with a sick chioken. 
Times are good, and business of every kind is 



booming. The worst trouble at present is the 
scarcity of harvest hands. Some of the largest 
hay ranchers have not half hands enough. 
Wages are $2 in haying, and some have two 
months' work, and over. The largest hay- 
ranoh is owned by J. D. Byera. He cuts over 
2,000 tons, and a good many others from 600 to 
1,200 tons. Hay is generally worth from $5 to 
810, according to quality — the latter for clear 
timothy. More anon. — G. R. Walez, Milford. 



Notes on Irrigation.— No. 2. 

I will as briefly as possible call your atten- 
tion to the Mokelumne valley and the adjacent 
country lying between Dry creek on the north 
and Mormon slough on the south (an area of 
150,000 acres), so far as one system of drainage 
and irrigation can be applied. The Mokelumne 
river takes its rise in the high Sierras to the 
east of us, where is stored the annual product 
of snow and ice, to be melted by the sun of 
summer and sent down in perennial streams 
through precipitous and rocky canons of wild- 
est grandeur to the thirsty plains below. 

The elevation of the Mokelumne at Hermit 
valley as stated by Prof. Whitney, State Geolo- 
gist, is 7.259 ft. above sea level. The snow is 
said to accumulate there in the winter to great 
depths, owing to its great elevation and shel- 
tered position, with high mountains on all 
sides. 

Like most of onr large mountain Btreama, it 
Hows in a deeply eroded channel, and where it 
debouches from the foothills, lies in a trough 
50 or 30 ft. below the level of the plain, until 
at Woodbridge, in flood-time, mnch of the 
stream overflows its banks and spreads through 
various drainage channels over the plains. Be- 
low Woodbridge the river takes a northwest- 
ern sweep of 35 miles (or 15 miles in a direct 
line when it divides, making the north and 
south fork, and embracing in its siDuous folds 
Staten island, a body of swamp and overflowed 
land, with an area of 10,000 acres). The river 
again reunites and runs fonr miles, when it fin- 
ally debouches into the San Joaquin. At the 
head of tide water navigation, near Mokelumne 
City, or near New Hope, the waters of the 
Cosumnes and Dry Creek unite with the Mo- 
kelumne. The cachement or drainage area of 
these three streams combined, amounts to 1,- 
372 miles — that of the Mokelumne alone being 
573 square miles. 

The mean discharge of the Mokelumne in 
average seasons, during the months of May, 
June and July is, approximately, 4,500 cubic 
ft. per second — safiicient to irrigate 225,000 
acres under a duty of 50 acres per cubic ft. per 
second; or 450,000 acres under a duty of 100 
acres per cubic ft. per second; or 675,000 acres 
under a duty of 150 acres per cubic ft. per sec- 
ond; or 1,350,000 acres under a duty of 30:) 
acres per cubic ft. per second, as Prof. David- 
son thinks might be reached, considering our 
soil as applied to cereals. You will see, there- 
fore, that if we wish to go into the irrigation 
business on a grand scale, and spread ourselves, 
we have abundant resources of one of the most 
important essentials, so far as water supply is 
concerned. (Probably the water that ran to 
waste last season reached ten times the amount 
above indicated.) 

Duty of Water. 

I have just used the term "duty" per cubic 
ft. of water. By this we mean the quantity re- 
quired to irrigate a superficial area of land of 
standard dimensions; as, for instance, an acre; 
or by the statement of an area of land effectu- 
ally irrigated by the use of a definite volume 
of water, delivered at a uniform rate through a 
certain period of time — the irrigating season. 
Thus, in the case of a stream which delivers 
water at the rate of five cubic ft. per second 
through the season, and accomplishes the irri- 
gation of 500 acres of land, we say that the wa- 
ter performs a duty of 100 acres per second ft., 
meaning that each ft. per second, continuously 
flowing through the season, irrigates 100 acres 
of land. This expression is, of course, in terms 
of the extent in acreage, performed by a stand- 
ard volume of water — the cubic ft. per second 
of continuous flow for the season. ( Halls. ) 

But the quantity of water required may be 
variable, according to the character of the soil 
and the crops to be cultivated; cereals requiring 
the least, and hoed crops the most. Although 
the Calaveras river has a cachement area of 390 
square miles, it does nut head high enough in 
the mountains to be perennial in its flow. 

The forks of the Mokelumne and Stanislaus 
on either side lap around and above the Cala- 
veras, whose main supply is the rains of winter. 
It has, therefore. Little value as a stream for ir- 
rigation. The Mormon slough fork has been 
utilized for that purpose, I believe, to a limited 
extent. 

I have referred to the Mokelumne as a stream 
having abundant aqueous supplies if properly 
distributed, for all the irrigable lands in Ban 
Joaquin county, with a large surplus for sev- 
eral other total abstinence communities. 

But from the topography of the country be- 
fore referred to, it cannot be taken out as 
cheaply ae the waters of some other rivers, and 
we are obliged to go up into the foothills And 
bring it along the hillsides until we can place 
it upon the crust of the plain at a satisfactory 
elevation for transmission to the desired points. 
To reach all the lands susceptible of being irri- 



gated from this source, the water should be 
taken out as high up as the site of the old Wade 
& Arson bridge, just northwest of Campo 
Seco, thence to be transmitted in a canal the 
distance of eight miles to Bear creek; one branch 
thence to the crest of the plains to reach a 
drainage channel, Paddy's creek, I believe, 
where it will intersect the Calaveras at or near 
Bellota. This branch will irrigate the county 
east of Stockton. 

To construct this main supply channel of 8 
miles there are no engineering difficulties to 
be encountered, no expensive rock cuts of 
moment; but 2 or 3 gulches to span by aque- 
ducts or cross by pipes, and the soil generally, 
at the proper season, is easily worked. In the 
case of the Mokelumne Ditch and Irrigation 
Co., it was estimated that a section of canal of 
this length, sufficient to irrigate 50,000 acres, 
could be constructed for §20,000, exclusive of 
dam and headworks. Beaching Bear creek, we 
utilize that channel as a main trunk for the 
Bupply of subordinate ditches that will place 
water upon all the lands lying between the 
Mokelumne and Calaveras. 

New Uae for Miner's Ditches. 
And here I wish to remark that the era of 
gold mining has left its rich heritage of mining 
ditches that cost the builders hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars, and having to a great extent 
served their purpose, may now be utilized for 
agricultural purposes for a small per cent, of 
their original cost. Of this character is the 
Davis ditch that coat $130,000, that takea its 
water from Italian bar, north of Campo Seco, 
and transmitted it along the slopes snd crests 
of hills to Lancha Plana, Winters' bar, Poverty 
bar and Mike's gulch, southeast of the Poland 
house. 

This ditch has a capacity for irrigating about 
30,000 acres, and at any time in the future may 
be enlarged to any required size. The lower 
portion — that weBt of Comanche is not now in 
use, but I am told may be restored for about 
$1,000 and water put into Bear creek within 
one month. The entire ditch now in good 
working order, with the reservoirs, pipes and 
appurtances can be purchased for $20,000. An 
outlay of $5,000 or $6,000 will double its capac- 
ity. Here is a chance for co-operation and a 
supply of water at a cheap rate. Why should 
not the farmers embrace such an opportunity 
and have a water supply and a water right per- 
manently attached to his land in perpetuity, 
which no corporation can disturb, rendering cer- 
tain his crop and enhancing the value of his 
land. I will take one share or one- twentieth 
part Who bids for the other 19? Or divide 
it into 200 or 400 shares, each share to an indi- 
vidual, which is more democratic, and we can 
have a water supply at a minimum cost. 

Bear creek is the main drainage uhanutl for 
the section of country lying between the Mo- 
kelumne and Calaveras rivers. Its length from 
where it forms a junction with the proposed 
canal is about 20 miles, and terraina'es in 
Fourteen-mile slough, a tidal afluent of the San 
Joaquin river. 

It is proposed to utilize this as the main sup- 
ply trunk. Where it intersects the canal the 
width is 35 ft., but soon increases in size as it 
receives the drainage of numerous aduents 
which make their way from the plains, until 
in the lowlands, the embankments made to con- 
tine the waters from spreading over the country 
in the rainy aeason, are 100 to 150 ft apart. 
The hight of the banks is from four to six ft. 

For the tirat two miles the fall is 11 1 ft. per 
mile.then averages seven to five ft. per mile. 
The total fall is 170 ft., or an average of about 
nine ft. per mile. With this excessive fall, 
giving a current from six to four miles per 
hour, the stabilty of the channel would 
be greatly endangered were it not from 
the fact that the underlying strata along 
the upper part of the lines is of lava 
rock, or sandstone, merging on the plains 
into indurated sand or hardpan, of sufficient 
compactness to resist the ordinary erosion of 
water. Bear creek forks at a point half a mile 
south of the Poland house, and this branch may 
be continued along the south aide of the Locke- 
ford road, thence westerly following the crest 
of the Mokelumne, on the township line down 
pa9t Woodbridge to the head of Sycamore 
slough on land of Sargent Bros. 

Another fork occurs near Harmony Grove 
school-house, and at Brannock's old place on 
the Cherokee lane road, takes the name of Bran- 
nock's slough. This finally spreads upon the 
plains, but the lower end is now embanked, 
however, so as to confine its waters, and they 
fall into White's slongh in the S. & O. lands. 
Between the Calaveras and the Mokelumne. 

You wiU see, therefore, that in a system of 
irrigation works for this section Bear creek will 
occupy a very important position, as it will 
serve as a Bupply canal for most of the plain 
lands between the Mokelumoe and Calaveras. 

Sub-ditches can be taken thence by the 
farmer to be applied to his lands, the topographic 
slope being such that water t will reash all 
parts of it 

A branch canal could be taken out of Bear 
creek just east of 1/Ockeford and carried south 
so as to intersect Tnomas slough, which it 
would partly follow, and be dropped into the Cal- 
averas Irrigation Co.'s canal, near Tone's bridge 
and thence carried 14 milea, where it intersects 
Bear creek near the Five-mile house, lower 
Sacramento road. There are numerous other 
drainage channels in the distriot which may be 
utilized to transmit water, or for the purpose of 
drainage. . ■ ■ 

And here I would say that drainage of irn- 



6 



THE PACIFIC 



July 16, 1881.] 



gated lands is important as respects the health- 
fulneBS of a district. Without it, surface water 
would accumulate and stagnate in pools, caus- 
ing fevers and other malarious diseases. With 
good drainage, irrigation districts are not re- 
garded as unhealthy. The question arises as to 
the amount of land we have to which water 
may be applied, and the duty which water will 
perform to such lands; and as a corollary, this 
will determine also the size of the required 
canal; for to make irrigation a success, the cost 
of the works must not be in excess of a profit- 
able application. 

The area that may be reached by the system 
of irrigation above outlined, embraces about 
150,000 acres. Of this amount 95,500 acres lie 
between the Mokelumne and Calaveras. What 
portion of this area is likely to be irrigated at 
any one time is a question. Referring to the 
irrigation districts of Europe, we find that about 
one-half the number of acres within a district, 
received the direct application of water. In 
India, one-third. Allowance must be made for 
roads, towns, and building sites, woodlands, 
pastures and lands lying fallow. 



(To be Continued.) 



TlfE / 









Notes on Others' Methods, 



Editors Press : — The Rural Press, with 
its printed pages of information on every branch 
of California husbandry, comes to hand each 
week, and in it we can always find something 
new and interesting which may prove a profit 
or a loss to the reader, according to the de- 
gree of information which the writer may pos- 
sess of the subject which he selects to write 
about. The Rural Press is accepted as the 
agricultural encyclopedia of the Pacific coast, 
and, outside of actual experience, more infor- 
mation can be derived from it than from any 
other source. Each week the columns allotted 
to correspondents collate the results of new 
modes and experiments in agriculture in every 
part of the State, so, by a careful perusal of the 
Press, the beginner may derive all the benefit 
of the pioneer's expensive experience. Therefore 
when one writes lor publication, it is quite essen- 
tial he should have some actual experience and 
a little systematic knowledge of the subject he 
writes about; otherwise the communication may 
mislead and do harm. 

At the present time, bee culture is receiving 
considerable attention from correspondents of 
the Press. Mr. J. D. Enas, in hiB communi- 
cation to the Rural of March 5tb, says he 
is in constant receipt of correspondence from 
beginners and others interested in bee keeping, 
from all pans of the State, Oregon and Wash- 
ington Territory, and he gives instructions to 
guide beginners in their work. I do not hesitate 
to affirm that the directions given by Mr. Enas 
for the management of bees are the reverse of 
good bee culture and contrary to the system 
pursued by apiarians of experience. In the 
first place, Mr. Enas advises the purchase of a 
stock or more of bees in the old box hive; then 
purchase a movable frame hive and transfer the 
bees to it. 

The Way to Transfer. 
That is very bad advice, for a beginner would 
be apt to destroy ten colonies in transferring 
tbem by the drumming process (which is apt to 
dttach heavy pieces of honey comb which fall 
on the bees and smother them), before they 
would save one. If you buy bees, buy good 
ones; they are always the cheapest. If you 
have a hive of old box bees to transfer, lift the 
old hive from its place and put the empty new 
hive there instead, with a piece of comb in one 
of the frames for the bees to cluster on. Lay 
the old hive down, remove both ends, and drive 
the bees from the old to the new hive with 
smoke. Then pry the sides from the old hive 
and take out the comb, carefully brushing the 
bees from it with a wing. They will all go in 
the new hive and you need not kill a bee. If 
there is any good new comb or brood worth 
saving, cut it to tit the frame, and tack thin 
narrow strips of shakes or boards on each side 
of the frame to keep the comb in place, and in 
two or three days the bees will fasten it as 
solid as if they had built it there; then remove 
the slats. 

Queen less Colonies. 
From what page of bee culture did Mr. Enas 
obtain the instructions he so confidently gives 
in regard to proper management of a queenless 
colony of bees? He says, in buying, they 
should be let alone (we admit that), or if al- 
ready on hand, should be united with another 
colony, as the chances are, they are queenless 
and without brood. That is coatrary to the 
proper management of bees, for the following 
good reasons. In the first place, it would re- 
quire 21 days after the loss of the queen to 
hatch the brood and eggs left in the^hive. And if 
the bees started royal cells, in a day or two 
after the loss of their queen, which they almost 
invariably do, they would have a young laying 
queen, about the time, or soon after the brood 
lu their hive is exhausted. Then the colony 
would soon build up, for a young queen is more 
prolific than an old one, and the colony which 
Mr. Enas says should be united with another 
hive (which is little less than a total loss), is 
more valuable with their young queen than they 
were with their old one. In the fall and win- 



ter it would be well to unite a queenless colony 
with another hive, for it would be useless to 
raise a queen at the time of year when there 
are no drone bees. But Mr. Enas gave his ad- 
vice in March, and spring is the time to save 
colonies of bees, not to destroy them. 

Top Bars. 

Experienced apiarians of this county, after a 
thorough trial, have discontinued the use of 
beveled top bars for frames, they are expensive, 
clumsy and useless. The frames contain less 
honey, and a tracing of beeswax along the cen- 
ter of the top bar is better than the bevel. I 
have used beveled top bars for frames, and 
loose bottoms for hives in my apiary, and have 
discarded both; and most of the apiarists in this 
county discontinued them both years ago. 

Mr. Enas says the ends of top bars should 
rest on rabbets of hard wood, instead of metal. 
Now, in the name of all the Langstroths and 
Hubers, what is the use of going to the expense 
of placing hard wood on pine, where there is 
neither friction nor wear, but merely to sustain 
the ^end of a stationary half-inch pine slat. A 
narrow strip of tin (called a rabbet) is generally 
placed on the end boards of the hive as a rest 
for the frames; they are used to prevent the 
bees from waxing the ends of the frames tight 
to the wood, but any tyro ought to know that 
bees would wax their frames as tight to oak as 
pine. 

Catching Swarms. 

In the Rural of June 18th, Mr. Enas de- 
scribes his mode of catching swarms, which is 
certainly a new and novel one, but, we judge, 
few apiarians would care to run the risk of 
destroying a queen, by the useless folly of 
swinging her in the air to catch a swarm of 
bees. For, if the bees had a queen of their 
own, they would pay no more attention to the 
caged queen in the box than they would to a 
caged canary; and if they did not have a queen, 
they would be likely to cluster for a few mo- 
ments, and then return to their hive. 

When a swarm shows a disposition to leave, 
we throw a little water in the thickest part of 
the swarm; and in this way we have saved 
swarms that were too high in the air to reach 
with a queen bee on a pole. Mr. Enas says all his 
old queens have one wing cut half off. We 
presume he clips off the half of one wing to 
prevent the queens from leaving the hive with 
the first swarm, as they surely would if left to 
their natural instincts. Sometimes a colony 
of bees will insist on going to the woods, after 
they have been hived; in that case, if it be the 
first swarm from the hive, accompanied by the 
old laying queen, her wings may be clipped, and 
by detaining the queen, prevent the bees from 
leaving. But if it be a second swarm, accom- 
panied by a young queen, which is always the 
case, it would destroy the entire colony to clip 
the queen's wing, for that colony would never 
raise a working bee with that queen in their 
hive. And would not most any inexperienced 
person after reading "Bee Notes" in the Rural 
of June 18th, be liable to destroy his bees by 
clipping the wings of young unfertilized queens, 
believing he was following the directions of Mr. 
Enas, who says all his old queens are thus 
maimed ? 

Mr. Enas says he picks his queens from the 
ground, places them in a wire cage and lays 
them near the entrance of the hive. He does 
not say why he caged the queens and placed 
them outside of the hive, and to save my life I 
cannot assign any sensible reason for doing so. 
Mr. Enas says, owing to an accident to his ex- 
tractor, he was compelled to let 'em swarm; 
that is certainly a new note in the bee business. 
In this part of the State swarming is always 
pretty well over before extracting commences. 

But it is easy to prevent bees from swarming 
at all if so desired. If the apiarian will cut the 
queen cells out before they are sealed, and place 
another super on the top of the first super, to 
give the bees room to work and store their 
honey, they will not swarm, and a greater 
yield of honey for one season can be obtained 
that way than any other. 

If Mr. Enas permits his bees to swarm natu- 
rally what is his object in clipping the wings of 
his queens. The old queen will leave the hive 
with the first swarm a few days before the 
young queen is hatched, and, if she cannot fly 
with the swarm, she will fall to the ground 
among the grass or weeds, and be much more 
apt to be found by marauding birds or ants 
than the apiarist. The bees, missing their 
queen, will return to their hive and wait until 
there is a young queen hatched to go with them, 
while their natural laying queen would perish 
in the weeds. And the swarm could leave and 
return to their hive while the apiarian was eat- 
ing his dinner, and he would never know the 
loss of the queen. 

Mr. Enas says all his six swarms had young 
queens with them, out for the first time. Did 
he clip their wings when he caught tbem, in di- 
viding? If he did it would have been mush bet- 
ter to have clipped their heads off. Any per- 
son, reading the communication of Mr. Enas, 
would infer that it was natural for the old 
queens to stay in the hive and young queens to 
leave with the swarms. When two queens 
come together they will always fight until one of 
them is killed, and the old queen will always 
try to leave the hive before a young one is 
hatched. These fixed laws, which are known 
to govern the working and swarming of bees, 
will prevent an old and young queen leaving 
the hive with the same swarm, and the old 
queens falling down by the hives and young 
queens flying off with the swarms, as was the 
case with the six swarms of Mr. Enas. 



BUBAL PBESS. 



Any person who desires to keep bees at all' 
will find it profitable to purchase a good work 
on bee-culture, snch as "Langstroth on the 
Honey Bee," or Mr. Root's "A. B. C. Book on 
Bee-Culture," or the monthly pamphlet entitled 
Gleanings, by the same author, (A. J. Root). 
Any of these works will give reliable informa- 
tion on bee-culture. Those men have spent 
years in an experimental apiary, and have made 
the honey bee the study of their lives. 

Compliments to Another Correspondent. ■ 
Mr. S. T. Wells, of Saticoy, says he does not 
always follow the books and scientific methods 
with his bees, and his communication is con- 
vincing proof of that fact. If Mr. Wells would 
give a little more attention to bee books, or ob- 
tain a little practical information by visiting 
some of the large and well appointed apiaries 
in his neighborhood he would be benefited there- 
by, and so would his readers. Besides, it might 
prevent the future publication of a good deal of 
unprofitable bee fiction. It is less than five 
minute's easy work to change the bees from an 
old to a new hive, then what is the use of bor- 
ing holes in a board, etc. Lift the frames from 
the old to the new hive with the bees cluster- 
ing to the frames, shake the balance of the bees 
out, and carry the old hive away. But Mr. 
Wells' mode of dividing or swarming bees is the 
worst I ever heard. He simply removes the 
lower hive a short distance away, and leaves 
the supers or upper hives on the old stand. 
Now if most of the bees happened to be off hunt- 
ing honey, or in the two upper stories there 
would not be bees enough with the removed 
hive to keep the brood warm and it would 
die. Besides the lower hive would be 
almost sure to contain the laying queen and 
the young unhatched queen, and the young 
queen would be destroyed instead of coming 
out to take charge of the new colony. The life 
of a working bee in the busy season is about 60 
days, and it would be at least three weeks be- 
fore that queenless colony could have a laying 
queen, and then it would take 21 days for her 
eggs to hatch and by that time, three-fourths of 
the colony would be dead of old age. And if 
to destroy a young queen almost hatched in one 
hive, and leave another hive to raise a queen 
from the egg, is good bee culture, I don't want 
any honey. 

Mr. Loucks, of Fresno, said he thought of 
visiting Southern California, to escape the ague 
and find a bee range. We would gladly wel- 
come Mr. Loucks to Ventura. Here^there is an 
abundance of bee range, and bee plants, and 
there is not aoy chills or ague. Bee feed here 
is much the same as those mentioned by Mr. 
Loucks. White and button sage, |buck brush, 
sumac and clover are the principal honey plants 
here. All the extracting is done between the 
first of May and the first of August. More 
honey is taken in June than any other month. 
This season, like 1879, the honey crop will be 
almost an entire failure in Southern California. 

Robt. Lyon. 

Cliff Glen; Ventura, July 8, 1881. 



The Bird Pest. 

Editors Press: — In common with most fruit- 
growers 1 have experienced the exasperation 
which usually prevails at this season, and for 
which neither stones, scarecrows, gunpowder or 
expletives, authorized or profane, afford ade- 
quate relief. The birds seemed fully persuaded 
that the products of our young orchard and 
berry patch now first bearing were their par- 
ticular reward for past privations. Apricots 
and early peaches were nearly all appropriated, 
and the clvsters of raspberries were being 
thinned as fast as they ripened. Having for- 
merly proved the futility of most known re- 
sources, we despaired of relief until it occurred 
to us to try the effect of tin scraps. 

Procuring a quantity from the tinshop, three 
or four were twisted together by their corners 
in projecting strips, so that they would radiate 
from the point of connection, to which a string 
was attached. The contrivance was suspended 
from the end of a slender switch, which was 
thrust in the ground in a leaning position. These 
were placed at intervals among the berry rows. 
The wind causes the tins to revolve and swing, 
and the switch to vibrate up and down, com- 
bining to produce incessant flashes of dazzling 
light by reflection of the sunshine, which, dart- 
ing in every direction, could scarcely fail to 
intercept the winged thieves with evident be- 
wildering alarm, from whatever quarter they 
approach. 

A week has passed without evidence of fur- 
ther mischief, and while we do not regard the 
test as conclusive, until time proves whether 
familiarity will breed its proverbial contempt, 
we consider it sufficiently encouraging to report 
for the benefit of your readers who might appre- 
ciate even a temporary or partial protection. 
For fruit trees the tins could be hung from 
projecting branches, or from poles lashed to 
upper limbs and rising clear of the tree. 

Those troubled with squirrels climbing their 
trees and carrying off fruit will find a remedy in 
a sheet of tin or other metal of 10 or 12 inches 
length coiled around the tree trunk and raised 
to the lower limb, to whict it should be attached 
by string or wire. O. S. Chapin. 

Poway, San Diego Co. 



Cherry Growing. 

At the meeting of the Santa Clara County 
Horticultural Society last week an essay on 
cherry-growing was read by Mr. Geiger, from 
which we take the following statements : 

In cultivating the cherry, as well as all other 
kinds of fruit, the soil is the first consideration. 
The soil for cherry, peach and apricot should 
be of a light, sandy loam. Some gravel mixed 
in will do no hurt. In this kind of soil the 
cherry is at home, and under this loam, to the 
depth of two to two and a half ft., the subsoil 
should be a sandy clay, that, when a piece is 
dried in the sun, you can rub it to a dust in 
your hand. In this kind of soil you can plant 
from six to ten inches deeper than they stood in 
the nursery; but where the subsoil is heavy and 
of a sticky nature, you cannot do that. 

Go to the nursery yourself and select your 
trees before they are dug up, and take none but 
what are strong and vigorous growers, and be 
willing to pay the price, Cheap stock is money 
thrown away. Now, having the soil, and hav- 
ing selected healthy trees, and you have them 
located in your orchard, the next consideration 
is the training, or pruning. The first six years 
of the trees' life in your orchard, cut them short, 
and don't be afraid. The object of cutting short 
is to bring the forks of the limbs close together. 
Trees are made up of large limbs, and these 
limbs are increased in size by smaller branches, 
like a river is by rivulets. Cutting short 
causes the branches to become thick and stocky, 
and causes the fruit spurs to set on the big wood. 
In cutting short, the first six years of the trees' 
life, you lay the foundation for a strong, healthy 
tree, able to bear all the fruit it can hold, and 
fruit that you would not be ashamed for any- 
body to see. 

After the knife pruning, comes another way 
of pruning that is absolutely necessary. I mean 
pinching or spur pruning, which tends to throw 
the tree into fruit quicker than the knife. And 
this pinching process is very important on trees 
that are under eight years old. In order to get 
the trees in good shape, cut all the leading buds 
to the north, especially if you are exposed $o 
high winds. In training young trees, where you 
cut there will be from two to five shoots come 
out, and if this is not attended to your object 
will be defeated, because these shoots receive 
the sap first and will outgrow the one that is in- 
tended for the leader. Then, in order to avoid 
this, pinch all the shoots below the leader and 
let that have the full strength of the roots, and 
let that alone, if it grows 20 ft. Then next 
February or March cut it down to 16 or 20 
inches at most. 

And right here on this subject is where we 
all differ, every man has a right to his own 
opinion. They say by cutting short we will 
not got much fruit. I will give them the ben- 
efit of that point, but will require them to look 
ahead 10 or 15 years. By cutting short, wood 
is increased, but at the end of six years the tree 
goes into fruit very rapidly; and here is a point 
that is overlooked. As the tree increases in 
fruit it decreases in wood, and by the time it is 
10 or 12 years old there will be but little cut- 
ting to do, except to shorten in and thin out, 
and this requires some judgment and experi- 
ence, to know where to cut, how to cut and 
when to cut. To shorten in, never cut down 
to an old fruit spur. It is very difficult to get 
healthy wood out of such; but wherever you 
can find last year's wood there you can cut with 
safety, or anything that is less than one inch 
in diameter. 

When to cut — here is where we differ again. 
If it were possible for me to prune my orchard 
in five or six days, I would not put a knife in 
it before I could see the bloom. Late pruning 
is the best for the cherry tree, especially in re- 
moving large limbs, because life and vitality is 
at the place where you cut. But, having so 
much of it to do, I must begin earlier; but I al- 
ways commence when the buds begin to swell, 
and never sacrifice any branch that can be con- 
verted into fruit. Convert everything into 
fruit that you can, by pinching when the shoot 
is young and tender. Keep all the side shoots 
back by pinching, and do everything you can to 
throw the fruit inside. 

It is not the largest tree that bears the larg- 
est fruit, neither is it the largest tree that 
bears the most fruit. Work for quality and not 
quantity; be satisfied with a small quantity of 
first-class fruit, rather than a ton of an inferior 
quality, that you do not know whether you can 
sell at all or not. Heavy pruning will accom- 
plish this end, and nothing else will. Heavy 
pruning is absolutely necessary in our Califor- 
nia climate, where we have seven months of 
hot, dry, burning sun. Now, if you have not 
pruned but little, if any, and your trees are 
heavily laden with fruit, and you are unable 
to procure water, how is it possible for the trees 
to mature the fruit and bring it up to good 
marketable size, and at the same time build on 
a short growth of wood, and leave the tree in a 
healthy condition after the fruit is removed ? 
Right here, gentlemen, lies one of the funda- 
mental principles of fruit-growing in all 
its varieties: Keep the tops of your trees 
in subjection. On this point the cherry 
is sadly abused, and a tendency created to 
shorten the life of the trees. Too much wood 
and overbearing will soon kill your trees, es- 
pecially if you have no water. My experience 
in growing fruit in this country, and especially 
the cherry, is to keep small tops and large roots; 
(Continued on Page 42.) 



36 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



[July 16, 1881. 



Eastern Grange Notes. 

Two farmers'named Banister and Grace, liv- 
ing near Utica, N. Y., are having a lawsuit over 
a line fence. The disputed ground is esti- 
mated to be worth about $3, and so far the law- 
yers' and court expenses amount to $3,000. 
Where the light of our Order sheds its rays, 

armers on Grange principles are settling hun- 
dreds of such cases peaceably and quietly by ar- 
bitration. No doubt this case will be settled 

j i soon as their money is exhausted. — Orange 
Bulletin. 

The Grange movement is one of the most'im- 
portant known to history, and the first attempt 
of the agricultural class of a nation to maintain 
their social and intellectual equality as the 
neans of social advancement and enlightenment. 
Our Order possesses a power hitherto unknown 
and, guided by the light of its principles, it must 
overcome every obstacle and hold its way stead- 
ily onward, bringing all within its influence, 
nearer to the good, the beautiful and the true. 
In conclusion, let every member then be in- 
spired by renewed faith, hope and zeal in build- 
ing up the Order and extending its sphere of 
usefulness until these quiet Grange halls all 
over the land shall carry hope and good cheer 
not only to the husbandman but to the toilers 
of the world.— Isaac Freeman. 

The Patrons of Columbia Co., Pa., are 
ranging for a supply-house. A lot has been 
purchased in the village of Bloomsburg, upon 
which buildings will be erected. They contem- 
plate shipping grain and all farm products. 

Bro. J. J. WOODMAN, Worthy Master of the 
National Grange, addressed a mammoth Grange 
picnic at Port Stanley, Canada, a few days 
since; over seven thousand persons were present 
and much enthusiasm prevailed. 

The Board of Directors of the Kansas State 
Fair Association have appropriated $600 to be 
divided into premiums by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the* State Grange, and to be awarded 
to the Subordinate Granges making the best 
display of farm products, at the Kansas State 
fair to be held at Topeka, September 12th to 
17th. More recognition. 

"One fact prominent in the present revival, 
and which gives it great force, is that the lead- 
ers are in full sympathy with the principles and 
purposes of the Order. The politicians that at 
first crowded in and forced themselves into 
prominent positions have been well weeded out, 
and the men now in the lead in all the States 
are true and tried, and are known to have the 
interests of the cause at heart. Healthful, per 
manent success under corrupt leadership was 
impossible. Indeed, it would have been better 
for the farmers of the country for the Grange to 
have failed utterly than to have kept up its 
former growth and power under the lead of cor 
rupt politicians. The danger now is that this 
class and their tools may again seek admission 
when they see the Grange gathering strength 
and marshaling its hosts by hundreds of thou 
sands. This must be guarded against. Every 
subordinate Grange must be warned that 'eter 
nal vigilance is the price of liberty,' and they 
should scrutinize closely every candidate for ad- 
mission." — Patrons of Husbandry. 

Daiby Farming. — "Dairy Farming," the 
work issued in monthly parts by Cassell, Petter 
& Galpin (739 Broadway, New York), is pro 
ceeding regularly toward completion. Our 
readers will remember that the author is Prof. 
J. P. Sheldon, the well-known English writer 
on agricultural subjects. Prof. Sheldon has 
brought to his work on "Dairy Farming" a wide 
acquaintance with dairy practices in England, 
on the continent and the United States, and he 
has spared no pains to make his treatise com 
plete. It is complete and a credit to the dairy 
industry. The illustrations are many, and en 
able one to look into the dairies and know the 
utensils in all countries. It is rather expensive, 
as there will be about 30 parts at 40 cents each, 
but it is nothing less than an encyclopedia of 
dairying, and will be welcomed by all whose 
means will allow them to enjoy and profit by it. 
Peculiar interest will inhere in the work to 
Patrons from the fact that Prof. Sheldon is, 
perhaps, the only Granger in England. 

The Grangers at Port Costa. — The Call 
fornia Grangers' Business Association are re 
ported to have commenced work this week on 
the construction of a wharf and warehouse at 
Port Costa, to be completed in 90 days. They 
are to build, as we understand, on the franchise 
granted to Messrs. Mizner & Shirley, and will 
this year build 600 ft. of the wharf 120 ft. in 
width, with a warehouse 100 ft. wide running 
the whole length of the wharf, leaving an addi 
tional 400 ft. of wharf and warehouse for con 
struction another season. These improvements 
will be about three-quarters of a mile below the 
railroad ferry slip. — Martinez Gazette. 



Temescal Grange holds a picnic at 10 a. m 
to-day (Saturday, July 16th), at the residence of 
J. V. Webster, P. M. of State Grange, in Fruit 
vale. The Granges of Alameda and Contra 
Costa counties, and all Patrons are invited 
The committee on a free market for Oakland 
will make a report before the assembly. The 
subject is of importance to all citizens of Oak 
land and farmers in the counties mentioned. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

Alameda Vineyards. — Alia: Alameda coun- 
ty appears to be coming to the front in viticul- 
tural development. For many years the suc- 
cess of the vine has been practically established 
along the base of the foothills from Niles to Mis- 
sion San Jose and the Warm Springs, but the 
field there is comparatively limited. Follow- 
ing up the Alameda canyon, large areas on the 
south side of the railroad on the slopes of the 
streams coming from the south, protected from 
fogs and frost, are now being brought to notice. 
The slopes of the Arroyo Yalle and the Arroyo 
Nocha, near Pleasanton and Livermore, are 
now being subdivided and purchased especially 
for the cultivation of the vine and olive. It is 
estimated that in the immediate vicinity of the 
Lachryma Montis section, 300,000 acres will be 
planted in vines and olives next winter. The 
geological characteristics of the country are 
being closely studied, and it is found that they 
resemble, so far as their soil constituents 
affect wine products, the choicest calcare- 
ous regions of France, which produce wine 
and brandies, firm, free from earthy or 
objectionable tastes and excess of free 
acids, smooth and velvety to the palate. 
Analyses of soils and subsoils show the presence 
of a liberal proportion of natural fertilizers, such 
as carbonate and sulphate of lime, phosphates, 
iron and potash. Experiments are now being 
conducted to determine the value of certain 
great deposits, found stratified beneath the soil 
as natural fertilizers, hopes being entertained 
that they will prove sufficiently rich to warrant 
their use as a commercial article for transports 
tion throughout the State. The finest wines 
and brandies of France are produced in cal 
careous soils, or sedimentary and gravelly de- 
posits washed from calcareous hills and mount- 
ains. San Francisco will be largely benefited 
by these rapid developments of the country 
lying near the bay, and the fame of our products 
will be maintained by cultivating the choicest 
soils. The quality of products must not be lost 
sight of in the eagerness to plant vines. Both 
the variety of vine and the character of the soil 
and climate must be considered by those who 
aim to defy competition through excellence, 

AMADOR. 

Notes. — Quartz Mountain Cor. Ledger, July 
9: The farmers are agitating the subject of stop- 
ping the boys from hunting doves and cotton- 
tails in the stubble and dry grass. I have it 
from reliable men that between 400 and 500 
shots were fired in one day around Lower Ran 
charia. A fire last Monday made a start to 
wipe out the Eismenger ranch. Sol. was in the 
woods, but the boys made a rush and got con 
trol of the flames before they had done much 
damage. Messrs. Ford, Styles and Gilchrist did 
good work packing water, and instructing the 
boys what to do. It is also due the ditch com 
pany to say that they rendered all the aid in 
their power as quickly as possible. Harvesting 
is about over in this vicinity. Ford has had 
138 tons of hay baled by that lightning horse 
power. He has upward of 100 acres summer 
fallow ready for next winter. Sol. E~ismenger 
has had 43 tons baled by the same machine. 
We would call that a good showing for the bed 
rock ranches of Amador county. Hay is held 
here at from §18 to $20 per ton. There is an 
immense amount of wood and timbers going 
through Lower Kancharia to the Bunker Hill 
and Keystone mines. Some of the wood comes 
from three miles above Oleta. 

The Horticultural Commission. — Dispatch, 
July 9th: The Board of Horticultural Com 
missioners for this county met at the Court 
house last Wednesday, the 6th inst., and com 
pleted their organization by the election of Mr. 
R. M. Ford as Chairman, and Mr. S. S. Hart 
rum as Secretary. The members proceeded to 
cast lots for the long and short term, which re 
suited in Mr. Ford drawing the long, or three 
year term; Mr. Hartman the two-year term 
and Mr. J. W. Violet the one-year term. The 
Board is now ready to enter upon their official 
duties according to law, and are ready to hear 
any complaints that may be made by parties 
who may be in need of their services. 
COLUSA. 

Editors Press: — To-day the mercury stands 
at 90° in the shade, although, for the past week 
we have had uncommonly cool weather. Win 
ter clothing was in demand, especially in the 
forenoon of each day, as there were strong south 
winds. Such cool, refreshing mornings puts 
one in mind of Santa Cruz or the Bay city. We 
would be glad to be able to enjoy such weather 
continually. Harvesting is drawing to a close 
and threshing is being pushed rapidly along. 
Considerable excitement exists among the 
threshers, and we have no difficulty in getting 
our work done at bedrock prices. Taking the 
present prices of sacks and threshing labor, and 
comparing with last year, the farmers will clear 
nearly as much, although the crop is much 
lighter than last year. The next thing we want 
now is some kind of cheap transportation to get 
our produce to market. Perhaps a railroad 
would answer the purpose. — A Subscriber, 
Olimpo. 
KERN. 

Alfalfa Seed. — Record, July 9: Mr. J. A, 
Clark brought to our office on Saturday a wisp 
of alfalfa, the stalks being literary covered with 
seed. Mr. Clark says he plucked the handful 



from a [10-acre lot which he has reserved for 
seeding r purposes, and thinks it will average 
1,000 ft>s. to the acre. The lot was pastured 
down close until the 20th of last April, when 
the stock were removed and the grass was al- 
lowed to seed. Other alfafa on the ranch was 
destroyed by grasshoppers, but this piece en- 
tirely escaped their ravages. 

Artesian Wells. — Califomian, July 9: The 
total number of these wells now flowing, is 11, 
and two more are partly bored, but are not yet 
completed. These wells are widely asunder, 
and one object in boring them would seem to 
be to ascertain the extent of the artesian belt. 
This, as far as definitely indicated by these 
wells, is about 18 miles in length from east to 
west, and of an average breadth of six, lying 
immediately to the north and along Kern and 
Buena Vista lakes and the connecting slough. 
The tract contains abont 70,000 acres and, all 
things considered, apart from the artesian water, 
it is the most desirable portion of the valley. 
The average flow of water is about 0.20 cubic 
ft. per second and is said to be slowly increas 
ing. Probably this water, if stored in reser- 
voirs to be used when required, each well would 
irrigate 40 acres. The average discharge, we 
are told, is greater than the wells of Los An 
geles and San Bernardino counties, although 
none has yet been opened equaling the remark- 
able flow of two or three in those counties; but 
probably there will be many such when our 
wells approximate them in number. With the 
exception of one at the eastern end of the belt, 
which is strongly impregnated with sulphur, 
the water is of the best and purest quality. 
The business of boring for flowing water is yet 
in its experimental stage, but it is demonstrated 
that artesian water may be obtained over an 
extensive area of fertile land, that further ex 
periments may greatly widen, as well as demon- 
strates that in many places it may be tapped 
and found in stronger flow nearer the surface 
than has been the case with any of the wells 
referred to. Thus far none of them, we be- 
lieve, nave been utilized for irrigation, but the 
water is a great boon to many of the tenants of 
Messrs. Haggin & Carr, for drinking and culin- 
ary purposes. 
NAPA. 

Grafting. — St. Helena Star: J. S. Kister 
hands us four apples with the following pedi- 
gree: He had at first a quince tree; on this a 
pear was grafted. The pears were not good, 
being fibrous and hard, like the quince; into 
the pear he grafted another pear and three 
kinds of apples. The tree now has three kinds 
of fruit on it — pears and two varieties of apples 
— all growing distinct and perfect in themselves. 
Now S these three grow without difficulty on 
one tree, how many might be added ? Will some 
of our fruit men answer? 

The Valley Lifr.— Cor. Register: The 
writer was borne from lower valley to elevated 
mountain side a few days ago, and in a quiet 
nook, in the hills bordering Pope valley, found 
a haven of refuge. Headers were busy on the 
broad fields of the Oak Knoll farm as we swiftly 
passed by. The grain appeared very clean, and 
the yield fair. Long stacks of hay were dis- 
cernable in every part of the valley, and there 
is much left yet in the cock. Corn-fields abound 
on every hand, and from present prospects the 
yield of this grain will be very large. In no 
previous season has the growth of this cereal 
been more rapid. In many well cultivated 
fields the blades are as high as a man's shoul- 
ders, and the plume-like tassels are already 
showing themselves. Although in the valley 
much wheat, late sown, is poor and will yield 
but little over expenses, yet, taken as a whole, 
the season will prove a good one, and the 
husbandmen need not complain. Orchards and 
vineyards are in a thrifty condition, the latter 
being well cared for, especially in the St. Helena 
district. Although there were many vineyards 
that were planted last spring that look well, it 
was very unfortunate that so many cuttings 
were injured by the severe frosts of last fall be- 
fore they were removed from the parent vine. 
It is owing to this fact that the majority of the 
failures occurred. The experience was gained 
at a costly price, and will not be disregarded in 
the future. The spirit of improvement is abroad 
in the whole valley, but is particularly active 
between Yountville and St. Helena. This has 
often been noted in your columns, and it should 
be in the future until the same spirit that ani- 
mates our brethren up the valley has taken pos- 
session of real estate holders below Yountville. 
NEVADA. 

The Codlino Moth. — Transcript: Felix Gil- 
let, the well-known horticulturist, says that the 
codling moth is playing havoc with apples 
and pears in all parts of the county, so far as 
he can learn. In his own large orchard on Ar- 
istocracy hill, for instance, he anticipates that 
the apple crop will be a total failure on account 
of the pest. He is now studying out a plan to 
lessen the evil in the future by scraping the 
trees with an ingenious instrument that will ex- 
pose the pupae of the moth where it is hid under 
the bark, and thus enable the destruction of it. 
SACRAMENTO. 

The Plum and the Pear. — Record Union, 
July 12: The principal fruits shipped to the 
East so far this year are the plum and the pear. 
In both of these we excel, and in both, the East 



the advantage of about four weeks in their mar- 
ket. This fact is no small matter to our fruit- 
growers and shippers, and will tell in the gen- 
eral summing up of the profits of fruit culture 
this year. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Fruit Notes.— Riverside Press, July 9: A 
box of apricots was recently shipped from River- 
side to Fort Wayne, Indiana, going through 
in six days by Wells, Fargo 4 Co. 's Express. 
Each fruit was wrapped in tissue paper and the 
box was shipped the same day the fruit was 
picked. The fruit arrived at its destination in 
good condition. With reasonable facilities for 
shipping over the new Atlantic & Pacific line, 
soon to be completed, it will be quite possible 
to supply St Louis, Chicago and Cincinnati 
markets with apricots from this valley. The 
Lugonia Fruit Packing Company have com- 
menced on peaches a little this week, and will 
be in full blast next week with their Alden 
dryer and facilities for drying several tons per 
day by the sun process. The Colton cannery 
has been short of apricots, paying three cents 
per pound for Riverside fruit and two and one- 
half cents for fruit from other localities. They 
are getting plenty of peaches and are now run- 
ning a large force. Dodge & Seger are running 
their dryer at present on peaches. Dr. Jarvis 
is drying his apricot crop. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

TheHavigation of the Upper San Joaquin. 
Herald, July 9: Owing to the cool weather of 
the last six weeks, the water of the rivers has 
not fallen as rapidly as usual, and it now seems 
probable that steamers will be able to make 
trips to landings on the npper San Joaquin for 
several weeks to come. Every effort is being 
made by farmers on the west side to harvest 
their crops so as to get them to market before 
the water falls in the river to close navigation ; 
yet it is doubtful whether more than one-half 
of the crop will be moved this summer. We 
are informed by steamboat men that the yield 
in that portion of the State is greater than last 
year, and the quality of the grain much better. 
At the present time, Capt. I. D. Hamilton is 
running the steamers Clara Bell, Clara Crow 
and Empire City from Stockton to the up river 
landings. The steamer Roberts Island is run- 
ning from Stockton to San Joaquin City, and 
the Harriet and Ceres are carrying wheat from 
the upper San Joaquin direct to San Francisco. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Volunteer. — Tribune, July 9: Harvesting 
is in full blast on the Nipomo ranch. Mr. John 
Dana has a tract of several hundred acres 
which last year produced an average of 30 sacks 
of wheat to the acre. The same land has 
yielded a volunteer crop this year of 20 sacks 
to the acre. This is equivalent to 50 sacks at 
one sowing. The grain will average 130 lbs. to 
the sack — 6,500 lbs. at one sowing is a very 
good yield for California. 
SIERRA. 

Sierra Valley. — Reno Gazette^ July 7: The 
grain crop about Loyalton promises to be larger 
than at any time during 15 years. It is believed 
that 125,000 bushels will be harvested in the 
region immediately aronnd Loyalton and Ran- 
dolph. The inhabitants turned out recently 
and fought the hoppers face to face. The pest 
was making for the grain fields, when the fright- 
ened ranchers assembled on the edge of the 
grain land, and with burning straw, sticks, 
stones, rags and a large ditch succeeded in re- 
pelling the invaders. 

SONOMA 

Raise Horses. — Petaluma Courier: Petaluma 
is now one of the best horse markets of any 
country town in the State. There have been 
many sales here within the last few months. 
Last week a span of draft horses sold for $600, 
and we have heard of several sales from $200 
up. Dan Misner has a span of sorrels, five and 
six-year-old McClellands, well matched and 
stylish, that he has been offered $1,500 for. 
They will probably be sold this week for $1,600, 
his price. Many horses have been purchased 
here during the last year by Sandy Woodworth, 
for the horse railroad companies of San Fran- 
cisco. One fanner informed ub yesterday that 
he had sold $1,300 worth of draft horses this 
year, all of his own raising. Now, fanners can 
keep a span or more of good work mares, and 
the income from their increase, if they are prop- 
erly bred and cared for, will amount annually 
to a considerable sum. There is always a mar- 
ket for a good horse or any other kind of stock, 
especially if it is extra good, and it will cost 
but little more to raise a $300 horse than it does 
to raise a $50 scrub. Raise iess grain and other 
stuff for market and more stock to feed it to. 
This will keep up the fertility of the land and 
iocrease the farmers' resources. 
YOLO 

Grain Field Fire. — Mail, July 7th: A very 
disastrous grain field fire occured near Plain - 
field, this county, Wednesday afternoon. The 
fire originated from the threshing engine of Bob 
Harlan, while at work for Frank Bullard, on 
the old Jackson place, near the town of Plain- 
field, The day was very hot, and the stubble 
and grain in the vicinity as dry as tinder, and 
it was impossible to obtain any control over the 
flames, which spread with wonderful rapidity. 



ern States fail. Both are good shippers and The thresher was soon consumed and with it 
pay well to ship green. This is a good year to three settings of grain and a large barn con- 
ship iruit East, from the fact that our fruit taining a heavy stock of hay The flames then 
is early and fruit East is late. Our fruit 1 spread through a large tie d of ripe wheat owned 
ripens this year about two weeks earlier than by a man named Chaudler destroying a good 
last year, and Eastern fruit is ripening about portion of it (and burning 600 sacks of wheat 
two weeks later than last year. This gives us belonging to Eli Hays. A large number of men 



July 16, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



87 



did everything in their power to extinguish the 
demon of fire, but their efforts were unavailing. 
The fire continued until it had burned itself 
out. The total loss was very large, although 
at present it cannot be definitely stated. Sev- 
eral men, including Cheny Olds, were prostrat- 
ed by the heat and their exertions to put out 
the fire. Mr. Olds was taken so ill that it was 
found neoessary to send for a physician. 

NEVADA. 

Artesian Wells of Battle Mountain. — 
Winnemucca Silver State: Some 11 years ago, 
after the completion of the transcontinental 
railroad, a party of Humboldters, among whom 
were Robert McBeth, J. A. Blossom, O. W. 
Fox, J. W. McWilliams, T. A. Rule and others 
owning mines in Battle Mountain district, and 
engaged in different pursuits along the railroad, 
and D. H. Haskell, town- site agent, laid out 
the town of Battle Mountain, which was to be 
the supply depot for the Galena and other min- 
ing districts in the surrounding mountains. 
The town-site was supposed to be in Humboldt 
county, though it proved to be in Lander, and 
it had no known advantages over any other 
desert plain in Nevada; several stores were 
built there and a fine hotel erected by D. 
Huntsman, became an eating station for passen- 
ger trains on the Central Pacific railroad. An 
unsuccessful attempt was made to supply the 
place with water from a spring several miles 
from the town; and water had to be hauled 
from the Humboldt river which winds through 
the plain a mile from the village. In the course 
of time some of the enterprising citizens had 
artesians wells bored, and at a depth of from 
150 to 200 ft. found water that rose above the 
surface. One of the wells sunk by the Nevada 
railway company, deserves special mention. 
The water from this well rises about nine ft. 
above the surface of the ground, and is conveyed 
in a pipe an inch and a half in diameter into a 
building, and discharged on an overshot wheel, 
causing it to revolve. This wheel works a pump 
which raises the waier to a tank 35 ft. above 
the surface from which locomotives are supplied, 
and the water is carried in pipes to any part of 
the shops. Another well 171 ft. deep, on J. 
A. Blossom's ranch, something over a mile 
from town, flows about 50,000 gallons in 24 
hours. Other wells have been sunk on Dunphy 
and Crum's ranches, the latter four miles 
from the village. This artesian water, of which 
there appears to be an inexhaustible supply, 
will undoubtedly be used for a great many pur- 
poses to which it has not yet been applied, as 
it will furnish motive power before it is used for 
irrigation. 



California Raisin Making. 

As raisin curing, packing and marketing will 
soon be in full blast, matters concerning cost 
and profits are of general interest. The River- 
side Press and Horticulturist gives an account 
of these points as brought out by the expe- 
rience of some in that well-known colony. It 
says: Our raisin -growers (some of them at 
least) seem to be rather discouraged by their 
experience of last raisin season, and perhaps 
with some reason considering the lateness of 
the season, the losses by unusual rain and pro- 
longed damp weather and finally, low and di- 
minishin3 prices, as the season_advanced, caused 
largely by sending an inferifr article in some cases 
to market. We think, however, there are no just 
grounds for being discouraged as we shall try to 
show. We know of one raisin-grower who 
shipped to market through Mr Wright an equiv- 
alent of 660 boxes, mostly, however, in halves 
and quarters, which realized at Colton, net, in 
round numbers, $1,100* This was not a large 
Bum, certainly, for the number of boxes, still it 
is quite a respectable sum. Our raisin-grower 
in the present instance, however, does not claim 
to be able to handle raisins as economically as 
some who have figured large net profits in 
former years, hence his expenses form a very 
large percentage of the net returns, amounting 
to almost 40%, part of which may be accounted 
for in the quantity of fractional boxes used in 
packing, which again swells the total figures for 
last season. Halves and quarters sold much 
more freely, and in some cases higher, propor- 
tionally, than whole boxes. 

It has been the custom heretofore to make 
the expenses as small as possible in sending 
forth statements to the public. For instance, 
in the season 1879-S0 one grower only made his 
expenses 19% of the net yield at Colton, 
while still another had only 14% of ex- 
pense. Now practical raisin-growers know 
that expenses can not be reduced below 30% or 
33% of the total net returns delivered 
at Colton, or to speak more plainly and intelli- 
gibly, raisin-growers who figure accurately 
judge their expenses moderate when the cost of 
picking, boxing, etc., does not exceed 50 cents 
per box. Of course when prices are high, ex- 
penses are not proportionately increased, so that 
we may assume that all over from 50 to 70 cents 
per box is net profit, exclusive of water, culti- 
vating, pruning, etc. , which will be something 
like $20 per acre. 

Below we give a general statement of our 
raisin grower's expenses. We will not go into 
minute details, but give the figures in round 
numbers, assuming that the general average is 
very nearly correct: 



Total returns net at Colton from an equivalent of 



660 boxes raisins of all grades $1,100 00 

Net average price per box 1 66 

EXPENSES. 

Boxes, making, etc Sfl50 00 

Paper and labels 30 00 

Marking 25 00 

Picking 130 00 

Packing 100 00 

Total ....$435 00 

Expense.per box $ 66 

Net proceeds 665 00 

Percentage of expense 40 00 



We admit that thiB is not as racy a view of 
raisin-growing as previous statements would 
warrant, but this view of it will warrant any 
capitalist in investing $1,000 per acre in a bear- 
ing vineyard. Here we have a return of $665 
from something like 4,000 vines, or say six acres. 
And this is not all, for our raisin-grower's vines 
are not all in full bearing, and last season he lost 
at least 200 boxes from wet weather, which need 
not have been lost had only a small drying 
house been provided, which would have kept 
the raisins from mildewing during the few days 
of damp weather. So, if we will take the re- 
sults which might have been, had proper pre- 
cautions been taken beforehand, we would have 
had at least $200 more to add to the net pro- 
ceeds, and in a year or two more we may safely 
assume a yield of 250 boxes more when the 
vineyard is in full bearing. So we think we 
are justified in saying that a vineyard in full 
bearing capacity is worth $1,000 per aero. Not 
only that, but here is 66 cents per box which in 
many families might be two-thirds saved if 
they feel like doing the work themselves. 

We think we are justified in saying that rai- 
sins are as low as they ever will be. Our best 
raisins in point of quality were as good as the 
best Spanish imported, which sell at fancy fig- 
ures, as the boxes on exhibition tat our Citrus 
fair plainly showed. Advices from Spain for a 
year or two, state that Spanish raisins were so 
low that if the same prices continued it would 
be ruinous to raisin-growers there. Qur raisins 
are at a disadvantage in the markets of the 
United States at present, as buyers are hardly 
justified in buying by the marks on the boxes, 
for here, even in Riverside, one man packs and 
marks all of his crop London Layers; while still 
another brands his London Layers but forgets 
to put his designating numbers on his boxes, so 
that all trace of the grower will be surely lost. 
If cur fruit growers want to make the most of 
their opportunity they must be up and stirring 
and see that their raisins are honestly packed, 
marked and numbered, and in all cases giving a 
written guarantee that every box is honestly 
packed and marked and that the whole lot will 
be equal to samples. Then buyers can buy in 
confidence without examining every box and 
will feel justified in giving a much higher price 
than where no such guarantees exist. 







Sf*LtES. 





Geese. 



Editors Prkss:— Can you put me on the way to get 
some Toulouse or Breman geese? I see none advertised 
in your paper. A little information would be thankfully 
received by— Mrs. Irene Qcinley. 

San Jose, Cal. 

Such inquiries are frequent. Those having 
these birds should advertise them. 

For Rose Mildew. 

Editors Press: — You ask for the specific 
proportions of bluestono, water and carbolic 
acid I use on mildewed roses. I vary the pro- 
portion as to circumstanoes. For old bushes 
and mature wood I take one gallon of water, of 
bluestone about the size of a hen's egg, and of 
carbolic acid, often a teacupf ul. This is the kill 
or cure remedy and must be used when dew is 
on, or in the evening, after the foliage is wet. 
Young plants that are tender, or valuable 
roses, I only add acid till the water smells 
lightly of it. If mildew makes a sudden at- 
tack, I cut back, and syringe daily with last 
solution. There are several new fungi which 
have put in an appearance this spring on im- 
ported plants. I will try and give an article 
about them in future. — W. A. T. Stratton, Pet- 
aluma. 



The Sackett School. — The Sackett school, 
of Oakland, is about to enter on the third year 
of its remarkably successful career. It is the 
youngest of the many private boys' schools 
across the bay, and has shown a rare vigor and 
enterprise in looking out for the comfort of its 
students, and in providing the most competent 
teachers. Twice has the building been enlarged 
and beautified until it now stands out as one of 
the finest educational ornaments of the "Athens 
of the Pacific. " The grounds are as home-like 
and cheerful as those of any private residence, 
and one feels at once that the young men who 
have a school home here, are fortunate indeed. 
Young men from the interior of the State would 
do well to send for catalogues, as especial ad- 
vantages are provided for them in the courses 
of instruction. 



The Liohthall Harvester. — The new 
Lighthall harvester, which was noticed in a re- 
cent issue of the Press, is said to be proving 
itself quite popular. Machines have been 
started at Merced, at Sumner, in Kern 
county, and at Colusa. The company will 
erect a factory in this city for the manufacture 
of their harvesters and to supply the orders 
they are receiving. We are told that one will 
commence work at Mayfield within the next 
two weeks. 



The Chautauqua Session at Monterey. | 

Two years ago the various Chautauqua Cir- 
cles of California, organized an assembly at 
Ocean Grove, Monterey, as a branch of the fa- 
mous Chautauqua Assembly, which for several 
years has attracted considerable attention in the 
Eastern States, and which is doing much to add 
interest to and popularize the study of science 
and literature there. The objects of this asso- 
ciation are as follows: 

First. — To encourage the organization of local 
circles for the study of such works as may from 
time to time be agreed upon, and have the ben- 
efit of mutual aid in considering each week the 
subjects read or studied. Men and women of 
ordinary abilities and education are encouraged 
to take part, and find it at once a source of in- 
terest, profit and pleasure. 

Second — To provide a suitable course of sum- 
mer lectures, where professional men and women, 
together with intellectually inclined persons of 
all ranks, can find both recreation and profit. 
This course of lectures will be given at Mon- 
terey, in connection with the meeting of all I 
members of the circles as far as they can be I 
present. 

Third — To make collections of plants, shells, 
charts, interesting papers on various subjects, I 
and curiosities of all sorts, and to arrange them 
in a proper form for reference and study. 

To aid in this work, the proprietors of the 
Grove have erected a large and commodious I 
assembly room, to which has been added two I 
smaller and convenient rooms, as laboratory and 
working, or committee-rooms — to which wiU 
also be added a suitable museum building as 
soon as the collections may require such addi- 
tional space. 

The third annual session of the association 
was brought to a close on Monday last, after a 
continuance of two weeks, and is pronounced 
by those who have been present at all as the 
most interesting and fullest attended of the 
series. Lectures of an able and instructive 
character were given on various scientific and 
general subjects, among which were included 
astronomy, microscopy, biology, botany, ento- 
mology, physiology, conchology, etc. Among 
the lecturers may be enumerated Prof. Moses 
of the State University; Profs. Norton and 
Moore 'of the State Normal School; President 
Stratton of the University of the Pacific; Dr. 
J. H. Wythe of the Pacific Medical College; 
Miss Norton and Miss Washburn of the State 
Normal School; Mrs. Field of San Jose; Rev. 
C. V. Anthony of this city; Mr. F. B. Perkins 
of the San Francisco Free Library; Prof. Lem- 
mon and Mrs. Lemmon, the well-known Cali- 
fornia botanists, and others. 

The lectures averaged about three each day 
and were largely attended, not only by the mem- 
bers of the Association, but by large numbers 
who are constantly visiting this popular place 
of resort. In addition to the lectures, classes 
are also formed for practical instruction in the 
field, in botany, geology, etc., which are lead 
by thorough and competent instructors. We 
have no space in our columns to-day, to make 
special reference to any of these lectures, but 
may possibly allude to some one or more of 
them in future issues. 

This Association has now put on the appear- 
ance of a permanent institution, as a summer 
school of science, and one that is likely to ex- 
ert a great and growing influence on the growth 
of learning and social improvement throughout 
the State. 



Seed and Climate. 

One of the most interesting questions in plant 
growth is the effect produced by movement of 
seed from one climate to another. There may 
be already some large collection of observations 
on this point, but we cannot now recall it. So 
far as experience in this State is concerned, 
we believe it is true that an advantage is often 
found in seed brought from a colder climate, 
the plant maturing earlier and showing signs of 
enjoying the more genial clime into which it 
has been brought. It is a belief held by many 
farmers at the East that earlier vegetables can 
be grown by getting the seed from the north 
than by using that grown in their own latitude. 
We know of an old farmer in New England 
who always sent to the extreme north of Ver- 
mont for his seed corn, and claimed to gain 
several days in ripening. Whatever experience 
our readers may have on the matter, it may be 
interesting to bring forward. It might be ex- 
pected that taking seed from a mild to a cold 
climate would yield unsatisfactory results. 
The latest instance seeming to indicate this is 
given by a New Yorker, who took a lot of seed 
wheat from Oregon to the Empire State, and 
writes to the Willamette Farmer his experi- 
ence, as follows: 

A little over a year since while I was in your city, I 
bought a couple of bushels of white wheat that was 
raised in the Walla Walla valley, and shipped it home to 
sow and note the result. The soil was a clay loam fallow. 
I worked it well and sowed 200 lbs. of phosphate with the 
wheat. It was sown the 12th of September. At the same 
time I sowed the balance of my wheat. Result: The win- 
ter has killed the whole of it, or nearly so. I am inclined 
to think our climate is too severe for wheat grown in 
Oregon. 

This experience seems to agree with that 
gained some years ago when the Commissioner 
of Agriculture distributed samples of Califor- 
nia grown wheat throughout the East. The re- 
sults were so unsatisfactory that the verdict 
want forth that varieties succeeding in Califor- 
nia were not adapted to Eastern conditions. 



News in Briet 

In a financial point of view, Griscom's fast at 
Chicago has proved a failure. 

There are some 200 men employed on the 
Nevada and Oregon railroad. 

Battle Mountain's artesian wells are mak- 
ing that vicinity a garden spot. 

Work has been resumed to complete the new 
Mint refinery building at Carson. 

The run of salmon is increasing at Astoria. 
The run in Frazer river began July 10th. 

During the week ending the 8th inst 23 
deaths from yellow fever occurred in Havana. 

The first locomotive for the California South- 
railroad has arrived at San Diego per the brig 
Orient. 

A chunk of solid gold, weighing $65.75 was 
picked up last week in the Ward mine Trinity 
county. 

The country above Cloverdale is filled with 
campers from San Francisco, Oakland and other 
lowland places. 

The machinery for the new rolling mills at 
the railroad shops in Sacramento is rapidly ap- 
proaching completion. 

The California Hosiery Company, Oakland, 
now employs about 220 hands, and is kept busy 
filling orders for Uncle Sam. 

An effort will be made to bridge the Sacra- 
mento river at Chico this fall, or as early in the 
coming spring as practicable. 

There are millions of catfish and perch now 
in WaBhoe lake, but they will not be fit for 
table use until a year from this time. 

The London season has thus far been un- 
usually quiet. Kalakaua, King of the Sand- 
wich Islands, is the fashionable lion and goes 
everywhere. 

Engineers are making surveys for fortifica- 
tions at Victoria and Esquimalt. The Imperial 
government intends to make Esquimalt harbor 
impregnable. 

Sir Samuel and Lady Baker are visiting 
Webber lake and vicinity. They are famous 
travelers, and have been in almost every coun- 
try of the habitable globe. 

According to the assessment roll the total 
I value of all property, real and personal, in Tu- 
lare county, is $7,845,610, being an increase of 
$1,307,822 since last year. 

Myers, of the Manhattan Athletic Club of 
I New York, ran a quarter-mile race at Birming- 
I ham, Eng., Saturday, in 49 seconds, beating the 
I English records and his own. 

A tract of 120,000 acres of land in San Ber- 
nardino county has just been purchased by a 
capitalist, and is now being cut up into small 
1 farms and put on the market. 

Millions of saw-logs are being rafted, and 
thousands of railroad ties are being loaded for 
shipment up the Columbia river from Cowlitz 
county, Washington Territory. 

The body of T. K. Pugh, son of ex-Senator 
Pugh, who was made captive recently in Chi- 
huahua by Apaches, has been found horribly 
mutilated, and bearing evidence of torture be- 
fore death. 

The Russian Minister of War proposes to 
discontinue the construction of fortifications on 
the German and Austrian frontiers, begun by 
his predecessor, saving 10,000,000 rubles in 
the budget. 

The Bee says there is a Chinese firm in Sac- 
ramento engaged in packing and shipping fruit 
and vegetables to the interior. It employs 
some white boys in the business, and is paying 
them good wages. 

A letter from San Diego states that one of 
the railroad contractors at San Diego last Sun- 
day went in bathing near the wharf, and sud- 
denly disappeared under the water. It is not 
known whether he was taken with a cramp or 
by a shark. 

Colonel Mendell and Director Knox have 
returned to Sacramento from an examination of 
the debris dams on the Bear and Feather rivers. 
Colonel Mendell says the dams were in better 
condition than he expected, and he is confident 
they will do the work claimed for them. 

ThePvE are 1 1 artesian wells in the neighbor- 
hood of Bakersfield, and two more in process of 
boring. The California^ says the artesian belt 
is about 18 miles in length, from east to west, 
with an average breadth of six miles. The 
tract thus watered contains 70,000 acres, and is 
the most valuable in the valley. 

The bottom lands of the Lower Colorado 
river, A. T., are receiving the attention they 
deserve. There is along the course of the river 
for some 350 miles immense tracts of arable 
soil, capable of producing sugar, cotton, hemp, 
tropical and semi-tropical fruits, vegetables and 
cereals. 

Scores of laborers are coming into Washing- 
ton Territory from the Canadian Pacific rail- 
road, all complaining of bad fare, bad treat- 
ment and utter disregard for the lives of men 
on the part of the management. They say sev- 
eral hundred men will leave soon and come to 
the States for work. 

A narrow-gauge railroad now building in 
Linn county, Or., recently ordered that all 
their hands should board at the company's 
mess house at $4 a week, instead of with farm- 
ers along the line, where they were kept much 
cheaper. About 40 men quit work, to the con- 
sternation of the boss. 

The Golos had an interview with HessyHelf- 
mann, sentenced to death for complicity in the 
assassination of the Czar, and detained in Pe- 
tropaulovsky fortress pending her confinement. 
She stated that she was well treated, and that 
no pressure had been exercised upon her to 
identify any person in connection with the 
crime. 



38 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 16, 1881 




Growth of California. 

We, by these sunset shores, have known the tramp 
Of marching millions ; camp, and after camp, 

Broad prairies lit with I winkling Arcs, 
Hamlets, and : .win, until the startled skies 

Are pierced by city towers and spires, 
And smoke-black chimneys— uptossed acres 

Of golden wheat stretched out for miles, 
As if a sea in all its summer breakers, 

Had changed at on. e t» green earth-smiles. 
Next the fray mountains, from their princely places. 
Turned eastward look, with proud, defiant faces, 

For the long lineB were rolling as a sea; 
And the new race was beating westward— west — 
With that fi'in passion which made hard the breast 

Of the first Norseman, struggling to set free 
That deathless hunirer, handed down 
From Himalaya's lofty crown. 

Then a strange cry was eastward rolled, 

The dreadful savage passes through, 

First faintly faltered by a few. 

Next a host trampled wildly past. 
Finding a land which summer's arms enfold, 
The fairest of the States — the land of gold. 
Soon tho swift human tide, afeani with toil, 
Rich with a wide realm's wrested spoil, 
Mines, harvests, cities, wealth of hand and brain, 
Rolled to these shores*-and here at last 
We tlx our empire brave and fast. 
We bind the ocean in an iron chain, 
We plant our olives and our vines, and wait 
For golden argosies to cro-s our Golden Gate. 
Food for the toiling earth from out our doors shall pass. 
Tb« Orient's treasure-ships must sail by Alcatraz ; 
About our winding shores the temples that we rear 
Shall be the world's delight in dajs that now are near. 

—Chat. H. Sliinn. 



The Young People and the Farm. 

[Written for the Rcral Prrss by J. W. Barton.) 

Editors Press:— Although there has been a 
great deal said about agreeable and disagreea- 
ble women and the education of our girls, I 
have not noticed one word in regard to our 
farmers' boys. No fact is more evident among 
farming communities than that the boys almost 
universally grow up with a distaste for farm 
pursuits. No sooner are they of age than they 
turn to seek for more varied, if not less labori- 
ous, duties in town and city life. Thus agri- 
culture is yearly robbed of what should be its 
strength and hope; the places these boys should 
have been qualified to fill, and should have 
filled, with the gathered wisdom of experience, 
aided by the light of progressive science, are 
left to doubtful experimenters, while aged par- 
ents, deserted at a time when filial care is most 
needed, can only look upon their loneliness 
and say, "There must be something wrong 
somewhere." 

Yes; in regard to farmers' boys, there has 
been "something wrong" for a great while. In 
the first place, many of them never should have 
been farmers' boys at all; at least, not farm 
boys, though they may happen to have been 
born upon a farm. It is not every nature, even 
among boys, that is or can be accommodated to 
the requirements of such an occupation, though 
parents are far too prone to think that, being 
boys, a farm is the only proper place for them, 
and the weapons best suited to them in the 
warfare of life, the shovel and the hoe. Their 
physical, mental and intellectual peculiarities 
are seldom taken into consideration. The 
strong, rough nature, the delicately organized, 
sensitive one, and the one with a craving hunger 
for the intellectual and scientific, are all kept 
together upon the farm that they may grow up 
and be taught to work, out of temptation's way. 
The farmer invests them like so much capital, 
on which he is to receive a per diem interest in 
the improvements of his farm, and works them 
to the limit of endurance under sanction of a 
short-sighted interpretation of that sophism of 
"securing the greatest good to the greatest 
number." 

The necessities of the family, it is thought, 
justify the the sacrifice of individuality. 
The usual expectation is that when the pecu- 
niary ends of a farmer are accomplished, or the 
boys grown out of his hands, they will accept a 
portion of so many acres each, and settle down 
to plod through the same routine with the next 
generation. Much seeming wisdom and pa- 
rental affection are thus manifested; but the 
wisdom too often proves unwise, and the affec- 
tion only a mistaken form of well-developed 
selfishness. 

The possibility is that out of a family of 
three or five, one may fulfill the desires 
of anxious parents, accept the acres, and, 
with the homestead in prospect, settle 
down to be the stay of their old age; 
but the greater probability is that as 
soon as legally free, nature will assert her 
claims in each, and they will go out into the 
world seeking for the life that should be theirs 
through early years of preparation for it; but 
having been cheated out of that preparation, 
neither the world nor parents need wonder if 
they come forth ill developed, discontented spir- 
its, seeking their places and finding them not. 

As farming has heretofore been considered a 
business that any ignoramus might engage in 
successfully, it has not been thought neces- 
sary to lighten or brighten the labors of the 
farm by any rays of science or gleams of intelli- 



gence from the world of thought and action 
without. Work was the one thing wanted 
from sunrise till bed- time, and the physical na 
ture, often overwrought, had neither strength 
nor sympathy to give to the mental, which, of 
course, grew dwarfed and distorted in the un 
natural atmosphere. Struggle against it as they 
might with bits of candle and lighted fire 
brands in the chimney corner, overwearied na- 
ture has been more than a match for fancy, 
philosophy and metaphysics; and where one boy 
with such culture has come forth a perfect man 
mentally, morally and physically, 999 have 
proved unhappy failures. Boys on the farm, as 
well as in the college, have a future before 
them, and should be educated in reference to 
the place in that future which their natural 
abilities entitle them to fill. Parents who do 
not act upon this principle, but simply drive 
their boys like horses or oxen to the plow, will 
rind their farm improvements paid for at a dear 
rate, and need not wonder at finding themselves 
deserted and left to a lonely old age. The class 
of farmers now coming upon the stage are be 
ginning to learn that they must progress with 
the times, that they must admit science and in 
tellect into their fields and barnyards where 
they want their boys to work, or the boys will 
soon grow restless, performing their labor like 
so much mere drudgery and longing for their days 
of freedom, when they can go out into the world 
and be like other people; and they will go, as 
generations past have found to their sorrow, un 
less employment is given to the brains aa well 
as to the hands. 

Formerly it was not thought necessary for 
farmers to have brains at all, at least, it was 
not supposed that there was any necessity for 
using them in connection with farming opera- 
tions. The main thing was the work, and any 
body with ordinary senses and two good, strong 
hands could do that. It all did very well, per 
haps, in those quiet old times, when one genera' 
tion trudged on after another, oblivious of the 
existence of elements in water, earth and air, 
that were waiting but the electric touch of sci- 
ence to make them burst forth into the blaze of 
light, flash after flash of which has startled 
the agricultural world with new developments 
almost numberless during the past 20 or 30 
years. How obstinately the mass of those 
old-time farmers shut their eyes against the 
light. They had their hands and hoes and 
plows and oxen; what use had they for brains 
or brain work in books or papers ? They closed 
their doors against knowledge, and put up 
their bars and padlocked their gates against 
any threatened innovations of science. It was 
work they wanted of the girls in the house, and 
work they wanted of the boys in the fields. 
And the boys and girls did work, but they were 
listening and looking, too, and thinking; listen- 
ing to the new! life waking in the world with- 
out, looking with great longing toward the dis- 
tant and forbidden lights, and thinking — not as 
they should have been taught to do — how they 
might kindle new fires on their own hearth- 
stones, not how they might open the gates of 
prejudice to let in something of the life that so 
tempted them from without — but only of the 
day when they should be legally free from 
parental control, and at liberty to turn their 
backs upon the old homestead and the monot- 
onous drudgery of farm life together and for 
er. 

This has been what thousands of farmers' 
sons and daughters have done, and is what 
thousands more will do, till farmers, as a class, 
are willing to welcome improvements, to seek 
for light, and use it when they get it. They 
are learning to do so gradually and individually. 
The good leaven thrust into the old meal tubs 
by diligent and earnest thinkers is working and 
spreading. Men see that only in the light of 
science can labor, such as the farm requires, be 
made attractive and elevating. It is true men 
and boys can dig and plow, and sow and reap 
in the old .way, and make a living at it; but the 
farther behind the times they are, the more fre- 
quent will be the desertions from their ranks of 
the young and strong, who bend toward the ex- 
citement of change and improvement as young 
plants bend toward the light of day. Changes, 
innovations, improvements are going on every- 
where else; why not in the fields and household 
of the farmer as well ? 

Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Fatal Persistency. — One of the singularities 
of this city is that business men never retire 
from business. They stand at the desk and die 
with the column of the day's profits half footed 
up. Though vast fortunes are made by hun- 
dreds, and a competency acquired by thousands, 
they never think of withdrawing from business 
and spending the remainder of their lives in 
comfort and quietude. There are many old 
men now in business in this city who should 
abandon the counting-house to younger people. 
These old fellows are rich.. They have stood in 
the harness for more than a quarter of a century; 
they are stiff and worn, yet six days of the week 
they are at the store as anxious to make as 
though tho only thing they had in the world 
was the only thing they have not — a 20 year's 
lease of life. They hold on to trade with the 
tenacity of a tax-collector, and when their sum- 
mons comes to join the innumerable caravan 
that moves on to the pale realm of shade, the 
grim messenger goes not to their quiet homes 
out to their business places down town to find 
them. He does find thorn though, and often 
comes five or ten years sooner than he would if 
he did not have to hunt around among the 
stores and warehouses for the man he is sent to 
call away from business. — Golden Era. ' 



Housekeeping as an Art 

The following essay was read before the meet- 
ing of the Alumnae of the Young Ladies' Semin 
ary at Benicia, by Clara Deming, of Vallejo. It 
was furnished at our requests for publication in 
the Rural Press: 

Kind friends, a teacher of mine used to say, 
"Oh! If you were not so practical and matter of 
fact, you might write an essay." Five years 
have not changed me much, and I bring for 
your consideration a plain, practical subject, 
homely in all of Its bearings. 

No matter what other calling a girl may have, 
she will be expected to keep house at some 
period of her existence. This department in 
iife always has been assigned to her and always 
will be, unless the minds of her brothers under 
go a radical change. This change is not prob 
ble. When gentlemen are confined in the 
house, on account of sickness, for a few days, 
they become restless, and I am sorry to say, 
sometimes irritable. When we, thinking to 
make them more contented, tell them that we 
have to stay indoors most of the time, we are 
met by the convincing argument that we are 
used to it, and that is very different. Because 
we are used to it, is not to say that we like it 
particularly well, or that we must have no other 
aspirations. 

The constituents necessary to make up a good 
housekeeper are many. First, she must be in 
telligent, accomplished if possible, but not ne 
cessarily; she must be proficient in cooking, in 
all its branches; in laundry work, sweeping, 
dusting, cleaning; in the department of the 
seamstress; and in the sick-room more depends 
upon her efforts than upon the physician. 

Even if a lady is not compelled to perform 
these duties, a knowledge of them is important, 
in order that she may have complete command 
over her servants. It is as essential to a mis 
tress as a thorough knowledge of military tac 
tics, to a general in the army. If the soldiers 
were more familiar with the duties of the officer 
than the officer himself, do you think he would 
have any command over them? No! Mutiny 
and disbandment would follow. So we find it 
in the household. If the lady of the house does 
not understand how her work should be done 
the servants will laugh her authority to scorn, 
and will be wasteful and extravagant; often 
causing bankruptcy to the family. 

A lady who is perfectly familiar with the 
duties of her servants, is apt to be more lenient 
towards them, commanding and teaching them 
with more patience than one who ha* not her 
knowledge. 

Not long ago I found an anecdote of a young 
lady who had graduated from a seminary and 
had become engaged. She suddenly became 
aware of the fact that she knew nothing what- 
ever about cooking, and was filled with a desire 
to learn, at least, to make a cake to surprise her 
lover with. Her mother sent her to the kitchen. 
The girl asked Bridget the names of the differ- 
ent utensils, and was told in Bridget's own dia- 
lect. These names the young lady tried to 
arrange in her mind. Bridget was preparing 
some edibles for the noonday repast, and the 
girl asked what they were. " Faith'n they're 
praties," was the laconic reply. She had never 
heard of them. However, if they had been pre- 
pared and placed upon the table, she would have 
known that they were potatoes. After a while 
the lady informed the mistress of the culinary 
department that she would like to make a cake 
for her lover. Bridget brought her the articles 
she called for from her cook book. I was so 
disgusted with the mother for leaving the girl to 
the mercy of a servant, instead of teaching her 
in a gentle and pleasing manner, that I did not 
read far enough to see whether the cake was a 
success or not. 

As I thought the matter over I came to the 
conclusion that there was "more truth than fic- 
tion" in this anecdote. Thereare many who never 
intend that their daughters shall do household 
work, and think that if they do have to per- 
form these duties they can learn then. Now, 
this seems to me a gross negleot and abuse of 
one of the fine arts. 

The abuse of this one art is a cause of ruffian- 
ism and hoodlumism, for which mothers alone 
are responsible. Why ? Because they bring 
up their ohildren to despise honest labor in 
youth and to think they cannot be ladies and 
gentlemen if they perform manual labor. "As 
the twig ia bent so doth the tree incline." Con- 
sequently, if children are educated in idleness, 
they will be sure to follow it when they have 
attained manhood. We must eat to live, and 
food cannot be obtained without money; money 
cannot be had without labor; ao these 
would-be ladies and gentlemen must either 
steal or starve. 

Shall the mothers of the coming generation 
continue to sow these seeds of discontent, com- 
munism, socialism and nihilism? We hope not. 
It will take years of patient labor toferadicate 
these false ideas of life; but I am thaukful to 
say that there are some who are begining to 
mend their ways of thinking and there will be 
a few among the present generation, who will 
inoulcate different ideas upon these subjects 
than those of the past. 

Ladies who are best qualified to shine in so- 
ciety and be leaders tu the busy whirl of life, who 
are the most highly educated and cultured are 
also perfectly able to look well to the ways of 
their households. Queen Victoria ia said to be 
a very excellent housekeeper; and she has edu- 
cated her daughters in the same manner. These 
ladies are noble women, and mnoh loved where- 
ever they go. If queens and princesses find 



this knowledge necessary in their lives how 
much more do the daughters of all classes need it. 
Even if wealth and ease may be their portion 
now, riches sometimes take wings, and those 
who are millionaires to-day, to-morrow are pen- 
niless. 

Good servants are always in demand and the 
American people would rather employ their own 
poor than import those of other nations. Amer- 
ican girls seem to think it a disgrace to earn 
their living in a kitchen where they can have a 
good home in the family, but prefer to be shut 
up from day to day in a close factory room with 
many others in a stifling atmosphere that is cer- 
tain ruin to health. 

"Housekeepers are born, not made." This is 
true of all artists. Music, painting and all 
others are gifts from a kind Father, but all can 
be cultivated more or less, even in those who do 
not possess them. None are so easy of acquisi- 
tion as housekeeping. A little practice under 
the guidance of an efficient hand, and the re- 
sults are surprising. 

I have said and maintain that housekeeping 
should be placed among the fine arts. It re- 
quires, in the first place, taste, tact and ekiU to 
furnish a house tastefully and in harmony. 
Taste, tact and skill are necessary to produce 
pleasing effects in painting, music and sculpture. 
Education is as important in household arts as 
in the others. This is proven daily here in 
California by those who haye been suddenly 
transported from poverty to wealth. We find 
in their houses everything that money can buy; 
with all this glitter they lack the beauty of the 
home of one whose coffers are but scantily sup- 
plied, who combines with a refined nature, cul- 
ture and industry. When we have refinement 
and wealth combined, the result seems like the 
fairyland of our childish dreams; then we real* 
ize to its fullest extent the beauty of this de- 
spised art. 

Cooking, of all the branches of household art, 
is probably the one that requires the most 
knowledge and practice. Poor cooking endan- 
gers the health of the whole family. Eating 
indigestible food disarranges the system and 
cant-os the dreadful dysesse, dyspepsia, to reign 
with augudt power over mind and body. When 
the body is affected with disease it renders the 
mind unhealthy and unfit for proper action. 
In all of Carlyle's life and writings, we find the 
influence of this malady, which was caused, in 
the first place, by fasting; an abuse, which the 
system is not capable of sustaining, unless es- 
pecially prepared. We have yet to see the evil 
effects of Dr. Tanner's great fast He has, 
most assuredly, shortened his life by this un- 
usual trial of the vital powers. 

Where we find the body in perfect health, 
we find a clear intellect, pure morals and a 
happy, genial conntenance. Diseased bodies 
cause morose and irritable dispositions. 

If the American people could possibly exist 
withuut eating, they would not take the time 
to do so. We, as a race, are painfully aware of 
the fact that the time which has been allotted 
to us to remain upon this earth, is but short, 
and we must accomplish a great deal before 
yielding to the dread messenger of death. 

I am glad that the present age is advancing 
in the art of cookiog, and that schools are being 
established in all of our large cities, where in- 
structions are given in this science alone. This 
will do more towards destroying the shoddy 
idea that we cannot be ladies aud do our own 
cooking. 

Cooking should be taught in the seminary. 
It is an art and a science, and should be t aught 
along with various arts and sciences taught 
there. It would be a pleasure to the pupil to 
learn under an able teacher, who will not only 
teach the compound, out will explain the chem- 
ical effect of each ingredient. The young mind 
naturally inquires into the reason why. 

One of the finest charities ever established is 
that in New York City, known as the "Kitchen 
Garden," under the proficient management of 
its foundei, Miss Huntjngton. Here, house- 
keeping is taught by the Kindergarten system. 
And there is another at the "Old Brewery 
Mission of Five Points." 

In these schools poor children are taught in a 
simple and amusiug manner, all the principal 
rudiments of housekeeping and politeness. 
These children are not only founding principles 
for future use, but carry them iutj their present 
homes, and peace and order now reign where 
discord and disorder held complete sway. Not 
only are these girls taught good and useful 
things but aro kept from idling upon the streets 
and learning the evil that there abounds. 
Places are found for these girls as fast as they 
are found capable. Those who hire them find 
them trustworthy, efficient and polite. Their 
homes will never be the abodes of poverty 
and vice. What a blessing it would be if 
in every city there could be estab ished such 
institutions under the management of such no- 
ble women as Miss Huntington. It would do 
more toward making men and women of those 
who are spending their time upon the streets 
than any other one thing. 

I cannot close this already lengthy article in 
which I have endeavored to prove that house- 
keeping is a necessary and a fine art, without 
adding a small tribute to the memory of the 
dear sister, who has joined the heavenly throng 
since our last meeting. She was ever ready to 
lend heart and hand to advance and better the 
condition of the human mind. This society 
owes its very life to her efforts. Although we 
hava loved her and miss her, still we would not 
be so selfish as to call her back only to suffer. 
Oh ! rather should we rejoice in her happi- 
ness ! 



July 1 6, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



39 



It was Another Daughter. 

Editors Press : — Allow me to correct a mis- 
take I noticed in the Rcral Press of June 
25th. It is in » paragraph headed "Kissing in 
Diphtheria," and reads, "The oldest daughter 
of Queen Victoria and wife of an Austrian 
Prince." It should be the "Second daughter 
of Queen Victoria and wife of a German 
Prince" (of Hesse Damstadt). The oldest 
daughter married the Crown Prince of Prussia. 
Pardon this seeming iiterference. I felt 
prompted to make the con-ection, as the state- 
ment might lead people astray who are not 
f»mili»r with these matters, 

AS ESGLISHMAS. 

St. Helena, CaL 



Boy-Divers in the Red Sea. 



"Here we are at last, Mr. Kerr," say a the 
captain, as we cart anchor off the coast of Ara- 
bia, a liule after sunset, about two-thirds down 

the Red Sea. "Ifs too dark to make out much ! pasha's officers in the stem sheets 



fish come driving past, glistening like rainbows 
in the dazzling sunshine as they leap out of the 
water and fall back again. Instantly one of the 
"sea-lawyers" dashes at tne rear of the column, 
while the other, wheeling around its front, heads 
back the fugitives into his comrade's open jaws; 
and in this way the two partners contrive to 
make a very respectable "haul" 

But at this moment the garrison boat is seen 
putting off from the shore, with one of the 

At sight of 



to-night, but you'll see a rare sight when you I the well-known official 



How Aktemcs Ward Silrscxd a Jackass. 
Half a dozen of his associates were sitting one 
day in his room at the village hotel where he 
boarded, when an old woman drove up to the 
store opposite with two donkeys — a jack and a 
jenny — hitched to a little wagon. Jack was 
the noisiest brute in the county. He had a 
voice worse than the handle of the town pump 
on a frosty morning, '.and was proud of it. In a 
minute his tail rose to a horzontai, bis nose was 
thrust forward, his lips parted, and the beast 
blew his infernal blast. A tecond and a third 
time it was repeated. Artenus quietly thought 
"that thing might be hied," and disappeared 
from the room. He went owsr and appeared to 
make a careful inspection of the fore wheels of 
the wagon, the harness and .the hitchup, and 
came back saying that tie donkey was all 
right; the brute must havt made a mistake 
about something. Presently there were indi- 
cations of a move on Jack's >art; the neck was 
extended, the lips curled, ard the tail rose — to 
the pivotal point and no fartier. The trumpet 
didn't [sound. Jack though: there was a mis- 
take somewhere — hesitated — reflected — and 
tried again. The front pan, some of it, was 
all right; but the equihbrum could not be 
reached. After a time anoher attempt was 
made and failed. Jack turned his head around 
to ascertain the cause of the failure, bat could 
not see any. The fifth vajj attempt to bray 
was followed by a spiteful tack at Jenny, and 
it didn't cure the matter. At last he gave it 
up a&d stood at that store dtor the most neg- 
lected looking, discontented dcnkey in existence. 
Meantime, Artemus enjoyed the fun and dis- 
chaiged a rattling fusiiade o: pungent humor 
that kept the party in a rcsr and made the 
whole affair one of the most ludicrous that I 
, ever experienced. Artemus had attached 
stone to the donkey's tail, having just play 
enough to the cord to allow th? beast to. get his 
tail nearly up to "concert pitcx" 



Mtjtho Peasant Girls, Portcgal. — No- 
where among the peasants of aiy nation, that we 
have seen in person or in picttre have we met 
more barbaric brilliancy of catume than at a 
meeting of Minho country girl an holiday attire. 
The flashing colors of the viry fnll, many- 
pleated stuff petticoats, the inmaculate white 
sleeves and dark bodice, with its embroidered 
border, the gay kerchiefs overthe dark locks 
and about the neck, and the profusion of filigree 
jewelry, a little gold being hammered out so as 
to go a great way, and expanling itself into 
cobwebs of delicate tracery, watfle-iron ear 
rings as large as the palm of a nan's hands, and 
several pairs worn at once, the ertire corsage cov 
ered with a cuirass of chains, heats, crosses, and 
other ornaments, make up a tou ensemble which 
even Solomon in all his glory wrald have found 
it hard to rival — Harper? Mayune. 

Chaff. 



A ladt in Albany has a lttle dog called 
Sport She has taught him a mmber of tricks 
and this among them. She wilsay: "Sport, 
which would you rather be, a lead dog, or a 
member of the legislature ? " Instantly he will 
throw himself down, stretch hinself out, cloee 
his eyes and be, to all appearance dead. 

A commercial paper informs a that "eggs 
are going down." This is a ridculous state 
ment, for are not eggs always going down ! 

One of the greatest trials of ayoung lady's 
life is when she tries to get a haf-gallon foot 
into a quart shoe. 

Oleomargarcve is sold by the grocer, who 
tells you it is just from the cow. And so it is, 
but the cow is dead. 

"Farewell" is the title of a poem sent in 
from Ohio yesterday. It is a go«l thing that 
the gifted authoress said good- by < to the little 
gem, because she will never see it again. — Chi- 
cago Tribuue. 

A famous lawyer, having been so for more 
than a quarter of a century, was accosted by a 
man, who said: "I have a boy Thorn I want 
you to take and make a lawyer of. ' "How old 
is he f said Mr. — . " He's 18 yexs old, stoat 
and rugged; he's got a pair of lune like a bel- 
lows," replied the father. " Hashe any other 
qualifications ? " "Yea, sir, he's :o: the one 
great qualification of all," said the ather; "he's 
the confoundest liar in our town I thought 
when I heard you in the court- rocn just now 
that it wouldn't take very long for vam to come 
pretty nigh up to you.' 

"Doctor," said a lady patient, " I suffer a 
great deal with my eyes. ' ' The ok gentleman 
adjusted his spectacles, and with aSocratic air 
replied, "I do not doubt it, my frienl; but then 
you ought not to forget you would safer a great 
deal more without them." 



come on deck to-morrow morning." 

When I awoke the next morning, I find the 
captain's promise amply made good. Tne sun 
is just rising, and under its golden splendor the 
broad blue sea stretches westward as far as 
eye can reach, every ripple tipped with living 
fire. 

"You were right, captain, says I, as the 
burly skipper rises and stretches his brawny 
arms, like a bear awaking from its winter nap 
"This is a sight worth seeing, indeed. '' 

"Ah. this ain't what I meant," chuckles 
the captain; "the best o the show's to come 
yet. Look over yonder — there, just twixt 
the reef and the shore. D'ye see anything in 
the water V 

"Well I think I see something swimming — 
sharks I suppose." 

harks, eh ? Well land-sharks you might 
call em, p'raps. Take ray glass and try 
again." 

The first look through the glass works a start- 
ling change. In a moment tne swarm of round 
black spots which I have ignorantly taken for 
the backs of sharks are turned into faces — the 
faces of Arab children, and (as I perceived with 
no little amazement) of very young children 
too. some of che smallest being apparently not 
more than five or six years old '. Our vessel 
is certainly not less than a mile from the shore, 
and the water, shallow as it is, is deep enough 
at any point to drown the very tallest of these 
adventurous little "water babies;" yet they are 
evidently making for the ship, and that, too, 
at a speed that will soon bring them alongside of 
her. 

"Are they really coming all this way out 
without resting f ask L 

Bless you, that's nothing to an Arab!" 
laughs the captain; "these little darkies are as 
much at home in the water as on the land. I've 
heard folks talk a good deal of the way the 
South Sea is' and era can swim; but I've se«D as 
good swimming here as ever I saw there." 

And now, as the lilliputian swimmers draw 
nearer, we begin to hear their shrill cries and 
elfish laughter; and now they are cloee enough 
for their little brown faces, and glittering teeth, 
and beady black eyes, to be easily distinguished: 
and now one final stroke of their lean sinewy 
arms carries them alongside, and the blue water 
swarma with tiny figures, looking up and waving 
their hands so eagerly that one might almost 
expect to hear them call out, "Shine, boss'" 
and see them produce a brush and a pot of 
blacking. But instead of that, there is a uni- 
versal chorus of "Piaster, Howadjil'' (a penny, 
my lord:) 

' 'Chuck 'em a copper, and you'll see something 
good!'" says the captain. 

I rumage a few remaining pockets of my tat- 
tered white jacket, and at last unearth a Turk- 
ish piaster (five cents) which I toss into the 
water. Instantly the smooth bright surface is 
dappled with a torest of tiny brown toes, all 
turning upward at once, and down plunge the 
boy-divers, their supple limbs glancing through 
the clear water like a shoal of fish. 

By this time nearly all the crew are looking 
over the side, and encouraging the swimmers 
with lusty shouts; for, used as Jack is to all 
sorts of queer spectacles, this is one of which 
he seems never to tire. 

"There's one of 'em got it !" 
"No he hain't f 

"Yes, he has — I see him comin' up with 



our water-babies 
scatter like wild fowl, and the next moment all 
the little black heads are seen bobbing over the 
shining ripples on their wav back to the shore, — 
Select*!. 



D 



Starvation by Cookery. 



rWnU.3i for the KraAi Prss 
Starvation by cookery is, I believe, chiefly a 
modern sin, and less the fault of the cook than 
of the public. Cooking is for man a necessi:y 
and quite a saving of vital energy. For, were 
it not for the cook, it would take so long for us 
to digest our food, that, like the cattle, we 
should have to spend half our time in eating, 
and the other half in resting that we might di- 
gest it. But while our best and our daily thanks 
are due the cook, it is high time that he or she 
give up kitchen hypocrisy, and send no more to 
our tables things having the appearance, but 
lacking the reality of food. I wonder how many 
die of hypocriticil cooking ? Perhaps half of us: 
for while gluttony and other sins cause much 
disease, yet were our food real, we might the 
better resist their temptations and suffer leas 
by transgression. 

But we must hurry up and not keep the cook 
in suspense as to the charge against him, which 
is briefly this: that he or she removes the nat- 
ural salts from our food, and hides the loss by 
common salt, wh.ch. far from replacing them, 
rather aggravates the vital failure that comes 
from saline starvation. Not that common salt 
is bad of itself ; it. too, has its uses in food. 

Whilst this spoliation of food has been fre- 
quently complained of. and protest made against 
it by health reformers, it is only of late years 
that pointed evidence of the nature and extent 
of the danger has come to light. Degeneration 
of various tissues and orgins in the body has 
long been recognized as the source of nearly all 



it 

"And there's the others a-tryin' to take it 
from him — hold tight Sambo !" 

Sure enough, the succesf nl diver is surrounded 
by three or four piratical comrades, who are 
doing their best to snatch away the hard-won 
coinajbut he sticks to it like a man, and as he 
reaches the surface, holds it up to us taium- 
phantly, and then pops it into his mouth — the 
only pocket he has got. 

But this is a sad mistake on his part In a 
moment a crafty companion swims up behind 
him, and tickles him under the chin. As his 
mouth opens, out drops the coin into his assail- 
ant's hand, from whom it is instantly snatched 
by some one else; and a regular bear-right en- 
sues in the water, which splashes up all around 
them like a fountain- jet while their shouts and 
laughter make the air ring. * 

"Aren't they afraid of sharks t" ask I of the 
captain, who has just increased the confusion 
ten-fold by throwing another copper into the 
very midst of the screaming throng. 

"Not they — they make too much row for any 
shark to come near them. Sharks are mighty 
easy scared, for all they're so savage. You 11 
never catch 'em coming too near a steamer when 
she's goin' — the flappin' of the screw frightens 
them away. See there's two of 'em comin 
along now, and you'll just see how much the 
boys 11 care for 'em. " 

And, indeed, the sudden uprising of those 
gaunt black fins, piercing the smooth water 
with an unexpected stab, seems to produce no 
effect whatever upon these fearless urchins, who 
paddle about as unconcerned as ever. Moreover, 
it soon appears that the sharks themselves have 
other business to attend to. A shoal of flying 



chronic disease and the fertile cause of that 
lack of stamina or endurance that characterizes 
modern life. Those in whom there is much de- 
generati>n, say the kidneys or the liver must 
walk through life gently : like a shoddy gar- 
ment they are saie enough for car-ful wear, but 
sure to give way under any strain. 

The causes of the various types 01 degenera 
tion have hitherto been very obscure, but om< 
type has proved, on analysis, to be simply such 
tissue as the body can make in the absence of 
potassium and phosphates. Tnis discovery of 
Dr. Dickinson's, of de-alkalized librine, as he 
calls it is a startling one. This tissue has an 
excess of ocmrnon salt ; but as compared with 
the natural tissue, which it has replaced, it is 
exceedingly poor in just those food salts which 
our cook does not send up to our tables. Every 
tissue in the body has a certain length of exist- 
ence, after which it dies and is replaced But 
this only slowly and cell by cell fiber by fiber. 
To make each tissue capable of all the various 
services demanded of it requires not only nitro- 
genous and carbonaceous ioods, but also those 
saline elements that are so abundant in milk, 
vegetables and fruits. Sailors, it is well known, 
cannot undertake a long voyage without a daily 
supplv of lemon juice or preserved vegetables, 
otherwise the terrible scurvy will disable or kill 
them. Scurvy is the acute disease due to this 
saline-starvation ; whilst waxy degeneration is 
the chronic disease due to a less violent and 
more prolonged starvation from the same ele- 
ments. 

It is estimated that man requires 40 grains 
daily of potassium oxide to carry on the nutri- 
tion and health of the body ; but few of the 
working classes in our large cities get more than 
25 to 30 grains per day. For instance, white 
bread, of which many consume a pound daily, 
furnishes only 7 grains of potassium, whereas 
the same amount of Graham or brown bread 
contains 25. Again, the salt pork, salt fish or 
ham which forma their staple meat has lost 
most of the potassium to the brine, or will lose 
it (like salt fish) in the washing and steeping it 
undergoes before cooking. 

Even the wealthier classes, with all their 
abundance, have been, by our modern habits of 
food and cookery, reduced to about the mini- 
mum quantity of nptassinm, and every little 
strain, as well as every little error, hastens on 
the decline of life and the day of physiological 
fatigue. Potatoes are rich in potash, but should 
our cook first peel and steep them in cold water 
to whiten them before boiling, we are cheated 
in every S ounces we eat of 9 grains of potash : 
for boiled in their skins, 20 grains, instead of 1 1, 
would have come to table. Should we partake 
of cabbage the loss is still greater, because the 
leafy vegetable presents such an extended sur- 
face to the water. Again, corn-starch pudding 
is also an emasculated food, all the potash, 
nitrogenous and tissue-building matters having 
been removed in the manufacture, leaving pure 
starch, the most deceitful of all foods. 



These losses of potash are small but so nun. 
ous, repeated and constant that the poor body 
is often at its wits' end to replace the cells and 
fibers of each tissue as the old cells die out So, 
cell by cell fiber by fiber, our livers and blood 
vessels are rebuilt of shoddy — of de-alkalized 
fiorine — a substance that while able to keep up 
the form and movements of the liver, is totally 
unable to perform its functions of digestion and 
of blood depuration. So we are slowly crippled 
in our vital power, and especially in our ability 
to endure fatigue and to recover from disease or 
other unusual strain. At the same time our 
blood is imperfectly purified : it circulates im- 
perfectly digested food and effete matters that 
would hare been expelled had our food been 
natural These degraded matters irritate the 
brain, making us nervous and excitable : they 
weary the muscles, making us easily fatigued, 
and they render u* more liable to rheumatic and 
inflammatory diseases. 

Dentists, too, have attributed to this spolia- 
tion of food the toothlessuess of this generation. 
White bread and corn-starch were not common 
foods to our ancestors. And 50 years ago. vege- 
tables were more commonly cooked in soups or 
broths, which gave us all the good they contain. 

But not every person suffers equally from this 
waste of food salines. Out of 100 sailors on 
board a scurvy-stricken ship, 10 or 20 may es- 
cape the worst features of the disease. The 
causes of such individual peculiarities are beyond 
our skill. Why, out of 20 equally exposed to 
the contagion of small-pox only 15 should take 
the disease, is a mystery. Or, why again, in a 
family, where, as regards heredity, habits and 
food, all the children are equal why should one 
or two escape, whilst the majority suffer from 
aa epidemic of scarlet fever? Echo answers, 
why ? 

Those, then, who desire that they and their 
children should wa' k this world in no shoddy suits 
of desh and blood, should inherit no sham teeth, 
no feeble livers and no languid limbs, must in 
two respects at least, return to the ways of their 
fathers. First, Graham bread must entirely 
replace white bread; and secondly, soups rich 
in vegetables must be freely used. Clear soupa 
are. of course, inferior, bat still there is less 
waste in rejecting the boiled vegetable itself, 
than in rejecting the clear aoup it was boiled in. 
Potatoes, beans and peas form a good basis for 
soups, being all rich in pota?h asfwell as in the 
more solid constituents of food. 

Physicians, especially in the army, are well 
aware of the wonderful power of potassium 
salts to remove fatigue and exhaustion, and fre- 
quently, on a march, serve out a ration of special 
soup or Liebig's extract of meat for this quality 
of their potassium salts. 
Santa Rosa, Cal 



Incurable Insanity. 

To be hopelessly insane, how terrible: worse 
than death itself. Tnere are some singular 
facts in reference to insanity. New England 
gives the largest per centage of all sections of 
the Ccioa, and the extreme Southern States 
the least In some Northern localities, there is 
one insaue person to every 600 of the popula- 
tion, while in the South, especially among the 
negroes, there is not one in 6,000. 

Another striking fact is, that the asylums in 
this country (have a larger number of inmates 
from among the farming population than from 
among any other calling. This is accounted for 
in the sameness, the horsemill life of a farmer: 
he trudges along in the same track from one de- 
cade to another, bringing into requisition a sin- 
gle set of mental energies, while all the rest 
remain dormant to a certain ext?nt|and grow 
wild like an undisturbed field. The fact is, no 
man was ever made to be a loafer, not even as 
to a oart of his faculties, corporeal, mental or 
moral There is enough to do in these ages of 
the world, to keep every son and daughter of 
Adam it work all the time of his waking exist- 
ence, nut at mind work alone or body work 
aione, but mind and body both at work all the 
time of working hours. It is because of the 
partial loaterism of the multitude that so many 
of the truly good among us perish before their 
time. Often is it that when men find a compe- 
tent and willing worker they impose on him the 
duties of a dozen men, and the inevitable re- 
sult is that in a few years he is literally worked 
to death. 

The true lesson is, let the multitude do more 
and the few less, then will not these few die be- 
fore their time, and then too, will not the mul- 
titude overcrowd our lunatic asylums as they 
now do, no less than 561 being in a single hos- 
pital in Massachusetts. — HaV* Journal 0/ 
Health. _ 

The Teeth. — All mineral as well as vegeta- 
ble acids act promptly on the teeth. In 
hours acetic, citric and ma ic acids will corrode 
the enamel so that you may scrape a great por- 
tion of it away with the finger naiL Acid tar- 
trate of lime, having a greater affinity for the 
lime of the tooth than for its own base, will 
rapidly destroy the enamel. Grapes, in 4S hours, 
will render the enamel of a chalky consistence. 
Vegetable substances are inert till fermentation 
takes place and acetic acid is formed. Sugar 
has no deleterious effect °uly in the state of 
acetous fermentation. Animal substances exert 
no injurious effect until putrefaction is far ad- 
vanced. — Scientific American, 



40 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 16, 1881 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

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SAN 

Saturday, 



FRANCISCO: 

July 16, 



1881. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS — The Columbia River; Notes on Eu 
galvptus; Maturing of Wheat in Temperate and Tropi- 
cal'Zones, 33. Tbe Chautauqua Session at Monterey; 
Seed and Climate, 37. The Week; California; The 
Olive in Italy, 40-1. The California Beet Sugar Fac- 
orv, 41. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— 8cene on the Columbia River, 
83. 8ection of Elevation and Qround Plan of Alva- 
rado Beet Sugarie, 41. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Notes from Missouri; Teth 
erine Animals; Lassen County Notes, 34. 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER. -Notes on Ir- 
rigation—No 2^34. 

THE APIARY.— Notes on Others' Methods, 36. 

HORTICULTURE.— The Bird Pest; Cherry Grow- 
ing, 35-42. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Growth of California (Poetry); The 
Young People and the Farm; Fatal Persistency; House- 
keeping as an Art; It was Another Daughter; Mow Ar- 
temus Ward Silenced a Jackass; Chaff, 38-39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Boy Divers in the 
Red Sea, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Starvation by Cookery, 
29. 

GOOD HEALTH — Incurable Insanity; The Teeth, 
39. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY — Eastern Grange 
Notes; The Grangers at Port Costa; Temescal Grange, 
36. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California and Nevada, 30 7 

THE VINEYARD.— California Raisin Making, 37. 

CtUERIES AND REPLIES.— Geese; Rose Mil- 
dew 37 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 37 and other pages. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Oakland Harbor Improve- 
ments; Stored Electricity; Electricity and Wool Spin- 
ning, 42. 

Business Announcements. 

Continental Oil and Transportation Co., S. F. 
California State Fair at Sacramento. 
"The Califomlan." 



California. 

California is a peculiar land in a peculiar 
clime. California is a problem yet unsolved. 
Some of the factors seem to be discerned; oth- 
ers are still out of sight. Intellectually eccen- 
tric, socially unripe, morally undefined, our fu- 
ture, as a people, is a puzzle to philosophers. 
Our plant life is a treasure-house of novelties 
to tbe botanist; our zoology from the fish in tbe 
wave, ,the mollusk on the shore, the insects 
that devastate orchard and field, defoliate tbe 
foot-bill oaks or bore the Sierra pine, is terra 
incognita to the naturalist. Our meteorology 
defies the prophet at whose call fifty millions 
Americans beyond the mountains, fly the com- 
ing storms. Our industry is a youth whose 
present growth foreshadows an Hercules in 
strength; a Proteus in range of acorn plishment. 
With her sky unknown, her soil almost untried, 
her manufactures just born and her people de- 
termined and yet bewildered by the novelty of 
the conditions and materials which surround 
them, California is indeed a mystery to herself 
and to the world at large. 

Such being, in very outline, our place among 
the things which are, it is little wonder that 
California is often misunderstood and some' 
times misrepresented. Even those who know 
California best know her but in part; no singl 
man knows California wholly, even in her pres 
ent state. Passing the California chapters in the 
sciences which have hardly their introductory 
paragraphs written, there is no one who knows 
wholly the single branch of our industry known 
as California agriculture — a branch with a thou 
sand twigs and unnumbered leaves. This fact 
should be borne in mind by the thousands 
abroad who are prone to judge of California by 
the reports of individual successes or failures 
which come to their eyes or ears. In believing 
either the good or evil things which are said of 
our State, it should be understood that good 
might be evil and evil good, if either were 
moved up or down a valley, from hillside to 
plain or from coast to mountain. 

Occasionally there is a man with keen o 
servation and wide grasp of deduction who, 
even during a short acquaintance with our 
State, appreciates our conditions and sets them 
forth in language fitting their character. Such 
a one is Bishop £. O. Haven, who, writing to 
an Eastern journal (tbe Christian Advocate), 
thus freely chats of California: 

California is the most mysterious of all the States 
have yet seen; and I have traveled, more or less, in all but 
three. No brief description can give any adequate view 
of it. The encyclopedia pictures are, as usual, monoto- 
nous and cadaverous, while the sketebes by travelers often 
fall into the error of representing tbe whole as like some 
little spot that happened for a time to fill the eye. Cali- 
fornia is full of contradictions. To those who wish 
study it before seeing it we would recommend 
two precepts, namely : 1. Believe all that you read and 
hear about it. 2. Believe nothing that \ ou read and hear 
about it; for all is probably true of some place, and noth- 
ing is true of a majority of the places. It is 700 miles 
long, north and south, and nearly 200 east and west — an 
immense nation of itself. It.is a land of mountains, some 
perpetually snow-clad, and of valleys and plains, in most 
of which snow is never seen — except at a distance— a land, 
some of which is as barren as Sahara, and which yet could 
furnish several Evypts fully as fertile as the original val- 
ley of the Nile; a land of corn and honey and wine 



The clamor in the stock market has well nigh 
died away, and one hears not of hypothetical val- 
ues, but of honest ore and of bullion bars. The 
din of the auctioneer has given way to the meas 
ured pounding of the quartz mill. 

In agriculture, too, there has been a no less 
important transformation. The eloquent lan 
guage of the immigration orator concerning 
what may be done, has yielded to more telling 
words of what has been and is now being accom 
plished. The extension of orchards and vine 
yards, the tread of dairy herds in unaccustomed 
places, the smoke of the fruit-driers and the 
clatter of the canneries where not long ago the 
fruit fell to the ground, the lading of cars with 
fruits and vegetables for Eastern markets — all 
these and many more indications of actual pro 
gress, are discernible on every hand. Thou- 
sands are inquiring for farming lands and are es- 
tablishing humble homes, which will grow 
into abodes «f prosperity and comfort. 
It is apparent to all that California has entered 
upon an era of quiet and sturdy advancement, 
which carries its own surety of endurance. 



The Week. 

The probable result of the assassin's shot, 
whioh has brought into imminent peril tbe life 
of the President of the United States, has been 
the uppermost topic in people's minds for 
another week. From day to day the tidings 
has oome that there is a fair chance for recovery 
and anxiety is changing to assurance of his ul 
timate return to the high trust and duties en 
trusted to him by the people. This assurance 
makes glad the hearts of all good citizens, and 
there is already on foot a movement among the 
Governors of the different States to call for 
day of rejoicing and thanksgiving as soon as the 
life of the President is pronounced out of dan- 
ger. The Governor of California has acceded 
to the proposition, and there is now every pros- 
pect that such a day will be generally and 
gladly observed by the people. At such 
a time there will be occasion to re- 
joice not only in the continued life of a good 
man, but that the people have been awakened 
from tbe evil spell which seemed to be pervad- 
ing the politics of the country. There is every 
reason to believe that the vale of the shadow 
through which the nation has walked during 
tbe last two weeks will arrest many an evil and 
selfish thought and impart to all a purer, truer 
idea of the duties and privileges of citizens of 
bo great a country. 

The harvest proceeds apace. The fields have 
b«en free from great conflagrations during the 
last few days, and fatal explosions which have 
been frequent at this season have thus far, this 
year, been conspicuous by their absence. The 
city is resuming its united activity in trade, 
and masses of tbe earlier fruits are keeping 
multitudes busy from the orchard to the can- 
nery. And soon come tbe grapes, glorious in 
quality and exceptional in amount, for the sea- 
son's promise is grand, and money will be 
plenty in the vine districts. 

The San Diego Union says the assessment 

roll of that county will double in amount that 
of last year. 



; of 

oranges, lemons, plums, apricots, peaches, almonds, and 
English walnuts and apples; of potatoes and beets, and 
squashes and melons; of treeless and grai-sless prairies and 
dense jungles, and shrubs and trees that began to grow 
before the limes of Noah, and seem never to have found a 
stoDping-place; a land of coal and silver and gold; of 
grizzly bears, coyotes and gophers, and of men and women 
from all parts of America and Europe, and not a small 
sprinkling from Asia. Take it for all in all, it seems 
about impossible to write what is not true about it. Still 
we will not try, but, as usual, endeavor to keep within 
tbe limits of fact. 

One can see at a glance that California has mountain 
ranges extending crookedly north and south, with valleys 
and plains of various width between them. These are 
crossed by numerous passes and river courses east and 
west. Over ail blow tbe west winds from tbe ocean, 
dropping their showers ou the valleys and plains, and 
their snows on the mountains in the winter, and their 
water on the mountains in tho summer. 

Sometimes in your travels you will find yourselves 
sweeping over immense plains like those of Illinois and 
Texas, only not like the former in being actually bound- 
less to view, nor like the latter in the border of forest 
trees, but terminating in mountains on one side clad In 
snow. Theee plains sometimes will he covered with 
fenceless wheatflolds, the most prolific anywhere to be 
seen; in others, roamed over by cattle; in others, arid and 
useless; in others, broken into numberless orchards of 
every kind, and Bmall farms; in others, covered with 
patches of forest; in others, narrowed down into valleys 
in others, broken into hills and vales. The kind of agri 
culture suited to one place would be utterly useless in 
another. 

Thus, California, with the usual variety of soil, becomes 
just about the most mixed up and infinitely various coun- 
try of its size probably anywhere on the round earth. It 
is most of all like ancient Palestine, tbe Holy Land, only 
it is more than 60 times as large! Think of that — mate- 
rial enough to make 60 Palestlnes, and yet the one Pales- 
tine is giving character to the world! Califoroia ought 
to be able by and by to govern at least 60 continents. 

We have indulged in a long quotation. We 
could not make it less, nor would we either, for 
these are facts which should be prominently set 
before tbe world. And if it be added that 
what Bishop Haven has written with chief ref- 
erence to our agricultural conditions could be 
as well said, though in different words, of the 
varied character and development of all our re- 
sources and all our industries, the one who 
seeks to know California from a perusal of re- 
corded facts or from a flying visit, may appre- 
ciate the problem which he attacks. California 
is great and is destined to be greater far. The 
tendencies now exerting their full force upon 
our people are of a most salutary kind. There 
has been a wonderful sweeping away of falla- 
cies during the last few months and years. The 
real is putting to flight the unreal at every 
point. The shoutings of the demagogues have 
sunk to hoarse whispers and a busy people 
no longer listen. The fever for speculation 
has run its course, and the large on paper has 
been broken up into a thousand littles, in fact. 



The Army Worm. 



Caterpillars akin to the pest known as the 
"army worm" at the East have appeared in 
different parts of the State during the last few 
weeks, and have wrought not a little injury to 
vineyards, fodder fields and gardens. We bave 
heard of them in the upper Sacramento valley, 
also in the grape district of Yolo county, in the 
Russian river country and in other places. 
They are well-fed caterpillars an inch or an 
inch and one-quarter long, with smooth velvety 
skin, and with bright stripes of brownish yel 
low or bright yellow extending lengthwise of 
the body. They vary considerably in color of 
head and body. They may be recognized by the 
marks given and by their appearance in multi 
tude and steady concerted movement in a given 
direction, whence comes the name "army 
worm." 

Prof. Dwinelle, of the College of Agriculture, 
has prepared for tbe Healdsburg Flag a resume 
of the ways found most successful in dealing 
with the army worm, from which we shall 
quote for the benefit of our readers who may 
find their fields or gardens on the point of in- 
vasion. The caterpillars cannot cross a dry 
ditch, if its sides are steep and composed of 
finely pulverized earth. To make this quickly, 
run a heavy plow along the line to be pro 
tected At the end of the furrow, turn about 
and return on the same line, putting the plow 
down as deep as possible, and throwing the 
earth on the opposite side from that first loos- 
ened. Next hitch the team to a heavy log that 
will fill the furrow made, and drag it back and 
forth once or twice, to pulverize and smooth 
the sides. When a suitable log is not at hand, 
a drag of brush may be used in its place. Take 
another turn about with the plow, and finish 
off with the log, or, if need be, with a shovel 
or hoe, leaving the slope as steep and 
loose as possible on both sides. The 
object is to keep the caterpillars from passing 
on, or returning when once in tbe ditch. 
There they perish and dry up, if exposed to the 
sun's rays in the ditch during the heat of the 
day. If from their great numbers, or other 
cause, there is danger that they will cross the 
ditch, those in it should be destroyed at inter 
vals by dragging a log or brush through it. 
Some prefer to have a hole a foot or two deep 
and several inches across at the bottom of tbe 
ditch, one in every three or four rods. Such 
can be easily made with a post- hole digger or 
auger. Into these the caterpillars fall in great 
numbers and can be crushed with a rammer, or 
buried, and a new set of holes made. Straw is 
sometimes laid in the ditch on the caterpillars 
and burned, but this wonld be dangerous in 
must parts of our State, in the dry season. To 
make sure of stopping the army worm, it is well 
to bave a second dry ditch at a rod or so beyond 
the first, and parallel to it. 

Where water in sufficient quantity is available, 
t may be used as a barrier, leading it in a (fitch 
across the line of march. In that case tbe sides 
of tbe ditch should be as perpendicular as pos- 
ible, and there should be considerable current 
to carry the caterpillars along. At intervals, a 
screen of coarse sacking is stretched across to 
catch them. Here they collect in great quanti- 
ties, and may be scooped out and fed to hogs or 
poultry, or otherwise destroyed. A ditch of 
standing water, may be made fatal to them, by 
pouring a little petroleum, just enough to form 
a thin film on the surface. Be careful about 
using this last foo near the roots of trees or 
vines. 

A heavy field roller may be used with good 
effect in fighting them on smooth ground, so 
too can a flock of sheep, driven back and forth 
in a compact body. 

Chickens and turkeys will destroy a great 
many army worms. The latter were used to 
protect the sugar-beet fields near Sacramento 
some years ago. They are said to tire of the 
diet, however, particularly it there are grass- 
oppers in the neighborhood. Probably ducks 
will stick to the work better. Crows, black- 
birds, and the like, should be welcomed as 
man's best friends in the fight. 

In Yolo county, this army worm travels for 
few hours at a time twice a day. Beginning 
at 7 A. M., it moves until about 9 o'clock, when 
it becomes too warm for its comfort. It then 
rests until 4:30 P. M., when it marches until it 
becomes cool, about dusk. a 



The Olive in Italy— No. 5. 

[Translated for the Rural Prrsb from V Italia Agrieota, 
by Da. J. I. Bliasdalr.] 
Oil Making Continued. 
Crushed kernels [Sannlni).— After the second 
pressing, the cake is commonly sold as a com- 
bustible, especially for heating ovens and such 
like. 

While this may be said concerning the press- 
ed matter from hydraulic machines, which by 
their great pressure leave little or no oil in the 
stuff, it is not always to be recommended to so 
dispose of it when it comes from any ordinary 
press, since more oi. may be gotten out of it 
by putting it a third time through the mill, and 
treating it with actually boiling water, and 
giving it another p-essing. From this third 
pressing, sufficient :s always obtained to pay 
expenses, labor, and wear of utensils. 

Washing (Lavatura).— The residue, after hy- 
draulic pressure, is not worth submitting to a 
third pressing. Industry, however, has found 
means to extract out of it a very useful matter, 
even some oil, by means of washing in the cold, 
and by the so-called frullino, and which the 
Ligurians called fo'latore. Into a cistern of 
water, just after tke crushing, it is cast, and 
there left to fermenl for one or two weeks, cov- 
ered with water. The stuff, then, is ground 
once more, and stetped in fresh water. When 
the grinding is dene, the resulting cake is 
put into the tank (frullino or follatore), where a 
continuous jet of vater falls upon it, whilst a 
small iron rake, aritated by the water, mixed 
it all up again to such an extent that the little 
pellicles attached t» the particles getting loose, 
rise to the surface, leaving the crushed kernel- 
stuff below. Fron time to time, as the pelli- 
cles rise to the suiface, a man collects them 
and puts them in i kettle to boil, after which 
they are collected tnd pressed. The refuse of 
the oil press thus ;reated is in request for cer- 
tain agricultural inlustries, and for some time it 
has been in great cemand in England. 

Care of the Oil luring Clearing. — On the fol- 
lowing day, after (lacing in the clearing room, 
the oii first drawn from tbe little vat (tinello), 
t is desirable to kave ready new jars, well 
glazed on the inside to receive oil whioh has al- 
ready become cleai in the other vessels. This 
operation has to be conducted with much care, 
not to allow any of the thicker oil lying below, 
to get mixed with the clear. 

When the oil hts been collected in the new 
vessels, it should remain two days longer in tbe 
clarifying room, after which it may be sent to 
tbe so-called coppaio, deposiio, oveiata — store 
houses in reality. , 

Places where cil is kept are distinguished 
with the above ntmes in parts of Italy. All the 
requisite conditions of a first-class cellar are de- 
manded by the cippaio, that the oil may not 
suffer from one <r other of the many conse- 
quences arising out of variations of tempera- 
ture. 

The very best 'essels are those of terra cotta, 
well glazed on th; inside, in the shape almost of 
a melon, called ars (giarri). Other kinds are 
mentioned, of marble, ardesia, or tin; but of 
whatever they nay be made, they need to be 
securely closed. 

About the enl of June, before the very hot 
weather sets ii, the oil ought to be racked; 
and if it is intruded to be kept for a year or 
more the follow ng will bave to be observed: 

a. To keep the oil, properly so called, that is 
to say, that whbb came from the first pressing 
of the olives, in separate receptacles, well 
closed. 

6. To deposi in other receptacles that de- 
rived from the pressings. 

c. To keep separate that which was obtained 
from tbe botttm deposits, that is, from the 
coppaio and thi clearing. 

d. In fine, U keep the oil collected in the 
dark chamber (nfemo) in a place apart; because 
almost always it emits disgusting exhalations 
which may injsre the fine oil. 

In closing tiis short essay, it does not appear 
foreign to tht purpose to give some data rela- 
tive to the products ordinarily obtained by the 
simple oil-mil, in comparison with that worked 
by steam. 

From an experiment instituted in Tuscany in 
1875, tbe fol'owing results were obtained: The 
olives to be crushed were about 11.70 Hecto- 
litres. Onehalf was submitted to the action of 
the simple .live-mill, the other to tbe steam 
one. 

1. With ;he simple mill: 

Hours 

Time employed 6 40 

™l^:::::::::::. v.v.v.":::::::::::::::::::::::f: 

PRODUCTS. 

Kilo. 

Oil from the olio 38.30 

Oil from the seels 18 40 

OU from tbe ipeit seed 3 50 

Residual seed ehausted 181.80 

2. With .he steam oil- mill: 

Hours 

Time employed 112 

f Men at he mill 6. 

I At the jotlve power t 



PRODUCTS. 

Kilo. 

Oil of the ollvejulp 66.80 

Oil from the cnihed seed 1160 

Oil from the spot seed (Sansinl) 6.00 

Quantity of spot residual matter 14360 

The abovi figures speak for themselves, and 
save the troible of reasoning about the relative 
advantagesof the two plans. With this we 
will conduce what we have to say, suggesting 
that were tie manufacture of oil in Italy a little 
less negleced — and tbe most perfect mechanism 
brought ino use, the production of oil, although 
by no me.ns small with the primitive imple- 
ments e til used, could not only be increased 



July 16, 1881.] 



TIE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



41 



very largely, but much improved in quality 
and recover its character in foreign mar- 
kets, whioh appears to have suddenly been 
somewhat shaken by the discovery of its adul- 
teration with cotton-seed oil. 

We add some statistical data upon the pro- 
duction of oil in the different regions of Italy. 

Ettol. 

NeapoUtan ggjgg 



Llguria 

Sardinia 

Tuscan; 

Roman Provinces 
Venice 



.283,500 
. .4,000 
..160.000 
..130,000 
7,840 



T euitc Kin 

Emilia (Modena) 

Loubardia. 5 



Total Ettol 1,556.437 

Progress of Olive Cultivation in Italy. 

Among the products necessary to Italy, 
whether for home consumption or for export, 
wine and olive oil stand in the front rank. The 
average consumption per head of the Italian 
people is of wine 120 litres per year, and only 
5 litres of oil in the valley of the Po, and 10 
litres in southern Italy, where it takes the place 
of butter. But the value of olive oil is com- 
monly five times that of wine, thence arises the 
interest in the production of it. In 1879 Italy 
exported wine to the value of 45,000,000 lire; 
of oil the export did not reach 100,000. 
The wine of Italy is threatened by many con- 
current circumstances, not alone by the agri- 
cultural progress of Hungary, Spain and Greece, 
but as years pass on even by the produce of 
California, the interior of the Argentine Repub- 
lics, and Australia, while the best olive oil not 
only for food but also for machinery fears no 
such concurrence. For the zones suited to its 
cultivation are far more restricted in area; and 
it is a more difficult matter to make good oil 
than good wine. 

In Italy the vine can be cultivated only from 
700 meters (a metre 40 in) to 1,500 above the level 
of the sea, (in the Sicilian Alps) while the 
olive zone ranges no higher than 400 to 600 
meters, and requires a soil in which there is 
no stagnant water. 

The vegetable products of the extreme 
geographical zone are more exquisite, therefore 
more remote from the Equator. 

On this account the olive oil of southern and 
even northern Italy is excellent; and Italy is 
the land of the best wine and the best olive oil, 
notwithstanding that both the vine and the 
olive tree came from climates warmer than the 
central region. 

Generally speaking, the olive is considered to 
have come from Syria according to the Noachian 
tradition of the olive branch brought back to 
the ark by the dove. But now in opposition to 
' the dispersion of the Gentiles from the plain of 
Senoaar aDd from the tower of Nimrod, there 
has set in a reaction in favor of Africa, which 
in civilization preceded Asia by at least 2,000 
years, and which always had relations with 
Spain and Italy more than with Asia. In 
Kabilia and in Eollar dependencies of the 
Sciva of Abyssinia, may be seen forests of in- 
digenous trees, and to anoint the human body 
is both general and very ancient in Africa. 

On the banks of the lakes at the foot of the 
Alps, in old Roman times, was planted the tree of 
Minerva, probably by those Greeks whom Ceesar 
sent to the Lake of Como. The olive trees on 
the bank of Lario were celebrated by Olaudian, 
about the close of the fourth century, in the 
hymn, "De Bello Gothico," in this verse: 
Nembroaa qua vestit litus oliva Larius. Chris 
tianity, come from the East with sacred rites 
in which olive oil and the olive branch were 
used, recommended everywhere the cultivation 
of the olive, to which, with special affection, 
the Benedictine Fathers bore testimony. Ro- 
tari, in an edict published in 643 A. D., be- 
stowed high praise on the olive trees, some of 
which he probably had at Sermione. 

M. Constance, the most recent and the great 
est illustrator ot the olive in France, in 1877 
wrote to M. Camillo Bianchedi: "Through my 
studies of the olive tree, I was able to admire 
Italy, and returned with a conviction that that 
tree will become, most certainly, one of the 
elements of her future prosperity." And Bian- 
chedi, encouraged by him to compose a mono 
graph on oil-making, which was published at 
Brescia in 1877, this year (1880) published a 
little work, "The Olive Tree on the Parmesan 
Hills," to show how, in that province, 1,180 
acres of hill land might be reduced into olive 
groves. 

The dying out of the mulberry trees and the 
vines and the natural rotation in both southern 
and northern Italy go on bringing the olive tree 
back, which, in spite of a thousand reproduc- 
tions, by cuttings has not degenerated. Never- 
theless, it might be opportune to prevent de- 
cadence by grafting it upon wild stock raised 
from seed ; plants which the southern Italians 
should bring up and place in commerce. At 
present on tne shores of Benaco plantations are 
being made by putting out suckers and layers, 
because the love of the olive tree has been 
awakened once more, and is now re-peopling 
even the poor lands of Brescia. The schools for 
oil-making which the State has opened at Bari 
and in Tuscany conduce to the love of this most 
noble tree. — G. Rosa. 



A California Beet Sugar Factory. 

The successful manufacture of beet sugar in 
California has attracted much attention from 
those who are promoting experiments in beet 
sugar making at the East. The factory at Al- 
varado, Alameda county, is the establishment 
which is winning the State a reputation in this 
respect. 1 

We find in The Sugar Beet, a Philadelphia 
quarterly devoted to the beet sugar industry, an 
engraving showing a section of the elevation of 
the Alvarado factory, and the ground plau of 
the same. The engraving is accompanied by a 
description of the progress of the 
juice from the beet to the sugar box. As 
this is of interest as showing one of the newer in- 
dustries of our State, and as it will also give the 
general reader some idea of the process of beet 
sugar making, and the means employed, we 
shall reproduce from The Sugar Beet, the en- 
graving and leading points in the description. 

Some years ago the Alvarado factory was 
started under bad management and failed. 
Later, it was completely reorganized, and in 
1879 was owned by the Standard Sugar Manu- 
facturing Company, from which time excellent 
sugar has been made. This factory is situated 
on the Alameda Creek at Alvarado, and has 



provided they lay immediately behind the first 
cylinder to be used to diffuse the beets. 

Now, desiring to make the first diffusion in 
No. 1, we will fill Nos. 12, 13 and 14, which 
communicate with each other, with water raised 
to 60* or 65° C, as it passes through the heaters 
attached to these cylinders or tanks. Then, a 
connection is made with No. 1 filled with sliced 
beets, the water passes from tank 14 through 
heater No. 1 at a temperature from 60° to 65" 
C, into tank No. 1. The pressure of the water- 
supply forces the water from No. 13 into No. 
14, which we have just emptied, and fills No. 
12 with cold water; thus the hot water is kept 
in advance of the cold, and is forced around the 
battery in the circuit as it is required. The 
water may be heated in the first instance in the 
heater of the tank which is to diffuse the beets, 
but this would take too long ; so a supply is 
heated at first, and passed around as we have 
indicated above. When tank No. 1 is full of 
water of the required temperature, close the top 
cover and open air valve at top, and allow all 
the air to escape, then let it remain 15 minutes 
with full pressure of water. Now connect tank 
No. 2 (this has previously been filled with sliced 
beets) with No. 1, and pass the juice into the 
former, keeping the temperature from 60° to 65 r 
C, as it passes through heater No. 2 in its course 
(tank No. 1 is again tilled through pressure with 
the warm water from No. 14, and 14 from 13, 
and so on). When tank No. 2 is full of juice, 



License Collector Sinton has forwarded to 
Sacramento $2,400. 90, to be placed to the credit 
of the State Mining Bureau, being collections 
for that purpose during the quarter ending 
June 30th. 





A ._ 



SECTION OF ELEVATION AND GROUND PLAN OF ALVARADO BEET SUGARIE 



Anderson springs picnic, on the Fourth of 
J uly, was a pleasant affair. The dancing party, 
we learn, was a lively and "protracted" one. 



connection with a siding about a half mile in 
length of the South Pacific Railroad. The 
buildiDgs cover an acre of ground, but about 
thirty acres are used for various purposes. The 
main building is 80x250 feet, several stories in 
hight, and surmounted by a tower seventy-five 
feet high. 

The beets that arrive in the factory are thrown 
into the washer, A, which is 8J ft. long, 4 ft. 
diameter; capacity, 100 tons in 24 hours. The 
dirty water and all the debris from the beets is 
discharged into a sewer, into which all the con- 
densed water of the factory is collected, and is 
carried by a flume on to the adjoining lands be- 
longing to the company (see plan). From the 
washer the beets are carried upon a moving 
apron 27 ft. long, to the floor above, when they 
are thrown into the slicer, B, that makes 160 
revolutions per minute. It has eight plates (16 
blades or knives). The knives are changed only 
once in 24 hours, as a general rule. No stones 
are ever found in the beets. It will cut from 
100 to 150 tons a day. The resulting cossettes 
pass into small two-wheeled wagons that hold 
about 300 lbs., and run on the floor ; these may 
be placed in proximity to one of the cylinders 
of the diffusion battery. Fourteen of the latter 
are in the series, and are in two lines of seven 
each. Their dimensions are 4x6 ft., and have 
between them a heater. The battery is made 
to work from right to left in the order in which 
the cylinders are numbered. The water for 
supplying the battery has a fall of 60 ft. Be- 
fore commencing, it is necessary to have a sup- 
ply of heated water. For this purpose any 
three cylinders and their heaters may be taken, 



close top and open air valve as in No. 1, then 
allow it to stand under full pressure of water 
15 minutes ; then open the valve and pass the 
juice by pressure through heater No. 3 to tank 
No. 3, with temperature as before from 60° to 
65°; now close the tank and proceed as in case 
of Nos. 1 and 2. After the juice has it >od in 
No. 3 15 minutes, if it has a sufficient degree 
of strength— say, 10° to 12°, about 300 gallons 
are drawn off, or a little more than enough to 
fill one tank with water; when the beets are in, 
this juice is sent to the defecating tanks. Should 
the juice not yet be of sufficient strength, it 
should be passed into No. 4, and stand for 15 
minutes longer. After haviDg drawn the quan 
tity of juice indicated from No 3, connect tank 
No. 4 with No. 3, keeping the juice at the proper 
temperature as it passes through the heaters, 
Nos. 2, 3 and 4 ; now allow No. 1 to gradually 
cool as the cold water passes through it. After 
No. 4 has stood 15 minutes, draw for it 300 gal 
Ions, as in case No. 3; then connect tanks Nos. 
4 and 5, keeping the water at the proper tern 
perature, as it passes through heaters Nos. 3, 4 
and 5. Continue in this manner to draw off the 
juice every 15 minutes after filling, and open 
the connection with the succeeding tank, the 
pressure of the water advancing the strongest 
juice from tank to tank as they are opened, and 
so continue until all the tanks are full ; then as 
fresh ranks are needed, shut the water supply 
from No. 1, and put No. 2 in communication 
with No. 14. The tank No. 1 is then emptied, 
which operation requires but five minutes; it is 
then cleaned, and five minutes are required to 
till it with fresh cossettes. Three cylinders are 



out of the series at a time. The capaci 
the cylinders of the battery is 2,400 lbs., and 
100 tons may be diffused in 24 hours. 

C is a tank that holds the waste water from 
the machines throughout the factory. When 
this overflows, it carries with it the refuse pulp 
which unfortunately, as we have said, has not 
as yet had any application, but it was thought 
that in 1881 it would be purchased by the 
farmers. From the battery the juice passes 
into the first defecation tanks, D (have for di- 
mensions 5' 6" in diameter, and 4' 6" in hight), 
and marks 6° Baume. There are four of these, 
and 2% of lime is added. The carbonic acid 
from the lime kiln (N) that has previously passed 
through the washers, Go, is brought into contact 
with the defecated juice for about 18 to 20 min- 
utes; the total is heated by a steam jacket. The 
juice, on leaving D, falls into the montjus (ca- 
pacity, 300 gallons), E, and is forced through 
to the " filter presses, S, at 6 lbs. pressure to 
square inch (see section). There are five of 
these, which are of a German design and have 
18 compartments. From there the juice runs 
into the second defecation tanks, F, four in 
number; these are of the same size as those of 
first defecation, heated by a steam coil; a small 
quantity of lime is then added, after which the 
juice flows into the montjus (same dimensions 
as E), G, and is forced through it into the second 
filter presses (same as F), T. The juice then 
collects into the tanks (capacity, 400 gallons), 
H, and is drawn into a montjus, / (there are 
two of these, each having a capacity of 400 
gallons) ; the juice is then forced into the re- 
ceiving tank, U, which is on the top of the 
tower. The object of having this at such a 
hight is to obtain an easy flow of juice through 
the (6) bone filters, W; these are 20 ft. high and 
30 inches diameter, hold 98 cubic feet of juice ; 
the bone-black is reburned every 12 hours. The 
juice, after leaving these, flows into a tank, J; 
there are two of these, having each a capacity 
of 1,122 gallons; from these into the double ef- 
fect, K; the juice marks 4° to 5° B. upon enter- 
ing, and 25° when leaving. The vacuum pump 
that communicates with this double effect is at- 
tached to a walking-beam engine of 50 horse 
power (this engine also drives several other 
pumps ; of these we may mention a Cameron 
pump for the vacuum pan). The juice then is 
run into a montjus of 300 gallons capacity; then 
into tank, V, capacity 600 gallons, placed at the 
top of tower; from this latter, it passes into six 
thick juice bone filters (X) of the same design 
as the first — the juice marks 25° upon enter- 
ing, and 23° to 24° upon leaving; then into the 
tank L (two of these of 1,000 galls, capacity 
each); then into the vacuum pan M. The work- 
ing of the bone-black is, in some respects, rather 
original; as the superintendent has invented a 
cylindrical washing-machine that can wash 18 
to 20 tons in 24 hours, rejecting a German ap- 
paratus that had the same functions. This ma- 
chine is said to work well, but before passing 
into it, the bone-black is fermented on the 
ground floor in vats; when the washing is com- 
pleted, it is subsequently raised to the bone- 
kiln P — which is capable of burning 10 tons in 
24 hours, requiring five men — by a moving 
apron 20 ft. long; after being thoroughly burned 
it is hoisted to the top of the tower and allowed 
to fall by a chute into the filters. Thirty bar- 
rels of sugar may be boiled at a strike in the 
vacuum pan; and after the strike is complete, 
the granulated mass is taken into the tanks by 
elevator to the fourth floor. After the proper 
crystallization is complete, it is thrown into the 
mixer and from there into the centrifugals 
(these have a velocity of 1,000 revolutions er 
minute, and are 30 inches in diameter and 1 3 
inches in hight); the sugar, when taken from 
these, is carried up to the second floor to the 
packing-room. 

The above gives our readers a general idea of 
the working of the juices. Upon the grounds 
are the buildings, blacksmith-shops, store-houses, 
etc., which are most useful. The water for the 
factory is supplied from two artesian wells that 
have the respective depths of 212 and 270 ft. 
The boilers of the establishment are placed 
in a special building known as the boiler- 
house, which consume about 20 tons of coal a 
day, furnishing sufficient steam to run a 30- 
horse power slide-valve horizontal engine, and 
40-horse power beam engine with eight pumps 
attached, and 20-horse power Cameron vacuum 
pump. There are six boilers altogether; two of 
these are 15 ft. long, while four are 14 ft. in 
length. Of the pumps throughout the estab- 
lishment, there are no less than 23. 



New Zealand Sheep-kinos. — The Colonie* 
and India remarks that the following return of 
sheep held by "squatters" — taken from the 
Government Gazette for Canterbury and Otago, 
New Zealand — gives an idea of the vast flocks 
owned by single individuals in the Australasian 
colonies: New Zealand and Australian Land 
Co., 300,000 sheep; Mr. Robert Campbell, 386,- 
000 sheep; Mr. George Henry Moore, 90,000 
sheep; Messrs. Dalgettv and Co., 208,000 sheep; 
Messrs. Clifford and Weld, 80,000 sheep; Sir 
Dillon Bell, 82,000 sheep; Hon. William Rob- 
inson, 68,000 sheep; Sir Cracroft Wilson, 48,- 
000 sheep; Mr. Kitchen, 80,000 sheep; Mr. Al- 
lan M'Lean, 500,000 sheep. 



What have been known to the residents of 
Como, Nev., for some years as crickets have 
made their appearance in the Como mountains 
again. They are eating the sagebrush and 
grease wood. Most of them are a little over an 
inch in length, and about one-third of an inch 
thick. Of this size, there are two colors — a 
blueish-gray and brown. 



42 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



LJuly 16, 1881 



Cherry Growing. 

(Continued from Page 35.) 
or, in other words, a large-feeding surface and 
a small one to be fed. Have no more on the 
top of your tree than the roots can support in 
a good, healthy condition, and then you will 
pick a large quantity of first-class fruit from a 
small area of top. Short cutting not only tends 
to produce large fruit, but increases the fruit 
surface by brioging out dormant buds on the 
large limbs, which is very important It 
claimed that the cherry is a short-lived tree, 
that is true, we are helping to kill it by not 
pruning. What is the object of pruning any 
other tree? You say, to make it bear large 
fruit and to keep it from going wild. If that 
is so, why not keep the cherry from going wild 
Why not prune it so that it will be able to bear 
large fruit? Why the partiality ? , 



Oakland Harbor Improvements. 

The greatest engineering work now being 
done on this coast by the Government is the 
improvement of Oakland harbor. We gave a 
short time since a report of progress on the 
work. The method of placing the rock, whioh 
we then described, is still being carried on 
The training walls are fast assuming respectable 
proportions, and it will not now be very long 
before the whole tide flow of the harbor will be 
confined between the walls. The inner end of 
the north wall has been faced up, and both 
barges are now being daily unloaded on the 
north wall. The rock seems exceptionally good 
in character, though, for the price at which the 
contract is taken, it is difficult to see where 
much money is to be made. Dredging is going 
on constantly, and, though the dredger seems 
to be in a chronic state of break -down, it does 
good work, when at work. At present the 
material is carried out on barges and dumped 
in the bay. We hear, however, that arrange- 
ments are being made to deposit some of it on 
the adjacent shore. For this the contractor re- 
ceives a higher price. The point where it is to 
be deposited will be on the C. P. K. R. Co.'s 
land, back of the freight slips. 

The Government engineers have now in pros- 
pect another part of the work on this harbor 
improvement, which is an important one, and 
bids have been invited from contractors to do 
the work. The work to be done consists in 
the excavation of the flats of the tidal basin 
lying east of Fifteenth avenue, in Brooklyn, 
between low water line and the line of the 
marsh which forms the shore line, and in put 
ting the excavated material ashore. 

Here now is a chance for some enterprising 
persons. They can have 75 days, from the date 
of award of contract, to build a machine which 
will dredge and deliver the material ashore. 
Inventors of dredging appliances can here have 
an opportunity of proving the superiority of 
their devices. As most of the land near by be 
longs to the Oakland Water Front company, it 
is probable they will have no objection to hav 
ing the material put ashore where it will im 
prove their land. This remains to be seen, 
however. 

The part excavated is to be taken out at least 
to one ft. below low water, and not deeper than 3 
ft. below low water. It is supposed that the 
contractor can make arrangements for deposit 
with parties who wish to have land raised. 
The flats are Bhown by survey to extend to a 
height of 4 or 5 ft. above low water, sloping 
gently to the basin. Borings made show the 
material for the first 4 or 5 ft. in depth to be 
•oft mud, which extends in places to much 
greater depth. In other places, the mud below 
is firmer, and has sand mixed with it. Bidders 
may choose their own place for excavation out- 
side of the line of marsh, subject to approval 
and under the conditions that the area excava- 
ted shall be reasonably compact in shape and 
outline, having a width of not less than 500 ft., 
and provided it Bhall be made to connect with 
the existing low- water basin by a channel 200 
ft wide, having about 3 ft. in depth at low wa- 
ter. 

This work, it is supposed, will be followed by 
more of the same character, as appropriations 
becoiri#javailable. The amount to be applied 
under this contract will be what remains of 
funds now available after existing contracts 
shall be fulfilled. It will probably not be less 
than $80,000, and may be as much as $100,000. 
No particular method of excavation is required 
in the specifications, and the intention is to give 
the contractor the fullest latitude in his opera- 
tions, if this shall result in cheapening the cost 
of the work. The measurement of material «i 1 
be in place as it now lies. 

The deposit on shore will be subject to such 
regulation in the way of berme or levee as 
shall, in the judgment of the engineers, be suf- 
ficient to prevent the material being returned 
to the basin. The place of deposit must, how- 
ever, be approved. The points of marsh land 
that make out from the two shores below Six- 
teenth avenue are not admissible as places of 
deposit. The rate of excavation required is Dot 
less than 30,000 cubic yards per month. It 
may be as much in excess as the contractor may 
chooso to excavate. 

Bonds to. the extent of $30,000 will be re- 
quired at the signing of the contract from two 
sureties, each qualifying in this amount. 

The work will be supervised by an inspector, 
whose decision on any controverted points, 
when confirmed by the engineers, shall be final, 
and binding on all parties. Payments will be 
made monthly by checks on Assistant Treasurer 



United States to the amount of 90% of the 
work done, 10% being retained until the com- 
pletion and acceptance of the work. 

When this work is completed it will leave 
large tidal basin at the upper end of the harbor, 
where many vessels can lie securely in the win 
ter months. It is not safe for them to lie in the 
open bay, and Mission bay, once a favorite 
place, is now shut off by the bridge, the piling 
and the filling in. Coasters have, therefore, to 
go to Antioch or Oakland. The new basin will 
doubtless be a very useful one. — Scientific 
Press. 



Stored Electricity. 

An exceedingly long step from the theoret- 
ical to the practical was made when that "box 
of electricity" was sent from France to Eng- 
land. Many years have the scientific men of 
all countries been theorizing on the application 
of electricity to the purposes of every day life, 
aside from the important ones of telegraphing, 
lighting, etc. Above all things was it wanted 
for a motor, and now it seems, suddenly, this 
application is made. The box was sent to Glas- 
gow, to Sir Wm. Thompson, having been stated 
to have been charged at Paris with a store of 
active electric energy to the amount of 1,000, 
000 foot-tt)3. It consisted of four of Faure's bat- 
teries charged with electricity from an ordinary 
Grove's battery. The four batteries were en- 
closed in a wooden box, about a cubic foot in 
measurement, and weighed about 75 lbs. Sir 
Wm. Thomson now makes the important an- 
nouncement that all that has been stated has 
been more than borne out by experiment. No 
appreciable loss could be ascertained to have 
occurred during the delay from transit and 
until the stored energy was applied to working 
purposes in Glasgow. One battery was de- 
tached from the other and carried to another 
place to supply the force for an electric cautery; 
and a single battery, after having been left 
alone for ten days, yielded to Sir Wm, Thom- 
son 260,000 foot lbs., being some 10,000 above 
the original estimate. The first result Sir Wm. 
Thomson looks for is the use of Faure's bat- 
teries in private houses, as reservoirs of elec- 
tricity for domestic purposes, such as lighting, 
heating, the driving of sewing machines, and 
many other objects. 

We obtain electricity from the atmosphere 
by simple mechanical means, the princi- 
pal expenditure being for power. Now, with a 
means of storing electricity, we store power; 
for it can be generated by wind, by running 
streams, etc., and saved for use when required. 
We thus chain up powers hitherto free from 
more than a passing restraint. The cost of 
storage does not seem to be material in this ap- 
plication. 

Of the hundreds of ways in which this power 
can be utilized, it is useless to speak. Already 
a tricycle weighing 400 lbs., has been propelled 
along the streets for an hour and a half contin- 
uously. This one practical experiment points 
out the way to thousands of applications. 

Electricity and Wool Spinning. 

In spinning dry wool, mohair, and alpaca, of 

a high class, the process is seriously hampered 
by the electricity developed in the fibers by 
their friction on one another or on the parts of 
the machine. The repellant action of each elec 
trifled filament on its neighbors causes the yarn 
to get into a blowsy or "stickleback" state, 
which renders it very difficult to manipulate, 
and is productive of numerous other drawbacks 
of a serious nature. The new method of dis- 
electrifying the wool, described by Mr. E. 
Bright to the Society of Telegraph Engineers 
and Electricians at a recent meeting, is at once 
a scientific and economical one. It simply con- 
sists in putting the bobbins for a short time 
into an exhausted chamber where the rarified 
air, which is well known to be a conductor of 
electricity, permeates all the pores of the yarn 
and discharges it. The chamber is of iron, pnt 
in metallic connection with the earth, and the 
bobbins are ranged on a small truck running on 
rails into its interior. When the air-tight door 
is closed upon the supply of bobbins, a valve 
connecting the chamber with the exhaust bulb 
and air pump is opened and the pump operated. 
A pressure gauge shows how far the the ex- 
haustion has been carried. From 10 to 30 min- 
tes are required to thoroughly discharge each 
bobbin, and this is equivalent to several months' 
exposure to the damp air of a cellar. Carding 
can also be facilitated by a modification of Mr. 
Bright's process, which has already been suc- 
cessfully introduced with a notable saving of 
working expenses, labor and capital. 

Important Discovery. — It is said that cot. 
ton seed oil forms a most satisfactory substitute 
for lard. If so, it will effect quite an impor- 
tant revolution, not only in household economy 
but in the profits of cotton culture as well. 
Col. O. 0. Nelson, of Huntsville, Ala., says he 
as repeatedly used the oil at his house, and 
finds it equal to the best article of lard. A 
hotel-keeper, at Memphis, publishes a state- 
ment to the same effect. It has been tried by 
several citizensof Tuscumbia, Ala., whosay they 
can discover no difference between the oil and 
the lard. The refined oil is only about one -half 
the cost of lard. This vegetable substitute for 
lard cannot meet with any similar objection to 
that which is encountered by the oleomarga- 
rine manufacturer in his substitute for butter. 
Should this alleged discovery prove a reality, 
it will effect a most important revolution in two 
of the leading industries of the country. 



Educational. 



SACKETT 

BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL, 

629 Hobart St , Oakland, Cal. 

Trains boys for College and for Business in the most 
thorough manner. 
Next School Year will commence July 11, 1881. 

Kksidbkt Teaciikrs: 
D. P. SACKETT, A. II., the Principal, Yale College, 
Classical Department. 
GEORGE W. DREW, A. M . Head Master, Yale College, 
Business Department. 
ALLEN E. JANVIER, A. B., Yale College, 
English Department. 
MARY K. Cl'LBKRTSON, State Normal School of N. Y 
Department of Natural Science. 
MRS. GEORGE W. DREW, 
Department of Music. 
The Principal i9 determined to spare no expense in male 
ing this Institution increasingly worthy of patronage 
For Catalogue address 

D. P. SACKETT, A. M., Principal. 

fi29 Hubart St , Oakland, Cal 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 

Washington Corners, Alameda County, Cal 

THE FALL TERM WILL BEGIN 

Thursday, July 28th. 

Catalogues can be had at the Bookstores of A. L. Ban 
croft 4 Co , San Francisco, and W. B Hardy, Oakland. 
For Catalogues or other particulars, address 

S. S. HARMON, Principal, 

Washington Corners, Alameda County, CaJ 



The Berkeley Gymnasium 



A First-Class Academical Institution. 

—AFFORDS A- 

CLASSICAL, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC, OR 
BUSINESS EDUCATION. 



The Next Term Will Begin July 11th. 

For Catalogues or particulars address 

JOHN F. BURRIS, Superintendent, 

BERKELEY, CAL. 



BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL 

For Young Ladies. 

Oak Stieet, bet. 10th and 11th, Oakland. 

Will open JULY' 27th. A special course of study will be 
arranged Thorough preparation given for admittance 
to the State University and Eastern Colleges. For cir- 
cular address 

MISS S. B. BI SI IKK. Oakland, Cal 



GOLDEN OATH ACADEMY, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

Boarding and Day School for Bore and Young Men. 
Classical and English Courses. 

The next season Iwgins Tuesday. J uly 26. 1881. For Infor- 
mation visit the Institution, or address 

REV. H. E. JEWF.TT, PrincipaL 



ST. AUGUSTINE COLLEGE. 

27TH TERM BEGINS 
Tuesday, July 26th, 1881. 

For Catalogues please address 

BISHOP WINOFIELD, Benlcia, Cal. 



YOUNG LADIES SCHOOL, 

No. 1036 Valencia St., San Francisco, Cal. 
THE NEXT SESSION WILL BEGIN' JULY 25, 1881. 



REV. EDWARD B. CHURCH 
MISS MARY B. COCHRANE 



Principals. 




SAW MACHINE 

la warranted to saw n 2-ftM>t log In three min- 
ute*, and mors* cord wood or logs of anyslse In a 
day than twa> •••<••■ can chop or saw the old way. 
Every Farmer and Lumberman needs ODe. 
ACENTS WANTED-" lr<«lur and term. Free. 

SUM' FOR CIRCULAR TO 

LINFORTH. RICE & CO., 

General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 
323 and 3H5 Market Street. San Francisco- 



TEXAS LANDS. 



I am prepared to sell lands in various counties of Texas 
and at prices ranging 

From 50 Cents to $5 Per Acre, 

Owing to nearness to Railroads and improvements, sup- 
ply of wood, water, etc. These lands are carpeted with a 
rich and nutritious growth of MESQUIT GKASs. green 
the year round. 

I have a solid body of 0,200 acres in Zavalla 0ounty, 
fronting Leona River. 

Plenty ot Grass, Timber and Water, 

At il.25 per acre, unfenced, and 16 miles from Railroad. 
Also tract in Frio County, of 10,000 Acres, fronting on 
Frio River. NEVER-FAILING water, well coated with 
Grass; ALL FENCED. Well adapted to Cattle, Shesp, 
Swine or Farming, live miles from Railroad Station, at 
#3 per acre, one-half cash, balance In one end two years 
St 8^ interest. 

Also 4,605 acres on same river, two sides fenced and . 
oesr County seat at $2 per acre. 

Also some MO-acre tracts of rich land at $2.50 per acre, 
and near Railroad, besides many other pieces in other 
counties. 

JAMES M. THOMPSON, 
San Antonio or Frio Town, Texas. 



275 Acres of No. 1 Bottom and 225 Acres 
of No 1 Upland for Sale, 

Known as the Her Ranch, and situate three and a half 
miles from the town of Elk Grove, on the Column ee 
river, 350 Acres Growing Grain, well improved, 
arge House and Barn and plenty ot Timber. 

PRICE, $40 PER ACRE. 
Inquire of GEORGE U. 1LER, on the premises, of 
ILER & SONS, at the town of Gait, or of 

JAMES H. FERRIS, Agent. 



FRANK RITTER S RANCH FOR SALE. 

It is well improved, and consists of 10O Acres of 
No. 1 Bottom and 140 Acres No. 1 Upland, and 
is situated nine miles east of t'..c town of Gait, on Diy 
creek, California. 

Price $ I 2,000. Terms one-half Down. 

Deferred payment to draw 10% per annum, interest. Time 
to suit purchaser. Inquire of FRANK RITTER on the 
premises, or of 

JAMES H. FERRIS, 
Agent, at Gait. 

FRUIT RANCH TO RENT. 

The undersigned wishes to rent his Orchard and Ranch 
to a responsible man with a family, who understands the 
FruU business and can give good references. On the 
place there are between 

S, OOO and 6,000 Trees 

Of the best quality of Fruit The place is situated in the 
foothills three miles from Auburn, Placer Co. 
[Correspondence solicited J 

J. W. HULBERT. Auburn, Placer Co. 



A GOOD BARGAIN. 

Twenty- five acres Old Bearing Vineyard; IOO acres 
New Vines; idOO Old Bearing Orange Trees; 76 acres 
prepared for Setting Vines; 200 acres In all with a good 
site for a Wine Factory. All good Vegetable Land, with- 
out irrigation. Adjoins Mr. Rose's Vineyard, and is half 
mile from the Railroad depot at San Gabriel, Los An- 
cles county, Cal. Income this year, 13,000, and when 
U is in good bearing, income will be from #10,000 to $20,- 
000 per annum. Price. 120.000. Inquire ot 

MORFORD Si BROWN. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



FARMING LAND 



For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms. In 
the best parts of the State. 

McAFEE BROTHERS. 
90S Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal 



RAMS FOR SALE. 

£50 THOROUGHBRED 

And Graded 

SPANISH MERINO 

Rams for Sale. 




Bred from the first Impor- 
tation of Spanish Merino 
Sheep to California, in ISM. 
Thoroughbred and High 
Grade Ewee for sale. Pi lees reasonable. Residence, one 
mile north of McConnell's Station, Western Pacific Division 

C 'p P R address, MRS. E. McCONNELL WILSON. 

Elk drove. Hacramemto Co.. Cal. 




CLARK & MoKENSIE, 

SI. UK 'UK KB OP RKCOKUS, 

Real Estate Agents 

AND CONVEYANCERS, 
Office in Court House, Fresno, Cal. 
4VSi*D roR Information. 



July 16, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PB1SS. 



43 



Purchasers of Stock will fisd in this Dirbctory ih» 

NaJUBS OF 80MB OF THB MOST RBLLABLB BRBBDBR8. 

Oor Ratbb. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 

CATTLE. === 



WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. 

HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of moat of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba Buena," of noted butter strains on the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
" King of Scituate," son of the famous 705 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought here. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 
pedigreed. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep. 

M. WICK, Oroville, Butte County, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Cattle, Short-Horns. Young Bulls and 
Heifers for sale at all times of the year. 

HORSES. 

HENRY MILLER, San Francisco, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Norman Horses of the Stock Imported 
by Mr. Perry, of Illinois, took First Premium at San 
Jose Fair, 1880. 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 

JOHN S. HARRIS, Hollister, Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred registered Goats. Took Eight Premi- 
ums at the State Fair of 1880. I had one Buck at the 
State Fair with staple 16 inches long. Correspondence 
solici*.ed. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, CaL Importer and 
Breeder ofSpanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co. , Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and BrecdcrB of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. 418 California 
St., S. F. 



POULTRY. 



GEO. TREPZER, Napa, Cal. I have a fine lot of 
Brown Leghorns for sale, all one year old, for $0 per 
trio, if taken soon, in order to make room for my young 
stock. 

MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 

A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



T. D. MORRIS. Sonoma, Sonoma County, Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of all the varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls. Eggs for hatching sent ar.y distance with safety. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. Send for price list. 

MBS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown and White Leghorns, Plymouth Rock, 
Pekin Ducks. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford, Cal., Breeder of Poland 
China Swine. Stock recorded in American Poland 
China Record. Are descendants of the celebrated Mc- 
Crary -Bismarck, bred by D. M. Magie, Oxford, Ohio. 
Took five First Premiums at State Fair in 1880. 



TO BEE FANCIERS. 

I am now ready to furnish PURE ITALIAN QUEENS, 
Colonics, Nuclei, Comb Foundation, Veil, Smokers, Knives, 
Bee Books, etc. SAMPLE HIVE. Address for Circular, 

JOS. D. EN AS, 
Sunnyside, Napaj*. 0., Cal 



flC 



ITALIAN SHEEP WASH. 



Extract of Tobacco, free from poison. Prepared by the 
Italian Government Co. Cures thoroughly the 

SCAB OF THE SHEEP, 

And is an excellent Sheep Dip. The best and cheapest rem 
edy known for curing the Scab. Successful in every oase 
For particulars apply to 

CHAS. DUISENBERG k CO., Sole Agents. 

314 Sacramento St., San Francisco. 



IMPROVED MACHINES 

FOR LAYING 

Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Pipe 

For sale at Davisville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to L. A, GOULD. 



$400 to_$60,000. 

Farms to suit all; Grain, Grape, Fruit, Stock and gen- 
eral Farming Lands and Suburban Homes, soma very 
cheap. PACIFIC LAND AGENCY, 306 Kearny St., S. V 



50 



Varieties French Chromo Satin, Pearl Finished Etc 
cards, name in gold, 10c. Card Mills, NorthfordCt. 



The Fresno Colony, 

On the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad and adjoining Fresno City and the Central Colony- 
Has the most favoroble location of any Colony, as well as other superior advantages. Abun- 
dant water secured. Land unsurpassed for Vine Raising and Fruit Culture. Send for Map and 
Circular, or come and examine. Address 

THOMAS E. HUGHES & SONS, Fresno City. Cal. 



Hotels and Summer Resorts. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 
tarvree coach to the House. O. F. BECKER. Proprietor 



AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL. 

Sansome Street, (Opposite Wolls, Fargo 
& Oo's Express), San Francisco. 

This Hotel, under the management of CHAS. MONT- 
GOME KY, has been thoroughly renovated, and being in 
the very center of all the Banks, Insurance Offices and 
Commission Merchants, it offers special inducements to 
Merchants from the Interior and Farmers. 

Board, with Room, 81, $1.25 id 81- 60 per day. Special 
rates by the week or month. 

FREE COACH TO AND FROM THE HOTEL. 



HIGHLAND SPRINGS, 

LAKE COUNTY, CAL. 

BEAUTIFUL AND HEALTHFUL SUMMER RESORT 
FOR FAMILIES, INVALIDS. CAMPERS 
AND PLEASURE SEEKERS. 

Hotel and Cottages Newly Furnished. 



Board and Room, $10 per week, including Mineral Baths. 
Children under 6 years, and Servants, Half Rates. 

Direct route by steamer " Donahue" to Donahue Land- 
ing, connecting with 8. F. & N. P. R. R. to Clo/erdale, 
thence by Stage to Highland Springs. 



The springs are situated at an altitude of 1700 feet 
above sea level; and for natural beauty of scenery, health- 
ful climate, hunting and fishing, are unsurpassed in the 
State. The surrounding forests and valley are particu- 
larly inviting to campers, who will be especially enter- 
tained at the Springs. 

The waters have produced many wonderful cures in 
the following diseases: Dyspepsia, Paralysis, Ery- 
slpelaB, Kheumatlsm, Sciatica, Liver and 
Kidney, Bronchitis, Pulmon»rv Complaints, 
in tiieir earl> stages, General Debility, and a never- 
failing remedy for Chills and Fever. 
For further particulars, address 

MRS. J. C. GOODS, Highland Springs. 



BARTLETTJPRINGS. 

THESE WELL-KNOWN AND 

Celebrated Health-Giving Springs 

Are Situated in Lake Co „ Cal., 
ABOUT 150 MILES from SAN FRANCISCO. 
HOW TO GET THERE. 

Tourists can have the choice of two routes, one by boat 
to Donahue, then by rail to Cloverdale, the balauce of way 
by stage. Second, train to Wil iams, passing through the 
thriving towns of Davisville, Woodland and Cacheville, 
changing cars at Davisville. Stage from Williams to Springs 
over a beautiful road of 28 miles, 

GREEN BARTLETT & T. S. McMAHON, Proprietors. 

£3T To be under the supervision of JOHN CRIGLER, of 
Lake county, and C. R. CLARKE, of Nevada county, who 
will spare no effurt in making guests comfortable. Hotel 
has been rented and refurnished throughout. 



BATHING SEASON 

AT SANTA CRUZ . 



FURNISHED HOUSES for rent, and full information 
for strangers and visitors on application to the Real 
Estate EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL,. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 
In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

Reserve Fund and Paid up Stock, »5, 760. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

DANIEL RHOADS Mussel Slough, Tulare Co 

O. J. CRESSEY Merced Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conductedin the 
usual way, bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVEK deposits receiveu 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on de- 
mand. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 4% per aunuin if left for 3 months; h% per annum if 
left for 6 months: 67 per annum if left for 12 months. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 
and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 16, 1881. 



Clear Lake and Calistoga 

STAGS X.X2T23, 



Carrying 
Express and 




Wells, Fargo k Co's 
H U. S. Mails. 



ANDERSON'S SPRINGS, 

LAKE COUNTY, CAL., 
Nineteen Miles from Calistoga. 



Hot Sulphur Water for Rheumatism, Paralysis, etc.; 
Cold Sulphurs for Diseases of the Bowels and Stomach; 
Climate Beautiful; Scenery Magnificent; Abundance of 
Trout Fishing; Good Cooking. Board, $10 to $12 per week 

ANDERSON & PATRIQUIN, Proprietors. 



STAGE LEAVES CALISTOOA 

On Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, for Lakepoi t, via 
St. Helena, Mountain Toll House, Middletown, Cobb 
valley, Glenbrook and Kelseyville, returning on alternate 
days. Connections are made on this route with the 
Great Western and Oat Hill quicksilver mines; the An- 
derson, Adam's, Siegler, Highland, Allen, Wittier, Pier- 
son and Bartlett springs, Soda Bay and other steamer 
points on Clear Lake. 

On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays coachesleave for 
Sulphur Banks (on the east chore of Clear lake), follow 
ing the fame route to Middletown, and thence via Guenoc 
and Lower Lake, making connection with Howard and 
Siegler springs and the steamer on Clear lake. 

Passengers leave San Francisco at 8 a. m., and reach 
Lakeport and Su phur Banks early in the evening, in less 
than 11 hours from the city, carrying the U. S. mail and 
Wells, Fargo & Co. 'a express. 

The best SIX-HORSE CONCORD COACHES and stock 
are provided for the safe and prompt transport of pas- 
sengers. W. F. FISHER, Proprietor, 
Lodi Stables, Calistoga, Napa Co , Cal. 



Dewey & Co. \ ^ « } Patent Ag'ts 



J. H. Wythe, M. D. 

Residence: Office: 
965 West Street, Oakland. 759 Market St., San Francisco 
Before 10 a. m., after 5 p. M. I From 11 A. M. to 3 p. id. 



Agricultural Articles 



THE CALIFORNIA ADJUSTABLE 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

CULTIVATOR & SEEDER. 




As IMPROVED and PERFECTED for 1881 will work 
equally as well on loose or wet land as in hard or dry 
soil, and are what every farmer needs to destroy vegeta- 
tion on the summer failow. Will savereplowing and put 
the land in the best possible condition for early sowing. 

LOOK TO YOUR INTERESTS 

And make money by saving time and working your fal- 
lows before harvest. Our new size six foot ORCHARD 
or VINE'VARD HARROWS are provided wil.h handles, 
rendering them as easily controlled as the Cultivators. 
These implements are acknowledged by all who are fa- 
miliar with their work, to be the most practical for gen- 
eral use in the orchard or vineyard of any yet offered to 
the public. Manufactured only by 

BATCHELOR, VAN GELDER & C0. 9 

Nos. 90O & 902 K Street, Sacramento. CaL 

Under the original patents now owned by • 
D. C. & H. C. REED & CO., Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Beware of Infringements. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match In 
Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who have 
been long in the business and know what is required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselvea govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It bas various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WII LIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal, 



CARRIAGES, WAGONS 

AND 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS! 

Having recently purchased the entire stock, tools and ma- 
chinery of the late Kimball Manufacturing Company's works, 
and having the best appliances in the way of machiuery for 
Wood and Iron Working, also Painting and Trimming, on 
the Pacific Coast, I am enabled to fill all orders promptly, 
such as Carriages, Farm, Freight and Ore Wagons, also all 
kinds of Agricultural Implements, R. R. Horse Cars, 
and R. R. Hand Cars, Scrapers and Excavators at short 
notice. 

E. SOULE, 
341 Fourth St.. Corner Bryant. 

WONDERFUL INVENTION. 

THE DAVIS IRON WAGON. 



Header, Farm and Freight. Manufactured expressly 
for the Pacific coast. Sbnp for Circular and Prick List. 
Also the following masterpieces of mechanical skill: The 
Davis Steel Dom leiree. The Davis Spring Tongue Sup- 
port. The Davis Spring Bolster. The world-renowned 
La France Steam Fire Engine. 

B. A. SCOTT Sc CO., 

P. O. Sox 293. Sacramento, Cal. 



A. W. LOCEHART, 

N. E. Corner 11th & J St8 , Sacramento, Cal. 
Sole Manufacturer and Proprietor of 

Lockhart's Patent Self Feeder and Elevator. 

Admitted by those who have used it, for regularity of 
Feeding, Simplicity, Cheapness and Durability to be Un- 
equalea by any other Feeder in use. Call and examine 
before purchasing elsewhere. Threshing Machines Re- 
paired on short notice. 



FOR THE LADIES. 

TURKISH RUG PATTERNS 

A Pleasant and Profitable Fancy Work. Patterns 
stamped in colors on heavy burlaps; Animals, Flowers 
and Scrolls. Cm be made of rags or waste yarn. F"U 
printed directions furnished with pattern. Send Itt 
Catalogue. Address 

CHAS. PEAKS & CO., 200 Kearny St. S. P. 



Engraving. | 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyplng and Stereotyp- 
ing done at the office of the Mining 
tm> Scikntifio Press, San t runcisco, at favo-able rates. 



44 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



LJuly 16, 1881 



Highland Springs. 

Theae springs are charmingly and fortunately 
situated among the sunny and airy high lands of 
Lake county, 27 miles northeasterly from Clo- 
verdale (the nearest R. R. station), and eight 
miles south from Lakeport, the county town. 
Five hundred and twenty acres are embraced in 
the premises, which include a dairy, vegetable, 
stock, hay and grain farm. The springs were 
first brought to public notice about 12 years ago. 
At times, 100 to 200 boarders and campers have 
been quartered here. There are ample and finely 
shaded camping plaoes. A pleasant grove ad- 
joining the commodious hotel and cottages con- 
tains fine croquet grounds, lounging hammocks, 
and rural seats in shady nooks. The springs 
and aclearstreamarecloseby. Warm, tepid and 
cold water baths, from natural and medicinal 
springs, are supplied flee to boarders. A pour- 
ing stream and shower bath, of tepid, mineral 
wacer, is one of the most decidedly beneficial 
as well as enjoyable features of the bathing de- 
partment. 

We are aware of no more justly celebrated 
springs in California. Across the foot-bridge, 
which spans the creek a few steps from the ho- 
tel, is the "Magnesia spring." It has a large 
flow of tepid water, which, although slightly 
disagreeable to the taste, is decidedly agreeable 
to the health of many. A little further along 
is the "Magic spring," the water of which is 
slightly warm, but sufficiently impregnated with 
magnesia, soda, lime, iron and other ingredi- 
ents, to render it tolerably palatable. This is 
freely drank by visitors, especially before eat- 
ing. It has made remarkable cures from rheu- 
matism, kidney and nervous diseases, and there 
are many who will bear decided testimony to 
its wonderful restorative powers. It supplies a 
large flow of water for the "pouring" and other 
baths. The "Dutch" spring comes out of a rock 
a little further down the creek, about 50 rods 
from the hotel. This gives a small volume of 
cooler water, highly charged with iron, etc., 
with a slight after taste, resembling coal-oil. 
This is also a choice spring and the favorite of 
many. Most extensively patronized is the Soda 
spring, situated on the opposite side and more 
nearly in front of the hotel. Its water is al- 
most universally popular with both pleasure and 
health seekers. It is also renowned for its cura- 
tive qualities. Large quantities of it have 
been bottled and distributed far and near to 
those who, from time to time, have become ac- 
quainted with its restorative virtues and palat- 
able taste. It holds its strength and flavor in 
a remarkable degree when transported, and 
ought, in time, to become a popular drink 
abroad. While if is necessary for persons to 
visit these springs in order to fairly realize the 
advantages of the place, it is pleasant for the 
writer to be able to say that the proprietress, 
Mrs. Astoria C. Goods, succeeds admirably in 
rendering to her numerous and worthy class of 
guests pleasant and homelike accommodations, 
in a degree affording general satisfaction to 
them and credit to herself. 

"Highland" post-office, located in the hotel, 
is a real convenience. Mails arrive in 10 hours 
from San Francisco daily, via Cloverdale. Vis- 
itors by this route have 27 miles of staging over 
a grand and picturesque route. They can re- 
turn via St. Helena mountains and Calistoga, 
if they desire further views of wonderful and 
delightful scenery in Lake and Napa counties. 



Horticultural Society Meeting. 

The last meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society, held June 24th, was well attended and 
interesting. We have already given our read- 
ers the essays of Mr. Coates on peaches and the 
report of the committee on plants wor,th trying 
in this State. The minutes of the meeting yield 
a few other points of general interest. 

The chair was occupied by E. H. Rixford un- 
til the arrival of Vice-President Webster. Joel 
Russel, of Haywards, was elected a regular 
member. Copies of the Journal of the Horti- 
cultural Society of Seine-et-Oise, France, and 
of the Meteorological Observations of the Ade- 
laide Observatory were received. 

Exhibits of peaches were made by J. Shinn 
and Leonard Coates. After the reading of Mr. 
Coates' essay (printed in Rural of June 2) J. 
Shinn made some remarks on peaches. Con- 
cerning the extra early ones he pronounced the 
Beatrice good. Briggs' May, Alexander and 
Amsden ripened so nearly alike that he could 
hardly distinguish between them. Briggs' 
May may have been a trifle earliest. Alex- 
ander is largest, but he considered Amsdem's 
June best of all for quality but small in size. 
The Waterloo he found sweet and good, per- 
haps, all things considered, the best of all the 
extra early peaches. 

Mr. Shinn named a succession of tine yellow 
peaches, curling little or not at all, and ripen- 
ing in the following order: Early Crawford, 
Foster, Richmond, Mary's Choice, Sueque- 
hanna, Honest Abe, Jones' Seedling, Piquet's 
Late, Smocks' Late (Beers' Strain) and Solway. 
All these are large yellow freestones, and none 
of them curl enough to hurt. Mr. Rock ap- 
proved the list. 

Ou the subject of prunes, J. Lewelling, in an- 
swer to inquiries, stated that according to his ex- 
perience, the best prunes to plant were the Petite 
("Agen, German, Fellengberg and "Sacramento 



prune." He wonld plant these for profit. _ To 
prevent prunes dropping from the trees he irri- 
gates thoroughly from June 15th to June 20th, 
and the fruit does not fall. He would plant 
prune trees 20 ft. apart and might grow some 
small stuff between the trees at first. The 
plum or prune worked on cherry plum stock 
makes a very vigorous tree and does not sucker. 

Mr. Lewelling considered the white nectar- 
ine as one of the coming fruits for canning, and 
it is quite important that propagators of new 
varieties should give some attention to securing 
the best white nectarine. 

J. M. Hixson made some forcible remarks 
concerning the need of a uniform package for 
prunes and other dried fruit, and urged the so- 
ciety to agree upon some size or sizes, that all 
might adopt it who chose. On motion a com- 
mittee was appointed to examine and report 
upon this subject at the next meeting. W. H. 
Jessup, of Haywards; A. T. Hatch, of Cordelia, 
and J. M. Hixson, of S. F., were appointed 
such committee. 

The subjects chosen for nert meeting were 
"Apricots," to be opened by Dr. Strentzel, and 
"Mildew on Fruit Trees," upon which it is 
hoped to hear from corresponding member, J. 
P. Moore, of San Rafael. 

The next meeting will be held July 29th, at 
the Academy of Sciences' hall, S. F. 

At Highland Springs. — N. P. Perine, of 
East Oakland, returned from a visit of several 
weeks at this noted watering place, in Lake 
county, on Tuesday last. Among those from 
Alameda county who have recently visited these 
springs may be mentioned Mrs. W. J. Owen 
and family, Miss L. Groffelman and A. T. 
Dewey and family, of Oakland, and Mrs. Wm. 
M. Mendenhall, of Livermore. A. C. Dietz 
and family, Capt. Travers and other friends 
are camping there for the fifth season. They 
have six tents and a very complete outfit for a 
two months' stay. Mr. Dietz leisurely hnnts in 
the adjoining mountains, and, in addition to 
plenty of smaller game, has already captured 
five fine deer the present season. A masquerade 
ball was given at the hotel on the first of July, 
in which several Oaklanders sustained promi- 
nent parts. The whole was a real enjoyable 
country affair, and an entire success. — Oakland 
Tribune. 



Director of the Mint Burchard has left 
Washington to be absent about two months. 
He will visit San Francisco and the Territories 
for the purpose of attending to the collection of 
statistics of the product of gold and silver. 

Highland Amusements. 

The fun-loving visitors at Highland Springs took it 
into their heads to get up a masquerade ball, and with 
the ready assistance of the popular proprietress, they 
made a pronounced "success" of it on the evening of the 
first. No more "perfectly wonderful and ludicrou9" cos- 
tumes could have been secured for a San Francisco affair 
thau seemed magically produced at Highland. The aim 
was to have a strictly temperate, old-fashioned country 
dance, with all the innocent enjoyment possible, and 
there wasn't a bit of fun left out of the programme from 
9 p. M. to daylight. The Lakeport Bee gives an interest- 
ing account, over one column in length, from which we 
quote the list of the characters and by whom sustained; 
also the guests present: 

"Somnambulist and Chambermaid," Mrs. S. N. Joseph; 
"Squaw," Mrs. W. J. Owen; "The Press," Miss Alice 
Owen; "Wood Nymph," Miss Mesi Mason; "Irish Belle," 
Miss Dixie Mason; "Hotel Gazette," Mrs. A. C. Dietz; 
'■Witch of the Highlands," Miss J. R. Harrell; "Night, 1 ' 
Mrs. A. D. Wilcox; "Roman Belles," Misses Elston and 
Alden; "Twin Babies," Misses Annie Kellogg and Alice 
Dietz; "Princess," Mrs. J. C. Goods; "French Gentleman," 
Mrs. E. W. Joy; "German Flower Girl," Mrs. A.W. Dowe; 
"DoDa Maria," Mrs. R D.Beauvelt; "Ethiopian Countess,' 
Miss Graffelman; "Sitting Bull," Judge S. C. Hastings; 
"Grandmother," N. P. Perine; "His Satanic Majesty," 
Chas. Riffenberg^'Negress," C. H. E. Hardin; "Sheet and 
Pillow Case," W. J. Gavigan; "Roman Emperor," A. C. 
Dietz; "Aunt Dinah," E. W. Joy; "Topsy," Charlie 
Dietz; "Priest," Frank Owen. 

Guests -J no. K Cook, L. L. Bowen, A. C. Jackson, Mr. 
Lee and family, Mr. Jenny and family, Mrs. Judge Mc- 
Henry and daughter, J. H. Fayord, Ed. Conn, Fran k 
Greene, W. D. McGee, Dr. J. S. Downes and wife, Joseph 
Levi, W. Slocum, W. D. Dunn, D. Backer. Wm. 
Poole L. E. Mohr, Max Dunn, A. T. Dewey, Mrs. Lufkin, 
W. H. Guild, Mrs. J. A. Hardin, Miss Ethel Hardin, Miss 
Eliza MeXeal, Mrs. Mason, Miss Maud Mason. 



TRUSTWORTHY TESTIMONY. 

Some Vital Facte Concerning the Welfare 
of the Community Made Public. 

What Cailfornlana Say, and How Their 
Statements are Confirmed. 

(San Francisco Chronicle.) 

No fact has been made more plainly manifest during 
the past few years than the important effect, which cli- 
matic changes have upon the constitutions of American 
people. The steady-going habits of Europe tend to longer 
lives but the influence of European climate is towards 
apoplectic and other similar diseases. On the other 
hand, the bustling habits of the American people neces- 
sarily tax the nerve centers and other important portions 
of the body, while severe and sudden changes of the at- 
mosphere add still more to the difficulties to be over- 
come. , . , 

San Francisco, as well as all cities in this and more 
southern latitudes, is especially subject to these difficul- 
ties and the necessity for the utmost care, particularly 
at this season of the year, is clearly manifest to everyone 
who stops to reflect. These facts are especially true with 
reference to the human kidneys and liver, and the alarm- 
ing increase of Bright's disease and all minor Kidney 
difficulties has caused this subject to be a theme 
of almost universal conversation. Knowing these 
facts and in order that our readers might be more 



thoroughly informed upon the subject, a representative 
of this paper has taken pains to collect some new and im- 
portant data, which Is herewith presented: Having 
learned of a remarkable illustration of the subject under 
consideration, a call was made upon Mrs. N. H. D. Mason, 
at 37 Liberty street, who, upon being questioned, said: 

" For a long time my daughter had suffered with Albu- 
maria. and she was treated by the best physicians in this 
city and in Oakland, but they failed to afford her any re- 
lief. When odema of the lower extremities set in, we 
were in despair, and considered her disease incurable; in 
fact we felt that her case was utterly hopeless. Thinking 
that a change of climate might in some degree alleviate 
her sufferings, and being the only remaining effort tha* I 
could make in her behalf, I started with her for Southern 
California. While on the steamer we met with a Dr. 
Showerman. of New York, who earnestly recommended 
the use of Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure for my 
daughter's disease, and told of several remarkable cures 
that had come under bis observation in the East from its 
use. Although strongly opposed to the use of proprie- 
tary medicines, and having but little faith in their effi- 
cacy, I was persuaded by the Doctor's faitb in this rem- 
edy to at least give it a trial. She commenced to im- 
prove after taking the first three bottles, and from that 
time on her improvement was rapid, until we now con- 
sider ber cured. Har general health is now excellent, 
and I feel that tco much cannot be said in favor of this 
remarkable remedy which has done so much for her." 

At this point of the Interview a young lady of bright 
and animated appearance entered the room and addressed 
a few words to Mrs. Mason. After her departure Mrs. 
M.said: 

"That was my daughter, who was once an invalid; does 
she look very sick now I* 

The reporter expressed his surprise that a person once 
so hopelessly ill could ever present such a fresh and 
healthy appearance, but was assured that such was the 
case. 

" Do you feel, Mrs. Mason, that you owe her recovery 
entirely to the use of this remedy ? " 

" I do, most assuredly. I do not think she could have 
lived six months bad I not used it; and so great is my 
faith in it that I unhesitatingly recommend it to all who 
are in any degree suffering from klndey or liver com- 
plaint." 

A call was then made on Mr. C. A. Page, No. 1305 
Leavenworth street. 

"I understand, Mr. Page, that you have had some ex- 
perience regarding the effects of our climate upon the 
kidneys and liver. Can you give any information on the 
subject?" " Yes sir; I have suffered severely from an af- 
fection of the kidneys and bladder, and I have no hesita- 
tion in stating the facts. As the world grows wiser peo- 
ple learn that they have kidneys, and that they must 
take care of them. This climate renders us liable to con- 
stant colds, and a cold will certainly affect the kidneys if 
they are at all weak. Three years ago I was taken sick 
with pains in my back, lo'ns and kidneys. The doctors 
pronounced it Scia'ica and treated me for that disease; 
out when I commenced to pane gravel they decided that It 
was kidney and bladder difficulty. Two years ago I was 
in the French hospital in this city and had the operation 
of lithotripsy perturmed, gravel and fungus being taken 
from me at that time. I have consulted with the best 
physicians and visited all the mineral springs, but noth- 
ing gave me any permanent relief. I suffered continual 
pain; I have spent over $4,000 in doctor's fees and travel- 
ing expenses, but all the time the disease seemed to be 
making progress and getting a stronger hold on me. My 
weight was reduced from 186 to 120 pounds. A friend 
knowing my condition advised me to try Warner's Safe 
Kidney and Liver Cure. Anxious to get relief, if nothing 
more, I concluded to try it. Two days Liter commencing 
it I experienced decided relief and continued to grow 
better from that time." 

" Then you think you owe your present health to this 
cure?" 

" Yes, sir. It has done more for me than all the doc- 
tors or springs combined. I consider it the greatest med- 
icine of the age for Kidney and Bladder difficulty." 

The next person visited was Mr. Charles E. Burgan. 
No. 1211 Broadway, who said: "For six years my wife 
has been troubled with derangement of the kidneys. She 
was all the time steadily growing worse, and at times was 
completely prostrated. Herlimbi had become stiff, and 
the desire for natural relief was as often as every ten min- 
utes. For the last ten months her sufferings have been 
beyond description, and she has often prayed to die. I 
have employed six different physicians during this time, 
some of them the most prominent in this city, but they 
could give her no help. One day I found a pamphlet of 
Warner's Safe Remedies in my front yard, and took it in 
to my wife. She had formerly lived in. Albany, N. Y., 
and recognized some of the names attached to the testi- 
monials in it. She thought she would like to try the 
medicine, and so I got her a bottle of Safe Kidney and 
Liver Cure, and also, a bottle of Safe Nervine. It took 
three doses of Nervine the first night to put her to sleep, 
the next night only one. The Safe Kidney and Liver 
Cure has relieved her so much that she can now sleep all 
night without taking anything. She has taken three bot- 
tles of Kidney and Liver Cure, and now feels perfectly 
well, although she will continue to use it for some time to 
completely eradicate the disease from her system. I feel 
that the results of such a wonderful cure should be 
known to the thousands throughout the land that are suf- 
fering from Kidney and Liver Complaint, and any one suf- 
fering from such compUint, or wishing to know more of 
the results of this remedy, is at liberty to call upon me, 
or address me upon the subject, and I will cheerfully tell 
them all it has done for my wife." 

Mr. J. L. Knapp, of Santa Clara, said : "I was taken 
sick with catarrhal or acute inflammation of the bladder. 
My sufferings were Intense and I was often obliged to get 
up from 10 to 15 times during the night, when my agony 
would be so great that I was almost bent double. I em- 
ployed the best medical aid. both homoepathic and allo- 
pathic, but was prononnced by all incurable. They said I 
could not live long, and I thought myself that my time 
on earth was drawing to a close and gave up all hopes of 
recovery. My son in St. Louis, knowing how sick I was, 
sent me some papers containing reports from several of 
the St. Louis leading physicians and testimonials from a 
number of citizens concerning the cures resulting from 
the use of Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure, and 
uiged me to try it. I got some of the medicine and im- 
mediately commenced its use. After taking a few bottles 
I found myself rapidly improving until I can now say I 
am cured." 

" What do your physicians say about your recovery r 
" Only a short time ago I met Dr. Carpenter and said 
to him, 'What do you think of the effect of Warner's Safe 
Kidney and Liver Cure?' He answered. 'I think that med- 
icine one of a thousand, the way it has acted in your 
case.' " 

In an interview with Mr. William Sessor, of Stockton, 
the followiug facts peculiar to his case were stated : 

" Four years ago I was obliged to give up my business 
on account of sickness, which soon proved to be a compli- 
cation of Kidney and Liver complaints. My liver was 
grea'ly enlarged and appeared to be growing hard, until 
at last it felt like a stone. It also appeared growing fast 
to my side. My right side was almost paralyzed. My 
body was so bloated I could not wear my clothes, and I 
was confined to my bed. My sufferings were intense; the 
best physicians pronounced me incurable, and said it 
was only a questien of time when I must die While in 
this condition I commenced the use of Warner's Hafo 
Kidney and Liver Cure. The first bottle gave me relief, 
and I continued to take it, and steadily improved Tbe 
swelling gradually grew less, and the hardness to leave 
my liver, until now it has reached its normal condition. 
My right side is again strong. If it had not been for this 
medicine I shoulofnow be in my grave." 

But one conclusion can be drawn from the above facts 
by any fair minded individual. That conclusion must be 
that while Kidney and Liver difficulties are so alarmingly 
increasing, still there is a safe and certain means by 
which they con be avoided; or, having been contracted, a 
way by which they can positively be cured. 



Advices from Venzuela are to the 30th, ult 
It is positively asserted that a revolution has 
broken out in the interior. Pres. Guzman 
Blanco has nearly 10,000 men under arms. 
Pres. Boas is reported quite ill. 



Our Agents, 

Oik Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We Intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

J. F. Osborne — San Francisco. 

A. C. Knox— Napa and Lake counties. 
G. W. McGriw— Santa Clara county. 
M. P. Owen- Santa Cruz county. 

J. W. A. Wrioht— Merced, Tulare and Kern couutles 
Jarsd C. Hoao— California 

B. W. Crowell— Yuba and Sutter counties. 

D. W. Ksi,LKHsa — Bolano and Sacramento counties. 

Geo. W. Fahrion— Plumas county. 

Gko. H. Hopkins — Amador county. 

A. Lbonakd Miyir— Utah and Idaho Ter. 



Attend to This. 

Our subscribers will find the date they have paid 'o 
printed on the label of their paper. If It is not correct 
or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de- 
S'red), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot bs responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 



Sewing Machines. 

Several first-class styles, good as new, will be sold at a 
bargain. Call on, or address H. F. D. , this office. 



Important additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria U 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. Tbe number of sea lions Is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances The floral 
department is replete and the wild animals in good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 



How to Stop this Paper. —It is not a herculean task to 
stop this paper. Notify the publishers by letter. If it 
comes beyond the time desired, you can depend upon it 
we do not know that the subscriber wants it stopped. So 
oe sure and send us notice by letter. 



3. p. JACKET 




Note— Our quotations are for WVduesday, uot Saturday 


the date which the paper bears 





Weekly Market Review. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE, BTO. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, July IS, 1881. 
There is a little more interest manifest in the pro- 
duce trade. Ships are coming in and Wheat shipping 
will soon revive. Choice lots are now reported scarce, as 
holders of such have probably resolved to let the inquiry 
improve before bringing it forward. The general opinion 
seems to favor an improvement of values before long. 
Abroad the markets are quiet. The latest is the follow- 
ing : 

Liverpool, July 12.— Good to choice California Wheat, 
9s6d@9s 9d. 

Freights and Charters. 

The latest charters reported are the British ship Thoinat 
Stephen*, 1,507 tons. Wheat to Cork, £3 7s 0d, prior to 
arrival; British iron ship Knight of the darter, 1,4M to us, 
Wheat to Cork, £3 15s, prior to arrival; German bark 
Cardinal, 358 tons, Wheat to Cork or tbe Continent, £* 
2s, spot charter; British iron ship Scottish Minstrel, 1,672 
tons, Wheat to Cork, £2 15s, prior to arrival. 

The Foreiam Review. 

London, July 11.— The Mark Lane Express, In its re- 
view of the British Grain trade for the past week, says: 
The sudden and violent reduction of temperature about 
the middle of the past week has unfavorably influenced 
the maturing crops. White frost was reported on Friday 
night. The copious rainfall, however, has greatly favored 
the spring-sown crops. In London the supply of Wheat 
has amounted to only 1,643 quarters during the week, and 
then sold quietly at unchanged prices. The tone of the 
trade has not been influenced on account of the smallnesjs 
of business. At a few provincial markets improved rates 
were obtainable. Foreign continues quiet, but Is not. ma- 
terially changed. There was less pressure to sell Friday 
despite the increased snpply, the greater half of which 
was American, The floating bulk has decreased 111,000 
quarters. The supply of off-coast consists of 20 cargoes. 
Until Friday only four cargoes were reported sold during 
the present week. Thirty cargoes are due, mostly Whit* 
Wheat. The forwarding trade has been very quiet. The 
flour supply is small, the demand weaker and the prices 
firm; foreign has been firm, and certain grades rather 
dearer. Native and foreign Barley and Oats have been 
slow of saleftand unchanged. Maize was also slow and 
unchanged. The sales of English Wheat in the past week 
were 16,141 quarters, at 4Cs 8d, against 15,753 quarters, at 
43s 9d, in the corresponding week of last year. 

Eastern Grain and Pip vision Markets. 

New York, July 8.— The business of the week has beeu 
broken into by the public excitement over the Washing- 
ton news, the subsequent holiday and the excessive beat. 
The consequence was a reduced volume of trade and some 
irregularity in prices, but with a speculative demand in 
several staples. The general feeling of confidence in the 
mercantile community is unshaken. The Grain market 
was active and firm. There was some excitement in 
Wheat, and advanced prices. Lard made a further ad- 
vance, but closed weak at somewhat lower prices, although 
the decline is reported as but temporary. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, July 9.— The demand, at good prices, continue* 
well sustained. The sales of the woek have been 220,000 
fbs which may be considered a large business from the 
broken week and Interruption of trade generally, caused 
by the attempted assassination of the President. Ohio 
and Pennsylvania fleeces, XX, have been selling at 42<*4Sc; 
No. 1, 4:. •»;.-. Michigan X ranges from SOtfMlc; No. 1, 
*:>■■• i The priucipal demand has been lor combing 
and delaine selections. Sales of fine delaiDe have been 
345,000 Bi«, at 44<3*5c for Michigan; 45@46c for Ohio. 
Unwashed combing has been selling at SS@34c for medium ; 
25c for coarse. In unwashed fleece* business has been 
fair, and there have been sales of some 650,000 lbs at 26® 
S2ic for fine; 29@36c for medium. California, after large 
transactions for some weeks, has been quiet, with no 
sales of any importance. Pulled Wool* are in light stock 
and steady demand, the price* indicating no change. 



July 16, 1881.J 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FB1SS. 



45 



Aa8tralia.11 baa been more inquired for. Sales of be«y at 
38c; good at 42f@45c; Montevideo, 34<§36c per lb. There 
have been sales of Cape, in bond, at 20c and duty paid, 
and 32c for Cordova carpet Wool. New Wool is arriving 
quite freely; receipts of domestic have been upward of 
6,000 lbs for the week, and the market is now well sup- 
plied with all grades and qualities. 

Nbw York, July 8.— Wool has been in good request at 
about previous rates, the new clip being taken up about 
ag fast as it comes to market. 

BAGS — The corner seems to have more in it than was 
supposed. Dealers report an active demand and have 
screwed up the prices another notch during the week, 
and promise to give them another twist. Dealers' agents 
gay that farmers supplies of Bags are less than usual this 
year, and consequently more must be purchased. We 
trust this will not be the case again when Bags range near 
8c all winter. 

BARLEY— Barley has been quiet and sales small this 
week. We note 1800 sks good Feed sold at 95c. 

BEANS— Large Butter Beans are 10c below the outside 
rate, being now $1.30 # ctl. 

CORN— There is little doing in Corn and rates are ur.- 
ehanged. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter supplies have been suffl" 
cient and trade has proceeded without change, except, 
perhaps, an occasional fancy lot at 27Jc The rule is 26@ 
27c. Cheese is unchanged. 

EGGS— California Eggs are lc better, and fresh Utah 
Eggs are also advanced. 

FEED— Hay is unchanged. Oil Cake Meal has ad- 
vanced to $24.601325 per ton. 

FRESH MEATS — Prices have advanced, as shown in 
onr list. Pork is higher and scarce. Spring Lamb has 
also advanced. Mutton showed upward tendency a day 
or two ago. but is easier to-day. 

FRUITS— Peaches have sold well from day to day. The 
canners paid 85c for Yellow Crawford some days— quite a 
contrast to the 25c of 1870. Choice Apples are high to- 
day. Pears are cheaper and Blackberries arc abundant 
and very low. Raspberries are doing better. 

HOPS— Hops are still 20@25c in small lots to brewers. 
Emmet Wells, in his New York circular of July 1st, says : 

A fair trade hae been doing this week considering the 
advanced stage of the season. Prices show no alteration, 
23 cents still being the figure asked and obtained for a 
choice article of the last growth. The reports from the 
districts are still somewhat conflicting; some making the 
vine look good, whi'e others report it backward and 
spindling. The continued cool weather no doubt causes 
a temporary check to its growth, but a change to warmer 
temperature would soon work wonders. Complaints of 
grubs and worms come from Cooperstown, Cobleskill, 
Oueonta and Hamilton this State. From Wisconsin and 
Michigan our reports are favorable, as also are those 
from the Pacific coast. A fire occurred in a warehouse 
on Tuesday night 011 Greenwich street, this city, in 
which 300 bales of Hops were cremated. 

OATS— Oats are low and dull. Values have dropped 
off considerably during the week. 

ONIONS— Onions are doing better; Reds have sjld up 
to 85c, and Silverskinsup to $1 per ctl. 

POTATOES— Potatoes have advanced to Jl $ ctl for 
the best, both in sacks and boxes; from this sales have 
been made down to 75c y ctl, according to quality. 

PROVISIONS— Medium and Light Bacon are higher 
and Lard has improved notably. Trade is quite ac- 
tive for the interior, as usual during the harvesting sea- 
son. 

POULTRY— Roosters and Turkeys are higher. 

VEGETABLES— Cabbage, Cucumbers and Corn are 
higher; Summer Squash has also sold better. Tomatoes 
have fluctuated considerably. On Monday they rose to 
$1.25 W box, but have receded again to 37J@50c. 

WHEAT— The market is quiet and prices unchanged. 
The best Wheat is held out of the market and is scarce. 
Poorer qualities are in large supply. We note sales : 
1,800 sks Milling and 60 tons Shipping, Port Costa de- 
livery, $1.42$; 8,000 and 250 sks No. 2, $1.37 j; 1,500 sks 
do, Port Costa, and 1,600 sks do, $1 35; 500 and 360 sks off 
grade, Port Costa, $1.30, and 300 sks do, $1,271 per ctl. 

WOOL— Prices are unchanged and the market is quiet. 
Good Wools are firm. 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

[WHOLES ALB. 1 

Wednesday m.. July 13. 1881. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, bsk — 25 @— 30 

do, Astracan.bx— 50 @ 1 10 

Apricots — 75 @ 1 00 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 @ 5 00 
Canteloupes.crt. 1 50 @ 2 50 
Cherries, chest. . 9 00 @10 00 
Cocoanuts, 100.. 6 00 to 7 00 
Orab Apples. . . .— 50 @— 65 

Cranberries, bbl to 

Currants, chest. 4 50 (ft 00 

do, black. to 

Figs, bx — 60 to- 75 

Gooseberries. . . . to 

do, English . ® 

Grapes — 75 @ 1 25 

Limes. Mex. ... 8 00 to 9 00 
do, Cal, box. . 5 00 «* 6 00 
Lemons, Cal bx 2 00 to 3 00 
Sicily, box.... 8 50 to 9 00 

Australian.... to 

Oranges. Cal. bx.l 00 to 1 50 
do, Tahiti M 20 00 @22 50 

do, Mexican. — — to 

do, Loreto... to — — 

Peaches, bx — 50 to— 75 

do, bsk — 35 @— 70 

do, Crawford — 75 @ 1 00 

Pears, bsk — 25 to— 50 

do, bx - 50 ®— 75 

do. Bartlatt. — 75 to 1 00 
Pineapples, doz 6 00 <<* 8 00 

Plums, bx — 40 <0- 

Prunes.German — 60 to 1 00 
Quinces, bx - to— — 

Blackber's. ch't. 2 75 to 4 00 
Raspberries, ch't 6 00 to 8 *0 
Strawber's, ch't.. 4 00 @ 5 00 

Sugar Cane, bdle to 

Wat'rmel'ns.100 16 00 @25 00 

DRIED FRUIT. 
Apples, sliced, lb— 6 to— 6} 
do, quartered... — 5 to— 6 

Apricots — 18 to- 20 

Blackberries — 13|@— 16 

Citron — 28 to— 30 

Dates... — 9®— 10 



Figs, pressed — 7 _ 

do. loose — 54GS— 6 

Pt aches — 10 to— 13 

do pared — 18 <g— 20 

Pears, sliced....— 9 @ — 10 

do peeled — 9 @— 11 

Plums - 5 (<*— 6 

Pitted — 14 to- 15 

Prunes — 11 to— 13 

Raisins, Cal, bx. 1 25 (a) 1 50 
do, Halves.... 1 75 @ 2 00 
do. Quarters. . 2 00 @ 2 25 

Eighths 2 25 @ 2 50 

Zante Currants.— 8 to— 10 

vegetables: 

Asparagus, bx.. @ 1 00 

Artichokes, doz. to— 10 

Beets, ctl @— 75 

Beans, String... to — II 

do, Wax to— l] 

do, Fountain.. <a>— lj 

Cabbage, 100 lbs— 75 to 1 00 

Carro's, sk — 40 to— 50 

Cauliflower, doz— 40 @ - 50 
Cucumbers, bx.— 50 @ — 60 
Egg Plant, bx.. 1 25 to 1 50 

Garllo, lb <g— 1 

Green Corn, doz. — 10 to — 15 

Green Peas, lb.. to 

do Sweet..— 1J<5— 2! 
Gr'n Pepp'rs.sk.— 40 to— 50 

Lettuce, doz.... — 10 to 

75 1 Mushrooms, lb.. to 

Okr.t. bx 1 00 @ 1 25 

Parsnips, lb to— j 

Horseradish & 

Rhubarb, box. . . — 25 to— 50 

do, cnest.. @ 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, ton @15 00 

do Summer, bx— 35 to— 40 

Sprouts, lb to — 2 

Tomatoes bx...— 25 @— 35 
do, River.— 31\to- 50 

Turnips, ctl — 60 @— 75 

Rutabaga @— 75 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co.] 

San Francisco, July 13. 3 p. m 

Silver, \. 

Gold Bars, '890(3910. Silver Bars, 10@18 # cent, dis- 
count. 

Exchange on New York, par; London, 49J@49j; Paris, 
5.20 francs $) dollar; Mexican dollars, " 
New York (4 per cent), 116J. 



General Merchandise. 



CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 16 @18 

Paraffine 20 @— 

Patent Sperm 25 —28 

CANNED GOODS. 

Assrtd Pie Fruits. 

21 1b cans 2 25 

Table do 3 5C @ — 

Jams and Jellies. 3 15 to — 
Pickles, hf gal.... 3 25 @ — 
Sardines, qr box. .1 67 @ — 

Hf Boxes 2 50J@1 90 

Merry. Faull & Co s 
Preserved Beef 

21b, doz 3 25 @3 — 

do 4 lb doz 6 50 @6 — 

Preserved Mutton 

2 tb, doz 3 25 <»3 50 

Beef Tongue 5 75 @6 00 

Preserved Ham, 

21b. doz 5 50 @5 60 

Deviled Ham, lib, 

doz 3 00 @3 50 

do Ham J lb doz 2 50 @ — 
Boneless Pigs Feet 

3tt* 3 50 (893 75 

2 lbs 2 75 to — 

Sniced Fillets 2 tbs3 50 @ — 
Head Oheese31bs.3 50 to — 

« •►»!. Jobbing. 
Australian, ton. — @ 8 50 

Coos Bay 6 50 @ 7 00 

Bellingham Bay 

Seattle 7 50 

Cumberland 

Mt Diablo 

Lehigh 

Liverpool 

West Hartley.. 

Scotch 

Scranton 

Vancouver Id. .. 

Wellington 

Charcoal, sack. . 

Coke, bush 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Id lb. — @ 

Costa Rica 13J@ 

Guatemala 13^@ 

Java 24 to 

Manilla 15 to 

Ground, in cs... 22J(* 

FISH. 
San'to Dry Cod. to • 

do in cases . . — — to — 
Eastern Cod...— 7 to 
Salmon, bbls... 7 00 @ 7 50 

Hf bbls 3 50 to 4 00 

1 lb cans 1 121(3 1 22 J 

Pkld Cod, bbls. <a> 

Hf bbls @ 

Mackerel, No. 1 

Hf bbls 9 50 (rt 10 00 

In Kits 1 75 @ 1 85 

Ex Mess 3 50 @ 4 00 

Pickled Herring. 

box 3 00 to 3 50 

Boston Smoked 

Herring 66 to - 70 

LIME, etc. 
Plaster. Colden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 to 3 25 
Land Plaster, 

ton 10 00 @ 12 60 

Lime. Snta Cruz 

bbl 125@ 150 



wholesale. 

Wednesday m., July 13, 1881. 



2 25 
4 50 



@ 5 00 



*1 00 
il 10 



60 





Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 00 @ 

Portland..... 4 00 @ 
NAILS. 

Assrtd sizes, keg. 

OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot.No.l.l 00 

Castor. No. 1 1 00 

do. No. 2 1 00 @ — 

Baker's A A — tol 30 

Olive. Plagnoil...5 25 <g>5 75 

Possel 4 75 <»5 25 

Palm, lb 9 to — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl 70 (ft — 

Boiled 75 @ — 

Cocoanut 60 @ 

China nut, cs 68 w 

Sperm 1 40 @ 

Coast Whales 35 @ 

Polar — to 

Lard 

Petroleum (110") 
Petroleum (1£0°) 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead. 

Whiting lji 

Putty 
Chalk 

Paris White 2|@ 

Ochre 

Venetian Red 

Averil mixd Paint 
gal 

White & Tints. .2 00 @2 00 
Green, Blue and 

Ch Yellow 3 00 (33 50 

Light Red 3 00 @3 50 

Metallic Roof . .1 30 @1 60 
RICE. 

China Mixed, lb. . 5 @ 55 

Hawaiian 5}@ 9 

SA LT. 
Cal. Bay, ton... 14* 00 @22 00 

Common 6 50 (814 00 

Carmen Id 14 00 @22 CO 

Liverpool tine. ..14 00 @20 CO 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 9 to 

Common brands.. 1 ' < r 

Fancy Brands 7 (j* 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 37i© 40 

Cassia 19 to 20 

Nutmegs 85 @ 90 

Pepper Grain 15 to 16 

Pimento 10 @ 20 

Mustard, Cal i lb 

Glass — (31 25 

SI «. tit, ETC. 

Cal Cube lb 

Powdered 

Fine Crushed 

Granulated 

Golden C 

Cal 8yrup, kgs 

Hawaiian Mol'sses 
TEA. 
Young Hyson, 
Moyune, etc. . . . 
Country pkd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 



10 



Japan, 1st quality. 



- @ 


13! 


- <». 


135 


— to 


13t 


- <s 


124 


- (3 


11} 


65 (ft 




25 <& 


30 


40 (3 


65 


35 to 


75 


30 (3 


35* 


27t(S 


32 


40 (T 


42 


25 @ 


in 



Domestic Produce. 



BEANS at PEAS 

Bay o. ctl 1 00 (31 15 

Butter 1 10 §1-30 

Castor 3 00 (83 50 

Pea 2 00 @2 30 

Red 85 to 874 

Pink 85 @ 874 

Small White 2 00 @2 30 

Lima 2 25 (&2 40 

Field Peas.blk eyel 40 (31 50 
do, green.. 1 35 @1 40 
BROOM CORN. 

Southern 5 to 34 

Northern 4 >« 6 

CHICCORV. 

California 4 (3 4} 

German 64@ 7 

DAIRY PROBl CE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb. 25 (3 27 

do Fancy Brands. — to 27 

Pickle Roll 26 @ 274 

Firkin, new 25 <§ 26 

Western 18 to 22 

New York — @ - 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, CaL, tb... 114(3 124 
do, boxed.... — @ 13 

EGOS. 

Cal. Fresh, doz... 23 to 26 

Ducks 19 to 20 

Oregon — to — 

Eastern, bp expr'ss 18 (8 19 

Pickled here —to — 

Utah 22J<g 23 

FEED. 

Bran, ton @14 00 

Corn Meal 24 00 (825 00 

Hay 6 50 (812 50 

Middlings (319 00 

Oil Cake Meal.. 24 50 (825 00 

Straw, bale — 40 @— 45 

FLOUR. 
Extra, City Mills.. 4 87J(85 00 
do, Co'ntryMills.4 25 (34 75 

do, Oregon 3 75 @1 374 

do, Walla Walla. 4 00 «*4 25 

Superfine 2 50 (83 25 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef. 1st qual'y.tb. 6 to 6J 

Second 54(8 6 

Third 44(3 5{ 

Mutton 3 to 3J 

Spring Lamb 4ito 5 

Pork, undressed.. b%to 61 

Dressed 8 to 

Veal 7 to 7J 

Milk Calves 7S<3 8 

do, choice.... Blto 9 
GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed. ctl.. 90 (3 95 
do, Brewing.. 1 10 'el 20 

Chevalier 1 15 (31 20 

do, Coast . 85 @ 95 

Buckwheat 1 60 (31 75 

Corn, White - tol 124 

Yellow 1 02J(8t 07f 

Small Round.... 1 05 tol 07. 

Oats 1 40 tol 47, 

Milling 1 50 (31 65 

Rye 1 374(81 45 

Wheat, No. 1 1 40 @1 45 

do, No. 2 1 35 tol 37J 

do. No. 3 1 10 @1 20 

Choice Milling.. — @1 45 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 19 to 20 

Wet salted 9(3 10 J 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 20 @ 24 

Honey in comb. . . 11 to 13 

do. No. 2 8 to 10 

Dark 5 to 6 

Extracted 6 @ 7 

HOPS. 

Oregon — to — 

California, new... 20 to 25 

Wash. Ter — to — 

Old Hops — @ — 

NUTS-Jobblng. 

Walnuts, Cal 8 to 9 

do. Chile... 74@ 8 
Almonds, hdshltb 8 to 10 

Soft shell 12 to 14 

Brazil 12 @ 14 



WHOLESALE.] 

Wednesday m., July 13, 1881. 



Pecans 13 to 16 

Peanuts 4 (3 5 

Filberts 15 @> 16 

ONIONS. 

Red 75 to 85 

Silver Skin 95 tol 00 

Oregon — @ — 

POTATOES. 

New 76 (31 00 

Petaluma, ctl... 

TomaleB 

Humboldt 

" Kidney 

11 Peachblow 

Jersey Blue 

Cuffey Cove.... 

River, red 

Sweet 

I'OHLTRY A 4; 4 ME. 

Hens, doz 5 50 to 7 00 

RoosterB 6 00 to 8 00 

Broilers 2 50 @ 4 50 

Ducks, tame, doz. 3 50 vr 4 50 

Mallard — @ — 

Sprig — @ — 

Teal — to — 

Widgeon — to — 

Geese, pair 1 00 @1 50 

Wild Gray, doz. — to — 

White do — <jci -r 

Turkeys 15 @ 19 

do, Dressed.... — @ — 

Snipe, Eng 2 60 (83 00 

do, Common.. 1 00 tol 25 

Quail, doz — @ — 

Rabbits 1 25 @1 50 

Hare 2 00 (82 50 

Venison — to — 

PROVISIONS. 
CaL Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 13}(8 135 

Medium 121(8 13 

Light 134"<8 14 

Lard 13 (8 144 

Cal. Smoked Beef. 10 to 161 

Shoulders 8J@ 84 

Hams, Cal 11 to 12 

Dupee's — (3 16 

Whittaker — to 16 

Royal — to 16 

Stewart 15 to 154 

Golden Gate U\to 154 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 15 to 17 

do Chile — @ — 

Canary 4 to 5 

Clover, Red 14 @ 15 

White 45 to 50 

Cotton «... — to 20 

Flaxseed "... 2t,to 3 

Hemp 7 to 8 

Italian Rye Grass.. 25 to — 

Perennial 25 @ — 

Millet, German 10 @ 12 

do, Common... 7 to 10 
Mustard, White... 3@ 4 

Brown 14(3 2 

Rape 3 (8 8 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @ 25 

2d quality 16 to 18 

Sweet V Grass — to 75 

Orchard 20 to 25 

Red Top — to 15 

Hungarian S 10 

Lawn 30 @ 40 

Mesquit 10 to 12 

Timothy 10 (3 11 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 6J@ 6J 

Refined 7j@ 8 

WOOI* ETC. 

SPRING— 1880. 

Oregon, Eastern... 24 to 27 

do fine, heavy 21 to 24 

SPRING— 1881. 

San Joaquin, choice 19 @ 21 

do fair.. 17 to I84 

Southern Coast 20 (8 21 

Slightly Burry. . . 184C* 20 

Burry and Seedy. 17 to 18 

Northern choice... 25 (ft 30 

Burry or Seedy 22 @ 25 

Sonoma. Mendo- 
cino, Humboldt, 

fancy 31 to 324 



July 6 


July 7 


July 8 


July 9 I July 10i July 11 


July 12 


30.067 


30.094 


29 997 


30.011 30.014 


29.969 


29 853 


29.990 


29.957 


29.957 


29. 966 [ 29. 954 1 


29.849 


29.806 




MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM THERMOMETER. 


65 


72 1 


66 1 


61 I 63 1 


72 


I 66 


54 


54 | 


53 | 


53 I 62 


52 


1 55 






MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 






70.3 


61 1 


74.7 | 


79.7 | 82 I 


73 


1 71.7 






PREVAILING WIND, 






8W 


w : 


w 


W | SW I 


W 


1 W 




WIND— MILES TRAVELED. 






349 


242 | 


361 I 


474 | 340 I 


256 


1 273 






STATE OF WEATHER. 






Fair. 


Clear. | 


Fair. I 


Fair. 1 Fair. 


Clear. 


1 Clear. 



Bags and Bagging. 

[JOBBING prices.) 

Wednesday m., July 13, 1881. 



Eng Standrd Wheat. .I0J(311 

Cal Manufacture 

Hand Sewed, 22x36. 10}(811 

20x36 94@ 9J 

23x40 12 @13 

24x40 124@134 

Machine Swd 22x36.104(811 

Flour Sks, halves 9 @10J 

Quarters 55(3 6{ 

Eighths. 3JC8 4} 

Hessian, 60 inch — @12 



45 inch 9}@ 94 

40 inch 8j(5 8| 

Wool Sks Hand Swd 

34 lb — 047 

4 lb do 52i<855 

Machine Sewed — (349J 

Standard Gunnies 13S@H 

Bean Bags 6J(3 7 

Twine, Detrick's A... 324(835 
A A. 35 (9375 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco.— Week ending July 12, 1881. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST BAROMETER. 



RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 
I ! I I I I 

Total rain during the season, from July 1. 1881, inches. 



Commission Merchants. 



mm a 



J. P. HULME. 



Wool and Grain 

Con\missior\ Merchants. 

10 Davis Street, near Market, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Z2TLiber.il advances made on all consignments, and 
prompt personal attention given to all sales. 



DALTON & GRAY. 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers In all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Davis St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, 8 AN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



Send your Consig?iments to 




SAH FRANCISCO. 

The Oldest House. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants, 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



HATCH & BARCLAY, 

Corr\missior\ Merchants, 

(Members of San Francisco Produce Exchang 
30 California Street, San Francisco. 

GEO. F. COFFIN & CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

NO. 13 PINE STREET. 
UNION BLOCK, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Special attention given to Consignments of Grain and Fruit 



COSTIGAN, COHEN & CO. 
COMMISSION 

Grain and Wool Brokers. 

OFFICE ■ — 28 CaUfornia St., San Francisco 

REFERENCE— LAZARD FRERES V BANKERS. 



PETER MEYER. LOUIS M 

MEYER BROS. & CO., 

—IMPORTERS AND— 

Wholesale Grocers, 

—AND DEAXERS IN — 

TOBACCO AND CIGARS. 

412 FRONT STREET, 

Front Street Block, bet. Clay & Washington, San Francisco. 
SW Special attention given to country traders. jP2 
P. O. Box 1940. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

References. — Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell- 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.;C. W. Reed; Sacra- 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., Ss.n Francisco, Cil. 



NEW WOOL AND GRAIN 

Commission House, 

J. H.CONGDON&CO., 

No, 6 Steoart Street, S. F. 

To our friends and the Wool Growers and Farmers gen- 
erally, having established ourselves in a General Commis- 
sion Business for the sale of Wool, Grain, Hides, 
Pelts, Tallow, Alfalfa Seed, etc. A strict attention 
to the business, as well as a careful study of the interests of 
Wool Growers and Farmers, during an experience of 12 
years with the well-known house of Miller & Co., enables us 
to anticipate the wants of the consignors. 

We shall do a Commission Business exclusively, giving 
personal attention to all consignments. Our facilities for 
handling Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., being unsurpassed, 
we can make it an object for our friends to consign to us. 

We are prepared to make liberal cash advances on Con- 
signments, at a low rate of interest. To those who need the 
services of a Commission Merchant we would say, give us a 
trial, we will guarantee satisfaction. 

£W Send for circular to 

J. H. CONGDON & CO. 



^ (0 



(0 0) 
3 — 
O +j 



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AS N 

o ? 

l*. to 

jS 

< >* 
Of 

u§ 

IS 

I- * 



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a. » 

> (0 
V (0 

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S3 

& o 
o — 



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<o £ 
O 

o 

O 
+■» 

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CO a 



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C0.5- 

(0 ° 

. - (A 

C JQ 

£ 5 



ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 

716 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This House Is especially designed as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms. Gas and running water In each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant fire from 
6 A. M. to 7 P. M. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano — all free to guests. Price 
singlerooms per night, 50 cts.;per week, from $2.50 upward a 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
to corner Third and Howard. 



MENZO SPRING. 

Manufacturer of the Best 




Improved Artificial Limbs. 

OFFICE AND ADDRESS: 

9 Geary Street, Junction of 
Market and Kearny, 8. F. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Directors 
of The German Savings and Loan Society has declared a 
dividend on Term Deposits at the rate of five and one-tenth 
(5 1-10) per cent per annum, and on ordinary Deposits at the 
rate of four and one-fourth M) per cent, per annum, free 
from Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the 11th day 
July, 1881. By order, GEO. LETTE, Secretary- 

San Francisco, June 30. 1881. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California St., corner Webb. 
For the half year ending with June 30, 1881, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of five and one-tenth of ono 
per cent (5 1-10%) per annum on term deposits, and four and 
one-fourth of one per cent (41%) per annum on ordinary de- 

Sosits, free of Federal tax, payable on and after Wednesday, 
uly 13th. 1881. LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



I7A YOUR NAME on 70 W cIr8l IO» 

III So" Ty" . ""st artist Buuquet,, lltrdi, Oold 
III Chramit. Landscape. Water Sff»;.,«K.- no 1 allli.-. 
I W Agent s Complete Sample Book.aBc. Great varletr 

Advcrtiting and Bcvcl-Edgt Cards. Loue.t price, to dcakr. 

and printer.. IOO Samplrt Fancy Advertunng Card: 60c 
Addreu STEVENS BKOS., Box 22, tiortatord, Ct. 



46 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 16, 1&81. 




The Capital of this old and favorite companj' has been 
increas d to 

$600,000.00, 

All of which has now been fully paid up iu 1". S. Gold Coin 
and invested in such securities as are not liable to loss by 
fire, and are readily convertible into coin. 

Assets, S840, 004 .43 . 

Having but a very limited araouut exposed to loss iu this 
city, and its business being so conducted as to be free from 
serious loss by conflagration anywhere, the "Old " California 
is now prepared to otfar a quality of indemnity second to 
that offered by no other Insurance institution, whether do- 
mestic or foreign. C. T HOPKINS, President 

L. L. BROMWEU., Vice President 
ZENAS CROWKLL, Secretary. 
E. T. BARNES, Ass t. Secretary. 



FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE. 

The Thorousrhbred Roan Bull. New Year's 
Gift 178ia Bred by Cyrus Jones of San 
Jose, Cal. Calved, January 1, 1874. 

Got , by Grand Commander 13085 

1st dam, Duchess 9ch, by Baron Afrdrie '. 9176 

2d dam, Duchess 7th, by Duke of Airdrie 2743 

3d dam. Duchess, by D'otley 432 

4th dam, Henrietta, by Sir Alfred 969 

6th dam, Lucilla, by imported Romulus .....7.(12019) 

6th dam, Helen, by Bertram 2d (3144) 

7 th dam. Ruby 2d, by Bertram .' (1716) 

8th dam, Ruby, by Young Mr Dimples (?71) 

9th dam, Daisy, by Wellington , , (67jB) 

10th dam, Beauty, by Duke (234) 

11th dam. Lucy, by Young Comet (90S) 

12tn dam, , by J. Biown's Red Bull (97) 

Grand Commander 12065. by imported Royal Commander 

10914, out of imp Goody Two Shoes, by Lord Lyons (2<W7) 
Baron Aiidrie9176. by 12th Duke of Airdrie 5534 out of 

Baroness Uth, by Royal Oxford (l«77(). 
This splendid Bull is in flue condition and warranted kind 

and gentle. A child can handle him. Address 

R. THOMPSON. San Jose, Cal. 




Patent, Nov. 11,1879, 
Patent, Not. 9, 1880. 

Medical Electricity. '^/fS^ 

HORNE'S KfiKCTIKt-MAIiMSTIC BEL.T. 1 

(Tht Only Ornuinr.) Reeeivedlst Premium State Fair. 

Fl-.tro-lacu. lie llrll>, Sf« 8tjl», »H>, Elrr tro-Bwoftlf Belu, 
Eilr*A|>p)lanrr,$l&; KIcrtro-HAgv. ItrlU,0 InprovemrDtt, 8:0 

GUARANTEED ONE YEAR. BEST IN THE WORLD. 

Will positively cure without medicine— 'Rheumatism, Paralysis,' 
Neuralgia. Kidney Disease, lmpotency, Rupture, Liver Disease 
Nervousness. Dyspepsia, Spinal Disease. Ague. Piles and other 
diseases.. Send for illustrated catalogue, free Also, 
nilltTlin IF GUARANTEED, RELIEVED, 
Klllll HKr orCuretL Send for Illustrated 
IIW I Catalogue, Hundreds of cures. 

W. J. HORNE, Prop* and Hanufr. 
10% Hark el St., San I rani 1 mi i, Cal. 



ZIMMERMAN 

IMPROVED, GALVANIZED IRON, 
PORTABLE, FIRE-PROOF, 

Fruit and Vegetable Drier, 

SIMPLE IN CONsTKI Cl IO.\, E ONOMICAL 
IN FUEL < UKES THE FRUIT IN 
1ROM 2 TO 8 HOURS. 

It has the approval and hearty indorsement of nesrl . 
all the leading Fruit and Agricultural Journals of the 
country. 

Over 13,000 in Successful Operation 

Awarded a Silver Medal by the Mechanics' Institute, 
San Francisco, September, 1880. Send for Illustrated 
Catalogue with Testimonials to 

LINFORTH, RICE & CO., 
323 <Ss 325 Market Street, San Francisco. 
«"LOCAL AGENTS WANTED. JEJF 



Nathaniel Curry & Bro., 

113 San some Street. San Francisco, 




Sole Agents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TEKR1TORT AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokehore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; and 
til kinds of GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in <|tiantities to suit 



C D. Ladd, 

821 Kearny Street, San Francisco, Cal., 
C. D. LADO & CO., Branch House, 49 First St., Portland, Oregon 

Sole Agents for the Pacific 
Coast for the 

BALLARD RIFLE. 

Full line of Winchester, Burmese and Kennedy Magazine Rifles Sharps and Remington 
Complete Assortment of Breech and Muzzle Loading Shot Guna of all Makers. 
Pistols of all Descriptions. Ammunition of all Kinds, Wholesale and Retail. 

SZLND FOR 1881 PRICE LIST. 




THE KENNEDY REPEATING RIFLE. 




24 and 28-inch Barrels. 15 Shots in Magazine. 
Weight, 8 1-2 to 9 Pounds. 

USES THE WINCHESTER MODEL 1873 CARTRIDGE. 44 CALIBRE, 40 GRAINS, CENTER FIRE 
Out of 600 Glass Balls thrown from a trap, 479 were broken with this Rifle. Prices Low. Circulars on application to 

E. T. ALLEN, Pacific Coast Agent, 

416 Market St , San Francisco. 



RECORD OF SUPERQRITY. 



18*8- - AWARDED 
J. H.8TROBRIDGE 
First Premiums: 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes 822 50 

Pen 5- Yearling Ewes !i2 50 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22.50 

Pen 3— Ram Lambs 22 50 

Yearling Ram (1st and 2d) 38 50 

Two-year-old Ram 22.50 

Ram and 5 of his Lambs 30.00 

Sweepstakes: 
For beat Ram of any age or breed, 
and 6 of his lambs 975.00 



WINDMILLS HORSE POWERS. 




WILT AND RKPAIRRD AT 

No. 61 Beale Street, - - - San Francisco. 
Send fur Circulars. 
P. W. KROGU &CO., (Successors W. I.Tustin.) 



I. 'wrsi prices PverknowQ 
on Itr^'O.'li - l.osMlerm, 
i; Hi: -.. and Revolver*, 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

ut greatly reduced piico. 
Send stump for onr New 
Illustrated Catalogue ( Bl 
P.POWELL <fe S0N.23S Mam Htreet, CINCINNATI, a 

AND NOT 
I WEAK OUT. 

C^*4I fr"4 bv W.Mchmnkers. E-mail, 30 cts. Circulars 
OULU i'KEE.J. S. BIRCH A CO., 




i Dey St.Jf.Y. 



Cf\ Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike, 10c. Name 
JU in fancy type. Conn. Card Co., Nortl foid, Ct. 



THOROUGHBRED 




I8T*— AWARDED 
J. H. STROBRIDGK, 
First ■■remlums: 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes $22.50 

Ten 5— Yearling Ewes 22.60 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22 50 

Two-year-old Ram 22.60 

Yearling Ram 22.60 

Ram and rive of his lambs 30 00 

Pen of 3 Ram lambs 22.60 

Sweepstakes: 
For best Ram and 5 of his lambs, 
of any age or breed $75.00 



SP 



MERINO .SHEEP, 



We offer for sale this season 200 head Superior Rams. Yearlings and two-year-olds. Al«o 100 head Yearling Ewes and 
50 head aired Ewes. These sheep are all free from disease. Are LONG STAPLED, WHITE WOOLED and HEAVY 
SHEAR KRS Hare a faultless constitution. Are larger and in better condition than any flock of Thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sbeep In the State Orders by mail promptly tilled. Our ranch Is only 14 ml'es from Oakland, by rail Trains 
running each way every few hours. J. H. 8TROBRIDGE. Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal., E. W. Pert, Agent. 



HEALD'S PATENT 

PORTABLE STRAW-BURNING ENGINES. 

The above Engine is the safest and most powerful in the m arket, lighter than other En- 
gines, and no danger of explosions. An explosion of Heald's boiler has never occurred. Two 
sizes are made; either size will run the largest separator. All the latest improvements have 
been added to the boiler and engine. Is ready to stand a test any time. Is guaranteed perfect 
in all its parts, and will do the same work with less water and fuel than any other engine in the 
market With one of 

HEALD'S BARLEY MILLS, 

It will thresh and grind at the same time, all the separator can thresh. For further particulars, 
Address J. L. HEALS, Vallcjo, Cal 

£2T Engine can be seen at D. M. OSBORNE 6* CO., 33 Market St., S. F.^Si 



A CHANCE TO VISIT_FRESNO COUNTY. 

The Fresno Oolony, 

Which adjoins the Town of Fresno, being one of the finest locations in the Count} for Colouy purposes, is now being 
sold off iu 'JO acre low at $50 per acre, with undisputed title to both land and water, and ou terms to suit all. 

We aseor* without any fear of contrail iritory proof, that the grapevines on irrigated land in Fre6no County, pro- 
duce at leastone-thiid more cra|"'H p, r vine Hum any other portion of tho State. G. G. Briggs, of Yolo County, a 
jew days since remarked, ' ut a trtiih, this seems to he the home of the Grape, Pear, Peach and Apricot." 

We only ask all who arc s'-eking homes or profitable inveetmciu to come and see what we have; none go away 
without expressing surprise at the produc ions of our soU 

A GRAND EXCURSION will leave Stockton and San Francisco on August 15th, for Fresno. Tickets 
good for five days, and only cost $7 for the round trip; free conveyances from r'resuo to all the Colonies. 

THOMAS E. HUGHES & SONS, Fresno, and 314 Montgomery Street, S F. 



At the SANBORN WAGON DEPOT. 

24 and 26 Beale Street, s. F. Cal. 

Three sizes of THOROUGH-BRACE WAGONS, with 1,2 or 3 seats. 
F.lgh'. sizes of EXPRESS AND DELIVERY WAGONS. Turee sizes of 
FOUR SPRING WAGONS, with l, 2 or 3 seats. Besides Business 
Wagons and Buggies. 

Also, all sizes of FARM WAGONS, made by Mitchell, Lewis i Co., of 
Racine, Wis., who make the best Farm Wagons in the world. All our 
Wagons are fully warranted. A. W. .SANBOKX 4 CO., 



Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 




B. w wooi.se*- «fc SOW, 

FULTON, SONOMA COUNTY. - - CALIFORNIA 

There is not only a constant demand for Improved stock, 
but among intelligent sheep farmers is the demand equally 
constant for purity of blood and reliability of pedigree. We 
aim to meet this requirement, and In our importations have 
secured the best pedigreed Rams to be found on the Ver- 
mont State Register. It is this blood and quality we are 
offering, and upon these have been awarded Pint Premiums 
from the State Board of Agriculture at Sacramento for the 
past two years, and we were awarded hy the same Board a 
majority of all premiums in 1880, viz.: Ut 1 reiuium on Best 
Stock Ram of 2 years of age and upward; 1st Premium on 
Best Bnck Lambs; 1st Premium on Best Ewe Lambs; 1st 
Premium on Beat Ram and Five Lambs. We were also 
awarded three First Premiums and the Sweepstakes at the 
Golden Gate District Fair of 1880. We will simply state 
that for length and beauty of staple, weight of fleece, with 
vigor of constitution our sheep cannot be excelled. We 
shall welcome our patrons at the ranch or orders by maiL 

City Address 418 California St., San Francisco. 



This space will be used by H. 
D. NASH & CO., 906 K street, 
Sacramento, Cal., Manufacturer 
of ' The Improved Nash & Cutts 
Grain Cleaner," giving a full de- 
scription of their new combina- 
tion Gang of Seives, for separa- 
ting Barley, Oats and Cheat from 
Wheat. 

LOOK OUT FOR IT! 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hoopers South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sta, S F. 

First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity, 10,000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the C. P. 
R. R. and s r K R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rate*, Advances and Insurance effected 



ANGORA GOATS. 
1,600 Graded Angora Goats for Sale. 

Apply to H. W CHAPPEL. 

Redding, Shasta Co., Cal. 



Giles H. Orat. Jahm M. Haves. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

530 California St. SAN FRANCISCO 



BEFORE BUYING OR RENTING AN 
OECA1T 

Send for our LATEST Illustrated Catalog ub (813 pp 
4to), with newest httles, at tSl and upward; or $6.38 
per quarter, and up. Bent frte. MASON ft HAMLIN 
ROAN CO., 154 Tremont St., BOSTON; 46 E. 14th St., 
NEW YORK; 149 Wabuh Av., CHICAGO. 



SXason and Hamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER tfc CHASE. 

Post Street, near Dupont, - - - SAN FRAN CISCO 



July 16, 1881.] 



THE FACIW 



AL PBESS. 



47 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers In 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT ANn OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS. — or Descriptivb Illds- 
tratbd Catalogue op Sbbdb, Trbeb, Plants, Etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL Sc CO., 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



CLINTON CUTTINGS ( phy p l r l °o x f era ) 

S< 0.00 PER 1,000 AT 

Magnolia Farm Nurseries, Napa Valley. 

Send for Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 
All free from disease and grown without Irrigation. 
Address 

LEONARD COATBS, 
YouDtvllle, Napa County, Cal. 




B. K. BLISS & SONS. 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flower- 
ing Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. 
Catalogues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established In 1868. 

For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised without irrigation. Also, a general assort- 
ment of Evergreen Trees and ShrubB, deciduous Flower- 
ing Shrubs; Roses in assortment. Conservatory and Bed- 
ding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Prices. Address W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma Sonoma County, Cal. 



Attention, Fruit Growers ! 

As the Budding season is at hand, I am prepared, 
where quantities are wanted, to grow any variety of 

Fruit Trees for 1882 at Reduced Rates. 

Correspondence solicited. ISAAC COLLINS, 

NURSERY, Haywarns, Cal. 



COTTON S££D 

For sale in quantities to suit, by MoAFEE BROTHERS, 
202 Sansomo Street, San Francisco, California. 



A NEW* BOOK. 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases. 

By B. J. Kendaij,, M D. 

35 Fine Engravings showing the 
positions and actions of sick 
horses. Gives the cause, symp- 
toms and hest treatment of dis- 
eases. Has a table giving the 
I dosed, effects and antidotes of all 
the principal medicineB used for 
' the horse, and a few pages on the 
action and uses of medicines. 

Rules for telling the age of a 
horse, with a fine engraving show 
ing the appearance of the teeth 
at each year. 

It is printed on fine paper and has nearly 100 pages, 7 J x 5 
nches. Price only 25 cents, or 5 for $1, on receipt of which 
we will send by mail to any address. 

DEWEY & CO., 

202 Sansome St., S. F 




*L COOKK 



R. J. COOKE 



PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets. Sacramento 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

B/F Communications Promptly Attended to. "Vtt 
COOKE & SONS. Successors to Coons & Grsgort 



SHOPPING 

Done in SAN FfcANCISCO for Ladies and Gentlemen 
and COMMISSIONS OF ALL KINDS EXECUTED with 
judgment and taste especially in 

Dry Goods, Fancy Work and Music. 

Simples sent free. Circular and references given ou 
application to MISS B. H. MAYNABD, 

1521 Washington St., S. F. 



SECURE PATENTS 




Th rough 
Dewey & Co. 



Scientific Press 



Patent 
Agency. 



Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency pre- 
sents many and important advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by reason of long estab- 
lishment, great experience, thorough system, in- 
timate acquaintance with the subjects of inven- 
tions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library containing 
official American and foreign reports, tiles of 
scientific and mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or a 
description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of Patent 
business, and obtain Patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices are 
as low as any first-class agencies in the Eastern 
States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
inventors are far superior. Advice and Circu- 
lars free. DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 



A. T. DEWEY. 



W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse 

San Francisco, Cal. 
65,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 



54 



All Gold, Ctaromo and Lithograph Cards, no2 alike 
name on, 10 cts. C. DePuy, Syracuse, N. Y. 



GEO. F. SILVESTER 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



z Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc. 
ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives, Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



9 ^ 

r 
o 

m 




ALBERT DICKINSON. 

Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian. Millet, Red-Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grans. Bird Seeds, etc. 

POP CORN. 

WARKIIOl'SES: 

115, 117 & 119, Kinzie St., Office: 115 Klnzie St. 

104, 108, 108 & 110 Michigan St. CHICAGO, IL.I* 




Cold Medal Awarded 
AXFORD'S 

National Incubator, 

AT TORONTO EXHIBITION, 1879. 
Thirty -Two Public Exhibitions. 
Long Looked for, Come at Last! 
The Baby National Incubator 
Holds lOO Egers and Costs 
ONLY $25. 

Self-Retfulatintr. Durable, Practical and easily 
Understood. Will Hitch where none other 
will. Ne^d not "Regulate" a room to insure 
success. 

AXFORD &. BRO , 

4£th St. <Ss Langley Av., Chicago, 
ILLINOIS. 



In consequence of Spurious Imitations oj 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

Which are calculated to deceive tht Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature 
thus, 



Which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 

SAUCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA <fc PERRINS' Sauce, and See Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper, 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
<t-c, &c; and by Orocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 



CALIFORNIA DRIED FRUITS. 

CROP 1881. FRUIT GROWERS, ATTENTION! 

GEORGE "\7\7\ MKADE cfc OO., 

(SUCCESSORS TO SPEAR, MEADE & CO.) 
Offices and Warehouse— 416 & 418 Front Street, ..... SAN FRANCISCO . 

WHOLESALE DEALERS IN DRIED FRUITS. 



We are prepared, as usual, to make direct purchases of the next crop of DRIKD FRUITS of all klndn in small 
quantities or the entire crop, paying cash therefor, on delivery aud Inspection. Do not let any of your green fruits 
go to waste; neither allow yourselves to be imposed upon by canners. When your Dried Fruits are ready for market deal 
with us direct and thus save the profits and commissions of middlemen. Write to us for any information you desire, as 
to style of packages best suited for this market. 



Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates Etc. 

K . I*. RANSOME, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. 
ARTIFICIAL STONE. Se id for Circular. 



To Fish Raisers. 



1 am now ready to sell C^rp which were imported from 
Germany in 1872, In lots to suit. Address 

J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 



SEASIDE! 
MOUNTAINS! 

Wherever yon go, talte one of our spark- 
ling Collections of the best Songs, or the best 
Instrumental Music. All are choice collec- 
tions, and will be invaluable for amuse- 
ments on dull days, at evening entertain- 
ments, and at all hours of leisure. 

GEMS OF ENGLISH SONG- 

Great favorite. Enlarged and improved. 
80 grand songs. $2. 50 

SUNSHINE OF SONG. 

All brightness. 68 songs. $2.50 

GEMS OF STRAUSS. 

Music always new and inspiring. 
Dance to it. $2.50 

GEMS OF THE DANCE. 

Great variety. Dance also to this. $2.50 

GEMS OF SCOTTISH SONG- 

168 of the sweetest ballads ever made. $2.50 
Also many other books. Send for List! 
Books mailed to any address for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITS0N~&C0., BOSTON. 

O. H. Dltson <fe Co.. 843 Broadway, N. Y 



Caledonian Mills 

OATMEAL! 



ABSOLUTELY PURE!! 

MADE FROM SELECTED WHITE OATS. The most 
delicious breakfast food. No other preparation makes 
such sweet, wholesome porridge. Greatly superior to 
ordinary oatmeal mush. For sale by all the principal 
grocers. 

CALEDONIAN OATMEAL MILLS. 

Sansome Street, near Pacific, San Francisco 

WHEELER'S 

Carbon Bis-u.lph.ide, 

FOR KILLING 

Phylloxera, Squirrels, Gophers, Rats, Vermin. Etc 
CHEAP AND EFFECTIVE. 

A.ny Person Can Use It Without Harm. 

6-tt> Cans, each $1.00 

12-lti Cans, eaeh \ 75 

60-tb Cans, each 5.50 

Address JOHN H. WHEELER, 

111 Leidesdorff St., San Francisco. 
Shipping Point— West Berkeley, Alameda Co. 

NEW WHOLESALE AND RETAIL^ 

Repository of Eastern Carriages, 

BUGGIES AND WAGONS, 

From the largest Carriage Manufactory in New England. 
Our work is good. We sell it low. Satisfaction guaran- 
teed. Send for cuts and price list. 

P. A. BRIGGS, Manager, 

Nos. 220 and 222 Mission Street, San Francisco 

BUCKS. 

We have 40 -Corner 10th and Howard Sts.— Thorough- 
breds, extra fine animals, " LONGWOOL" and "EURE- 
KA" blood. Never Exposed to Scab! Prices 
Low Down. Wish to sell. HOMER P. SAXE & CO, 
Lick House, S. F. 

^f^i^c Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH. 

$2 per Gallon. 

JjjjuMi — >) After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON. 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 




TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poiaonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to PALKNBR, BELL & CO., 

Sole Agents, 430 California Street. S. F. 




KNOW THYSELF 



GOLD MEDAL AWARDED 

the Author. A new and great Medi- 
cal Work, warranted the best and 
cheapest, indispensable to every 
man, entitled the "Science of Life or 
Self-Preservation;" bound in finest 
French muslin, embossed, full Kilt, 
300 pp. Contains beautiful steel en- 
gravings; 125 prescriptions Price, 
only $1.25, sent by mail; illustrated 
sample, 6 rents. Send now. Address 
Peabi'dy Medical Institute or Dr.W. 
H. PARKER. No. 4 Bulflnah street, 
Boston. 



NO. 



MACKINTOSH & CO., 

Dealers in Wall Paper. 

T15 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 
Orders by Mail solicitod. 



48 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 16, 1881. 



]N~o Drouths! Sure Crops! 

READING RANCH,! 

Shasta Co., Cal. 



Good Land! 
Sure Crops I 
HEALTHY CLIMATE I 
Prices Low. Terms Easy. 

TITLE PERFECT. 



The Reai lB| 

Ranch, In the Up- 
per Sacramento 
valley, originally 
embracing over 
26,000 acrea ol 
choice grain, or- 
chard and pasture 
land, ia no* 
offered lor 
sale at low 

f rices and on 
arorabla 
terms of pay- 
ment, in sub- 
divisions to 
suit purchas- 
ers. 

The ranch 
was selected 
at an early day by Major P. B. 
Reading, one of the largest pioneer 
land owners In California. It is 
situated on the west side of the 
Sacramento River and extends 
over 20 miles along Its bank. 

1 he averaire rainfall is about 30 inches 
per annum, and crops have never been 
known to fail from drouth. 

The rlimsie is grrerally malthy. The 
near proximity of Mgh mountain peaks 
give cool nights during the "heated 
term" which oemrs In onr California 
summers. Pasturage, wood and good 
water sre abundant. The tillage land is 
mostly level, with complete drainage. 

Figs, Ore pes, Peaches, Prunes, Al- 
monds. English Walnuts, Apricots, Cur- 
rents, Berries and other common fruits 
— ' can be raised with success on most of the 
tract, without irrigation.' Also, Alfalfa, Vegetables, Corn 
and all other cereal* ordinarilv irrown in the S'nte 

The soil throughout the tilled portions of the ranek 
proves to be of great depth and enduring In It* good 
qualities. It Is quite free from foul growths. The virgin 
soil among the large oak trees on the bottom land la eas- 
ily broken up and cultivated. 

The title is U. 8. patent. Prices range principally from 
f5 to $30 per acre. < 1 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses nearly 
the entire length of the tract. There sre several sec- 
tions, stations and switches, besides depots at the towns 
of Anderson and Reading, all of which are located 
within the limits of the ranch. 

The Sacramento River borders the whole tract en the 
southeast. Its clear waters are well stocked with fish. 
Good hunting abounds in the surrounding country. 

Producers have a local market, which enhances the value 
el their produce. The railroad transportation route Is level 
throughout to San Francisco. A portion 
of the land la auriferous and located near 
rich mines now being worked. Land 
suitable for settlers in colonies can be 
~f(4 obtained on good terms. 

" Town lots are offered for sale In Read- 

ing, situated on the Sacramento river, at 
tho present terminus of the railroad. It 
Is the converging and distributing point 
for large, prosperous mining and agricul- 
tural districts In Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lota in the town 
of Anderson, situated more centrally on 
the ranch. Lots in both these towns are 
offered at a bargain, for the purpose of 
building up the towns and facilitating 
settlement of the ranch. 

Purchasers are Invited to come and 
see the lands before buying here or 
elsewhere. Apply on the ranch, to 
the proprietor, 

EDWARD FRISBD2, 
Anderson. Shasta Co.. Cat 




Location of Shasta County. 

Shasta County lies not far from 
midway between the two most im- 
portant ports on the Paeific shore, 
1. e., San Francisco and Portland, 
Oregon, and directly on the route 
from Mexico to British Columbia. 
The town of Redding, at present, 
and probably for years to come, the 
head of railroad transportation on 
theCalifomiasideof the mountains 
intervening below Oregon, is dis- 
tant from San Francisco by rail- 
road (via Vallejo) 255 miles; from 
Sacramento City, 169 miles; from 
Marysville 117 miles. 



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LAND FOR SALE OR RENT IN SUB-DIVISIONS. 



I. J. TRUMAN. BYRON JACKSON. 

JACKSON & TRUMAN, 



Manufacturers of 



Agricultural Implements, 



FEEDERS and ELEVATORS. 
With recently Invented Spreader. 
Horse Forks for Headings or 
Hay. Folding Derricks. Hoad- 
ley Straw - Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gai doners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Threshers 
«nd Engine* Machine Castings 
a specialty. 




Grangers' Business Association of Cal- 
ifornia. - Principal place of business. No. 38 California 
Street. San Francisco, State of California. 
Notice is hereby given, that at a meeting of the Directors 
of said corporation, held on Monday, the Twenty-seventh 
(27) day of June, A D.. 1881, an assessment has been levied 
of ten (10) per cent, upon the capital stock of said corpora 
tion, amounting to the sum of two and one-half ($2.fi0) dol- 
lars upon each and every share of said capital stock, paya- 
ble July rwenty-eighth (281. 1881, to Amos Adams, the Sec 
retary of said corporation, at his office. No. 38 California 
Street, S. F , State of California. 

Any stock upon which this assessment shall remain un- 
paid on the Sixth (6) day of August. A D.. 1881, will be de- 
linquent, and advertised fur sale at public auction, and un- 
less payment is made before, will be sold on Monday, the 
Twenty second (22) day of August, A. D.. 1881, to pay the 
delinquent assessment, together with costs of advertising 
and expenses of sale. AMOS ADAM8. Sec'y 

Grangers' Business Association of California, office. No. 
33 California Street, S. F. 



■XjsdL'JG 

HAY&rWOOLi 



SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

JACKSON cfc TRUMAN, 

Cor. 6th and Bluxome Sts., San Francisco. 



cn All Gold, Chromo and Lithograph Cards. (No two 
*AI alike). Name on, 10c. Clinton Bros., Clintonvillc, Con. 



DAIRY COWS WANTED. 

Wanted, from TWENTY to FORTY GOOD DAIRY 
COWS that will come in between August and October. 
Address, with particulars, B. MARKS, 

Fresno, Cal. 



"NEW" 
Hydraulic Rami 

The only Horizontal Ram made. Will do 
good work on light fall. Send for Circular 

H. F. MORROW, Chester. Pa. 



IIM^IE.R/I-A.Ij EGO- FOOD 




Will make your Hens Lay, keep 
them m tho best possible condition and 
ward off disease. When fed accor- 
ding to directions, sick and 
drooping fowls are never 
seen, it furnishes the 
needed material for 
f ormingbone, m us- 
cle and feath 



-The 

Eclipse Self- 
Regulating Incu 
bators are now I □ act - 
ual use in most parts of 




ere, a; 

Invaluable for Young Chicks and Moulting 
Fowls. It comes packed in various sized packages, 
•nd being a powder, is ea*ily mixed with the cue 
tomary feed Give it a trial Bead Stamp for 
Circular and Testimonials. 

Price. — Single pound, 60 cents; Two 
and a half pounds, tLOO; Six pounds 
,2. 00; 25 pound keg $6.25. Addicss, 

G. G. WICKS0N, 



this State, and giving general 
satisfaction- They are asucceaa, 
and being such are invaluable to all 
who attempt to raise chickens; are easy to 
manage, and cost merely a. trifle to keep in op. 
eration. and wlli do much better work than can be 



General Pacific Coast Agt 
No. 319 Market St, 
San Fran Cisco 
California. 



done with 
hens, with a 
small portion of 
the labor and risk. 
<ST The "Eclipse" is the 
only entirely self-regulating In- 
cubator known; is the only one that 
will bear investigating, so it is the only 
safe one to purchase. Send stamp for Cir- 
cular of California Testimonials (not Eastern.) 




The Eclipse Self-Regulating Incubator, 




TUBBS HOTEL, 

East Oakland, 

Having been Thoroughly Befitted and Refur 
nished, Painted and Frescoed, ia now Open 
for the Reception of Guests. Rooma can now 
be secured at the Hotel. 

H. S. GREELEY, Proprietor. 



California State Fair 

FOR 1881. 

Sacramento, Gal. 

SEPTEMBER. 

The Twenty-Eighth Annual Fair 
of the State of California will be 
held at Sacramento, from MON- 
DAY, Sept. 19th, to SATURDAY, 
Sept. 24th, 1881. 

Over $30,000 in Premiums ! 



The attention -f Exhibitors is called to the liberal 
Premium List. Every accommodation will be provided 
jor all exhibitors Motive |>ower furnished for Machinery 
exhibited in motion. The Farmers, Business men and 
Mechanics of thiB State are respectfully invited to make 
displays of their Products, and are called upon to aid in 
making the exhibit of 1881 surpass all previous efforts, 
and guarantee the continued success of an institution 
that has been of so much benefit to the Su.o The C. P. 
R. R. Co., will transport all articles to and from the Fair 
FREE OF CHARGE. Fruit noed not be returned so 
obtain free transportation, as charges paid to the Fair 
will be refunded upon Secretary's certificate. 

For further particulars address the Secretary at Sacra- 
mento. 

EDWIN F. SMITH, J. McM. SHAFTEE, 
Secretary. President. 

P. O. BOX 726 SACRAMENTO. 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

PERKINS" PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps ft Fixture. 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always give sav 
Isfactlon. Simple, strong and 
durable In all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double he arinqs for the crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively »eU regulating 
with no coilspnngor springs 
of any kind. No little rods. 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
oat of order, as such things 
da Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, tli.it 
have never cost one cent for repairs 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands In 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infer 
■nation 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 

ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 
San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., 333 & 825 Market S et 



CONTINENTAL OIL 

— AND— 

Transportation Co., 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

Refined, Crude, and Lubricating 
Oils, Paraffinc Wax, Etc. 



123 California 8treet, 
Rooms 1 & 2, S. F. 



67 & 69 Front Street . 
SACRAMENTO. 



STATIONS:— Elko and Reno, Nevada; Stockton. Marys- 
ville, San Jose, Oakland and Los Angeles, Cal. 
Tucson, Arizona; Portland, Oregon. 





tJ>' Notwithstanding the very low quotations 
now being made for Cased Oil, we still offer any 
grade of oil in our Patent Tin-Lined Packages 

Three Cents Less 

Per gallon than any cased quotation of the sane 
grade au<l Guarantee the quality as good in 
every particular. 

CONTINENTAL OIL and 
TRANSPORTATION CO, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

123 California Street, San Francisco 

67 and 69 Front St., Sacramento. 



PEBBLE SPECTACLES. 




Muller's Optical Depot, 

135 Montgomery St., near Bush. 
SPECIALTY rOB. 30 YSAR8. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

The most complicated cases of defect- 
ive vision thoroughly diagnosed, free o! 
charge. Compound Astigmatic Lenses 
Mounted to order in Two Hourt notioe. 
CVOrdort by mail promptly attended to. 




Volume 



XXII.] 
« 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 23, 188 1. 



Number 4 



The New Commissioner of Agriculture. 

We give on this page a portrait of the lately 
appointed Commissioner of Agriculture, Dr. 
George B. Loring, of Massachusetts. We have 
long known Dr. Loring by reputation through 
his prominent position in agricultural move- 
ments and enterprises in New England. His 
appointment to the Commissionership seems to 
meet the approval of most of the Eastern agri- 
cultural censors. As he isalready in his seat, 
his deeds will soon give the agriculturists of 
the country generally an opportunity to judge 
of his qualifications for the important trust 
committed to his hands. 

Dr. A. S. Heath, of the New York Farmers' 
Club, has written for the American Dairyman 
a sketch of the life and works of the new Com- 
missioner, and we shall take therefrom the fol- 
lowing leading points: George Bailey Loring 
was born at North Andover, Mass., November 
8, 1817, graduated at Harvard College in 1838, 
and at Harvard Medical College in 1842. In 
1848 he became Surgeon of the Marine Hos- 
pital at Chelsea, where he remained till 1850. 
In 1853 the Doctor was made postmaster of 
Salem, Mass. During nearly all this time he was 
ceaselessly active in writing, making addresses 
and studying practical and scientific agricul- 
ture. It was at this period that he distin- 
guished himself as a rare and ready debater, a 
cogent reasoner and a graceful speaker. 

Soon after the Doctor bacame widely known 
to the prominent agriculturists, scientists, 
statesmen and literary men of that day, a fatal 
cattle disease broke out in Massachusetts and 
the neighboring States, causing great loss and 
producing wide-spread consternation. His pro- 
fessional and agricultural studies, and his abil- 
ity and energy pointed him out as the fittest 
commissioner to extirpate that fearful scourge — 
pleuro-pneumonia. He was commissioned iu 
1860, and most nobly did he perform the oner- 
ous and difficult task of stamping out that con- 
tagious malady among cattle. The plans he 
successfully pursued then can now be profitably 
and successfully followed by a United States 
Commission for ridding the country of a con- 
tagious scourge that may cost us hundreds of 
millions of dollars worth of cattle. 

About this time Dr. Loring was extensively 
engaged in farming, and though his boyhood 
and youth were not agriculturally neglected, 
again he devoted his time and talents to the 
practical work of the farm. The chief products 
of it were milk, vegetables and hay. In 1859 
Dr. Loring imported some of the linest Ayr- 
shire dairy stock that could be found in Great 
Britain, and he has continued to breed them 
successfully ever since. 

He founded the Northeastern Agricultural 
Society in 1864, became and is still its Presi- 
dent. This society is in a most flourishing con- 
dition. He wa3 a trustee of the Massachu- 
setts Society for Promoting Agriculture from 
1858 to 1863. He has published his numerous 
addresses, papers, lectures and articles on lit- 
erary, agricultural and scientific subjects, which 
largely contributed to the literature of the 
times. As a lecturer, Dr. Loring is dignified, 
graceful, effective, pleasing and entertaining; 
as a writer, earnest, clear and instructive, and 
as an orator, distinctively forcible, eloquent and 
convincing. 

In 1870 his address at the opening of the sci- 
entific course of the American Institute in Now 
York was widely copied. He is not only a 
member of the American Institute, but for many 
years he has been a member of the Farmers' 
Club of that institute, which is the oldest farm- 
ers' club in the United States. The Doctor is 
also a member of the American Agricultural As- 
sociation, and contributed a valuable paper on 
"The Problem of American Land Holding." 

Dr Loring was in the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives in 1866 and 1867; and was 
President of the Massachusetts Senate from 
1873 to 1876 inclusive. It was here that the 
Doctor's eloquence was most brilliantly dis- 
played in a speech in behalf of his old friend, 
Prof. Agassiz, on scientific education; and in a 
grand and masterly defense of the immortal 
Sumner. His eloquence is fervent, fluent, 
forcible and glowing; his voice is strong and 



musical, his countenance is expressive, and his 
physique perfect, large, manly and graceful; 
his gestures simple and impressive, and his 
broad and high forehead and handsome face 
make him universally admired by the audience; 
and his pleasing style and manner make an 
hour seem as but a few minutes. As a member 
of the 45th and 46th Congresses, no one's views 
on the great problems of agriculture were more 
earnestly sought than were Dr. Loring's. In 
fact, few men at any time during the existence 
of our republic have done more for agriculture : 

For nearly 20 years Dr. Loring was a member 
of the State Board of Agriculture, and for a 
long time President of the State Agricultural 
Society of Massachusetts. Dr. Loring has been 
associated with such men as Agassiz, C. A. 
Flint and others, in agricultural and scientific 
labors. His acquaintance with the prominent 
men of the day is remarkably extensive. 

Dr. Loring's contributions to agricultural 



Death of Jersey Belle. — The most noted 
Jersey cow in the world, "Jersey Belle," of 
Scituate, Mass., died on the 12th inst. She has 
produced 705 fts. of butter in one year, and 25 
lbs. in one week. She leaves three daughters and 
two sons. Two of the former are owned, by 
Mr. Ellms of Scituate, the owner of "Jersey 
Belle;" the other one is owned by Col. Russell 
of Boston, who paid $2,500 for her. Henry 
Pierce of this city owns "King of Scituate," 
one of the sons (which stands at the head of 
Mr. Pierce's herd at Scituate, Mass.); the 
other, "Duke of Scituat'3," is owned by Mr. 
Darling of the Fifth Avenue hotel, New York. 
Mr. Pierce has lately purchased bull-calf 
"Aristocrat," grand-son (through sire and dam) 
of "Jersey Belle," for $1,000, and intends this 
fall to bring him to California. "Belle of Scit- 
uate," dam of "Aristocrat," in her fourth year 




DR. GEORGE B. LORING- -COMMISSIONER OP AGRICULTURE. 



literature were large and valuable; his experi- 
ments were accurate and useful, and, as a practi- 
cal farmer aud breeder, his good judgment, ex- 
tensive knowledge, and good common sense 
have proved that farming can be made to pay. 
But what renders Dr. Loring's services to the 
department and to the country most valuable, 
is his broad and liberal views, and his perfect 
freedom from hobbies. These he neither im- 
ports, breeds, raises nor rides. The whole field 
of national agriculture, under his superintend- 
ence, will be practically and faithfully culti- 
vated. 

Horticultural Fair at Redwood City. 
We notice that the San Mateo Horticultural 
Society has decided to hold a horticultural fair 
at Germania hall, Redwood city, at a date to be 
named hereafter. Fruits, flowers and vegeta- 
bles will be the leading exhibits. We are glad 
to hear of this movement on the part of the 
San Mateo society. The county contains some 
of the most skillful horticulturalists of the 
State, and for fine gardens and greenhouse 
plants, ranks very high. The proposed exhibi- 
tion, if it receives the co-operation of the grow- 
ers as it should, will be worth a long journey to 
see. We wish the enterprise the fullest success. 



I hai been making 18 lbs. of butter per week, 
thus proving that after like comes like in breed- 
ing from well-bred Jerseys. Mr. Ellms had a 
standing offer of $10,000 for "Jersey Belle/' 
and if her life was not insured, is a heavy loser. 
The death of "Jersey Belle" will no doubt give 
occasion for many interesting comments in the 
Eastern stock journals, and as the cow is to be 
so intimately connected with Jersey breeding in 
California, we shall doubtless have more to say 
about her record hereafter. 



State Horticultural Society. — The next 
meeting of the State Horticultural Society will 
be held at the Academy of Sciences hall in this 
city, on Friday, July 29th, at noon. There 
may be expected an essay on "Apricots," by 
Dr. Strentzel, and an address on "Mildew on 
Fruit Trees" is looked for from J. P. Moore, of 
San Rafael, who is one of our best authorities 
on fungoid growths. 



Walker Blaine, Assistant Secretary of 
State, is at Gloucester, Mass., paying out 
money received from Great Britain on account 
of unlawful interference with the American 
fishing fleet at Newfoundland. , 



Horses for East India. 

There is quite an active demand for fine, use- 
ful horses in East India, and animals are being 
brought from long distances. A writer in the 
Auckland, New Zealand, Weekly News states* 
that the Indian Government has, from time to 
time, dispatched agents to Sydney, Melbourne 
and Adelaide to select and purchase on the 
spot chargers suitable for the service of their 
cavalry and artillery. Late Australian accounts 
tell us that certain Melbourne men • are about 
to take up "extensive pastoral and agricultural 
properties in the northern territory of South 
Australia" when, besides cattle-breeding, they 
intend horse-breeding for this particular ex- 
port. They mean to take with them "500 head 
of well-bred mares, and the necessary stallions, 
as the beginning of a large stud to breed horses 
for the Indian market. " The project of form- 
ing a great breeding establishment in that new 
country at the north side of the continent — 
which, among other advantages, would shorten 
the voyage to India, by saving the distance 
round the coast — was contemplated in Mel- 
bourne some years ago, and we see it is now 
about to be carried into effect. 

The Indian authorities have always been in 
strait for the supply of horses for the army, 
and so it has been their habit to import, not 
only from the neighboring countries, Persia, 
Afghanistan and Arabia, but also from the 
South African colonies, as well as the Aus- 
tralian. And the demand is not confined to 
the government, but is shared by private per- 
sons, the Europeans living in India. It may 
seem odd that there should be such a necessity 
in a region so extensive as Hindostan, which 
includes all sorts of country with every variety 
of temperature — mountaius and cool table- 
lands, as well a3 tropical plains. One would 
imagine that in a country with so much variety 
of surface and climate, if good breeds do not 
already exist, they could be established. 
Moreover, cavalry has been at all times the 
principal force in the native armies, as in all 
Oriental nations. So horses are abundant in 
India, but it seems they do not meet the Euro- 
pean requirements. There have always been 
complaints of the " country-bred " horses. 
Even when not " cat-ham'd Tattoos" or 
"screaming, vicious Belooches," they are pro- 
nounced wanting in strength and endurance, or 
they are undersized. The artillery requires a 
class of horse powerful as well as active; and 
European riders, even when not taller than the 
uative horseman, are larger boned and heavier 
men. The experiment of forming new breeds 
was tried — among other places, on the Mysore 
tableland in the Madras Presidency — but from 
the accounts we have seen the results do not 
seem to have given satisfaction. Though such 
experiments were in operation many years ago 
— before the period of the mutiny as well as in 
late years — it does not seem that they are 
likely to stop the imports which still go on. 

This enduring Indian demand is, as we have 
shown, exciting enterprises in horse-breeding 
in Australia to supply it. New Zealand is also 
thinking of such an outlet for their surplus ani- 
mals. These countries are now drawing fine 
animals from the United States to improve their 
stock. We see no reason why California should 
not ere long figure in the same trade, which 
must be profitable or it would not lead to the 
special productive efforts we have described. It 
is true that the lower countries have quite an 
advantage of us in point of distance, but dis- 
tance on the high seas can be annihilated when 
the motive exists. Horse-breeding in Califor- 
nia is now going forward in a gratifying way, 
and the character of the stock is being splen- 
didly improved. At present there is a good 
local demand for really fine animals, and many 
more can be profitably disposed of here before 
it will be necessary to loot for an export out- 
let. But it is well to bear in mind that there 
is possibly something beyond our own borders 
as a warrant for further improvement and ex- 
tension of breeding enterprises. Our State has 
many peerless advantages in horse-breeding, 
and it will not be surprising to find ere long 
that the California horse, like many other of 
our peerless products, has a fame throughout 
the^ world. 



50 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 23, 1881. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



1 Wc admit, unendorsed, opinionaof correspondents.— Eds. 



A Ranch on the Mokelumne River. 

Editors Press: — A loan of a copy of the Ru- 
ral, containing descriptions of prominent and 
important places in the State, and some of its 
enterprises, to a recent visitor from the East, 
suggested the writing of this communication. 
Agricultural literature and kindred subjects 
seem to be popular reading in California at the 
present time. Information of that kind is 
now eagerly sought for by many who are turn- 
ing their attention toward the Pacific slope and 
particularly to Caifornia on account of her sa- 
lubrious climate and the advantages she offers 
to the immigrant in almost every department of 
human industry and enterprise. In giving the 
characteristics of localities as to their resources, 
productions, etc., the stranger and fortune-seek- 
er will soon learn where he may be best suited, 
and the Rural is doing an excellent good work 
in that direction. 

One of the publishers happened to be peram- 
bulating through the country around the towns 
of Lodi, Woodbridge, and the village of Acampo, 
and was pleased to take some notes ior publica- 
# tion in his popular journal in reference to crop 
prospects and the present outlook. He had a 
very pleasant interview with some of the ranch- 
men in the neighborhood, made a brief mention 
of the improvements going on and the progress 
shown in developing the resources of this part 
of the valley. Among others noticed was the 
Albert J. Woods ranch on the Mokelumne river, 
confining his remarks chiefly to its present con- 
dition rather than to what it is to be prospect- 
ively, from plans laid out, and as indicated by 
improvements already commenced. The W oods 
rancii is somewhat of a recent purchase ; had 
been rented out for a long time previously, and 
allowance should be made for the appearance of 
the surroundings on that account. But the 
place has, topographically and aesthetically, 
natural attractions which would at once engage 
the eye of a person of taste and judgment, and 
characteristics as to soil aud location especially 
adapted to a diversity of products, a safer policy 
to insire success in farming life than to depend 
upon one or two of the cereals, the rule almost 
in San Joaquin county farming. 

This Woods ranch is between 500 and 600 
acres in extent, the larger proportion upland, 
and some 200 acres bottom-land, bounded by 
the meandering Mokelumne on the east and 
south, and an island and a land-locked lake on 
the west. The upland has the ordinary ap- 
pearance of the rich plains of the San Joaquin 
valley, level as a house floor almost, and dotted 
over with the evergreen oak, which is fast dis- 
appearing before the woodman's ax. On the 
score of utility alone one might be induced to 
invest in this enterprise with safety, while the 
scenic effect would be a double incentive, as 
nature has grouped them together of upland 
and lowland, of lake and river, of the island 
symmetrical in form and of good elevation, of 
groves and belts of timber, the whole combin- 
ing that proportion aud variety essential to a 
perfect picture. Though Californians are 
accused of "blowing" in their descriptive efforts, 
it is no stretch of language to say that the view 
from the old, dilapidated homestead is very 
fine. 

The house is of primitive build, as it were, 
conspicuous inside and out for the absence of 
all architectural merit or mechanical skill; but 
its ventilation is complete and in accord with 
the rules of hygiene. Erected presumably about 
the time the Digger Indians vacated these parts 
for more congenial quarters, it is oue of the old 
landmarks and has quite an interesting history 
in connection with political and official affairs. 
Situated on the brow of the hill that leads to 
the bottom-land, a relief from the dead level of 
the plains, the yard ornamented with trees of 
pvofuse foliage, under whose pleasant and grate- 
ful shade many a social hour is spent, it is a 
pleasure to have always in view a panorama of 
natural scenery, combining in a great degree, 
now that the crops are maturing, the utile dulei. 
And then the grand o'd mountains in the dis- 
tance, the Sierras to the east and the Coast 
range on the west, old Diablo, somber and 
rugged in outline, towering above them all, one 
may appropriately repeat again the hackneyed 
quotation: 

"Distance lends enchantnientto the view." 

The ran oh has just got to be in good working 
order, and some of its richest soil put to profit- 
able use that before yielded nothing to the profit 
account — a system that will be pursued until 
every foot of land that can be, will be utilized 
to "make it pay." To this end a thorough sys- 
tem of leveeing has been determined upon and 
partially completed, to go round the circuit of 
the bottom-land, without which the annual in- 
undations of debris would bury much of its fer- 
tile soil out of sight. The work is rather a 
formidable one and expensive, but brains and 
energy will push it through. Two gangs of 
Italians are clearing off the timber where the re- 
mainder of the levee is to be built, and it is ex- 
pected that by another wet season, or rise, the 
levee will be completed so far at least as to pre- 
vent any further injurious deposits of debris 
upon the lowlands. 



Another improvement of importance and some 
magnitude is the fruit orchard and vineyard, to 
which a pretty large area will be devoted. Be- 
tween 1,100 and 1,200 fruit trees have been al- 
ready set out by way of commencement, and as 
many or more of grapevines, all of the best 
varieties, and these will be added to until the 
area set forth for the purpose is filled. An or- 
chard and grapery of the dimensions contem- 
plated is no uncommon thing for California, but 
what is worthy of notice and example is, that 
the care of selection and treatment are unusual, 
every tree and vine having received especial 
and separate attention of cultivation, prunings, 
washings and protection from hot auns and 
winds; the consequence is, that about 98% of 
them are living and doing well. The small 
fruits also are to be a part of this enterprise. 
It is thought the location of this orchard and 
vineyard is the best possible for the purpose, 
between the waters of the river and the lake. 
Both earth and air are more susceptible of 
moisture on that account. The healthy and 
rich coloring of both tree and vine is an evi- 
dence of it. 

An orchard and vineyard of 60 acres, growing 
on the gentle slope of the hill aud the bottom- 
land, right beneath one's feet as it were, in 
blossom or in bearing, will be a feature that 
will add a good deal of interest to the situation; 
an element of beauty in connection with the 
natural attractions above alluded to that gives 
it a tinge of romance belonging to the ideal 
home. But plain, practical people, who don't 
indulge in air-castle building, take the utilita- 
rian view in "looking after the main chance," 
and estimate its value for the variety of its pro- 
ducts a3 a grain, fruit and vegetable ranch, the 
latter either field crop or kitchen garden, with- 
out the aid of California's greatest desiderative 
— irrigation. It will also make a most complete 
stock ranch and for general farming can hardly 
be excelled. Timber is another of its products, 
which affords a revenue, while fish in river and 
lake, aud game, for the disciples of old Izaak 
Walton, and for sportsmen, including the trap- 
per, add to its worth in proportion as they sub- 
serve useful or pleasurable purpose. These 
characteristics, with the improvements contem- 
plated, make up the perfect ranch, and are no 
doubt the inducement of its owner, as rumor 
says, to leave, in time, his present more elegant 
and comfortable home ranch for this as a per- 
manent dwelling place. If plans are perfected 
and hopes should meet with fruition, he may 
then consistently say, with the Psalmist, "My 
lines have been cast in pleasant places, I have a 
goodly heritage." 

The crops in this section may be said to be 
good, better than was anticipated before harvest, 
though not so heavy as last year. If appear- 
ances prove anything, however, it is that sum- 
mer-fallowing should be adhered to aa an unde- 
viating rule in this locality. Statistics assert, 
as a fact, that wheat lands are deteriorating, the 
yield getting less and less upon an increased 
acreage, and while this is claimed, or, rather, 
reputed to be the best part of the San Joaquin 
valley for the production of that cereal, yet 
cropping without cessation will make them 
poorer, while practical experience has pointed 
out the way to recuperate lands in that condi- 
tion, or keep them up to the standard that will 
raise good crops continuously — summer-fallow- 
ing. One may see the effect of good crops in 
the number of new buildings going up all round 
the circle; there seems to be a laudable emula- 
tion existing among the ranchmen and town 
people to improve the country in that respect. 
Even Acampo, which has so long been a little 
more than the nucleus of a town, is spreading 
her wings, and the present outlook is that she 
will keep pace with the rich and progressive 
country around her. W. H. Butler. 

Acampo, San Joaquin Co. 



1\e Sjack Y\^P* 



Notes on California Breeding. 

Kijitoks Press:— Some one sends me a Stock- 
ton paper containing an account of the proceed- 
ings at a Granger's meeting, in which Mr. Over- 
hiser, Dr. Grattan and Lecturer Johnston dis- 
course on the relative merits of Durham (Short 
Horn) and Jersey cattle for dairy purposes. 
Mr. Overhiser defends the Short Horns, and 
says they are the best for all purposes. Dr. 
Grattin does not appear to have any very de- 
cided ideas on the subject, but Mr. Johnston 
say 8: 

Talking about tows is my strong suit. If you want 
cattle for beef, why, take the Durbama. If you want 
for milk and beef, the Ayrshires will suit you. If you 
want a nice, pretty, handy cow for milk and crc«m and 
butter, nothing excels the Jerseys. I have been in the 
business for 20 years, and have milked all kinds. I have 
had a herd of pretty, well-bred Durhama I have raised 
half-breed Jerseys from an imported bull, and out of 100 
half Jerseys, during the month of January, I marketed 
3,300 lbs. of butter. Now, I can keep three Jerseys to 
two Durhams. 

Overhiser— Cau't do it. 

Johnston— I know what I am talking about. I feed in 
the barn and weigh every bit of food the cattle get, and 
three Jerseys lo two Durhams is the average, and each 
one of the Jers. ys will make as much butter as the Dur- 
hams— not a< much beef as the Durhams -but the milk 
6f the half Jerseys is 2$ J richer in cream than tha of the 
Durhams. I have not the full breeds, but my stock is 
well bred up. I never sold a goad cow in my life till last 
winter, and then I got $100 for one. Now I ask what you 
want cattle for? If land is high it will not pay tu raise 
cattle. I raise calves only to keep up my dairy. If vou 
can make $B or 96 onlv a year more from a Jersey cow, 
that is the cow to keep; because, when you come to want 



the animal for beef, there is notthat difference. I keep no 
cattle for beef nor to raise stock from. That will do where 
land is cheap. But for rich milk, nice cream and yellow 
butter, give me the Jerseys. 

Admitting all that Mr. Johnston says about Jer- 
seys as Jerseys, I do not by any means propose 
to accept his statement in regard to keeping 
three Jerseys on the same food that two well- 
bred milking Short Horns can be kept on. I do 
not think it would be difficult to find two Short 
Horns that would give as much milk and but- 
ter as three ordinary Jerseys would do if kept 
on the same amouut of food as that consumed 
by the two former. If Mr. Johnston was so 
unfortunate in his selection of the "herd of 
pretty well-bred Durhams," which he Bays he 
had, he ought not to throw the whole blame 
on the breed. He evidently did not get the 
right sort to begin with. 

Then again, does he mean to say that he keeps 
two separate herds, one of each breed, at the 
same time ? I am led to understand him so 
when he said "I feed in the barn and weigh 
every bit of food the cattle get, and three Jer- 
seys to two Durhams is the average." Again, 
"the milk of the half Jerseys is 25% richer in 
cream than that of the Durhams." The milk 
of the latter breed contains on an average about 
12% of cream, and Mr. Johnston tells us that 
the milk of his favorites contains 25 / c more. 
Does he really mean that the milk of half bred 
Jerseys is 37% or more than ^ cream? If so, 
the following question suggests itself to my 
mind: If the milk of half bred Jerseys is '. 
cream, how much will the milk of the pure 
bred ones contain ? As Mr. Johnston says he 
has not the "full breeds," I do not expect him 
to answer the question, but perhaps he may 
be able to refer to some one who has the full- 
bred milk. 

Mr. Johnstrn says he has been in the business 
20 years, that he raises calves only to keep up 
his dairy, and that he never sold a good cow in 
his life till last winter, and then he got si 00 
for her. I have not been breeding cattle in this 
country quite so long as Mr. Johnston says he 
has, but I have sold a good many graded Short 
Horn cows at §100 to §125 each, reserving the 
calves, and have not yet found out what better 
use can be made of land than to breed and rear 
good cattle on it. When a heifer has a calf at 
about two years old, breeds and milks well and 
regularly, we are not much indebted to her for 
the cost of rearing by the time she is four years 
old, by which time she will have had her third 
calf, and will then be fit to sell as a family cow; 
her milk and the calves bred from her will be 
worth more than her cost, and the price she is 
sold for will be something like the net profit. 

The kind of cows I have been in the habit of 
selling give from IS to 25 quarts of milk a day, 
when properly fed and attended to. One per- 
son to whom I sold a cow last January (after 
having milked her five weeks after calving), 
told me that they made 12 lbs. of butter a week 
from her — the only cow they kept. 

Dairy Show Suggested. 

If we could only get up a dairy show in con- 
nection with the Mechanics' fair in San Fran- 
cisco, we would then have a chance to bring our 
cows together and find out who had the cowa 
that would give the most milk aud butter. I 
borrowed a State fair premium list from a friend 
the other day to see what premiums were offered 
for cattle, but amongst them all there is not a 
single premium offered for the cow best adapted 
for the dairy; therefore, if Mr. Johnston feels 
inclined to get up a little friendly competition 
amongst dairymen, I will join him in trying to 
show the cow or cows that will produce the 
most milk and butter in a given number of 
days. 

Appreciation of Good Stock. 

Mr. Overhiser thought the farmers did not 
appreciate fine cattle, hence he had sold out his 
Durham eattle and has gone i&to the fish busi- 
ness. Now, it is cattle before fish with me, and 
I don't at all agree with Mr. Overhiser when 
he Bays that farmers do not appreciate the 
benefits to be derived from keeping good cattle. 
I used to think that his cattle breeding was 
quite a secondary matter with him, and I take 
the presentfopportunity of warning him not to 
let the "fish business" get down to the second 
place in his thoughts, else his efforts in that 
line may come to be no better appreciated than 
his breeding of good cattle proved to be; then, 
maybe, his fish won't swim. 

As I have often said before, when a person 
undertakes to breed pure bred cattle of any 
breed successfully, he will find it to be a busi- 
ness requiring a great deal of forethought and 
skillful management; and if he has a large herd, 
he will also find that to properly attend to the 
management of the herd and a suitable farm to 
keep it on will require all the attention that 
cue man can give to it. It will be just as much 
our duty and pleasure to show our herds and 
explain our methods of managing the same to 
inquiring visitors and intending purchasers as 
thac of "people in any other business to show 
their goods, and he who industriously devotes 
most of his time to his own business, is gener- 
ally the one who succeeds best. 

Selecting Profitable Stock. 

But to return to the appreciation of good cat- 
tle by farmers, it is quite true that many farm- 
ers do not appreciate their value; but the ma- 
jority of those farmers who own a few cattle 
and have to make their living by them, know 
how much better it is to l:eep good cattle than 
poor ones, yet few act up to their knowledge in 
the matter — some, because they think they can- 
not afford to pay the price a good bull would 
cost; others are backward about weeding out 
their poor and unprofitable cows which they 



keep on to the injury of the good ones through 
the overstocking of pastures in the growing sea- 
son. Thus, the good cows that would be very 
profitable are robbed of their just dues by those 
cows that are in no way profitable to keep. If 
all dairymen would weed out their unprofitable 
cows, use good bulls of good milking families of 
Short Horns, and rear heifer calves from the 
choicest of their cows only, they would very 
soon own cattle that could be depended on for 
breeding good milkers. 

I am not much in the habit of publishing the 
sales of cattle that I make, but to show that there 
are people who appreciate good cattle, I give 
the prices obtained for breeding bulls and heif- 
ers sold since the 1st of December last, also the 

I age of each animal: 
Roan S. H. Bull, 15 months old* J100 

I Red " 10 months old 200 

I Red, grade, 6 months old 100 

Red S. H. bull, 21 months oldt 150 

White " 3J months old 50 

Red " 10 months old 150 

I Red " 10 months old 150 

Red " 13 months old 150 

J Roan " 19 months oldt 200 

Red " 13 months old 150 

I Roan " 8 months old 125 

Red " 9 months old 150 

White " 14 months oldt 150 

Roan, grade, 6 months old 75 

2 roan heifer calves * 200 

1 " 3} months old 100 

* Not my own breeding. 
tAfter using. 

The above list includes the bulls sold since 
the date named (in the meantime I have refused 
I much higher prices for older bulls reserved for 

I use in my own herd), and the prices are proba- 
bly as low as the same class of bulls could be 
bought for in any other part of the country. 

I I believe some people are frightened out of go- 
ing to buy, or inquire about buying bulls, by 

I the unreasonable prices asked by some breeders, 
I who eventually take less than the price first 
: asked. That is not the way to do business in 
, buying and selling Short Horns. A breeder 
I ought to know the market, and also know, if 
I any man knows, what his own animals are 
I worth, and if anyone wants to buy of him, it is 
i best to name the price he knows them to be 
I worth. Every one of the prices given are just 
what I asked — in fact, several of the animals 
were sold unseen and by letter, on my recom- 
I mendation; I would rather people would come, 
but it is not always convenient for a man to 
travel 200 or 300 miles in search of a bull, 
therefore some are willing to take the risk of 
being suited without going to the expense of a 
long journey themselves. 

Robert Ashburner. 
Baden Station, San Mateo Co., July 15, 18S1. 



Tl|E PUBLIC L^flDS. 



Available University Lands. 

In answer to inquiries from our readers we 
have been informed by J. Ham. Harris, 
Land Agent of the State University, that there 
are about 7,000 acres of public land still obtain- 
able from the University. Other questions 
asked will be found answered in the following 
official circular, giving information as to the 
way in which these lauds can be secured: 

Under the act of Congress, approved July 2, 
1862, entitled "An act donating public lands to 
the several States, which may provide colleges 
for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic 
arts," the State of California was entitled to 
select and locate 150,000 acres of public land ; 
of this grant there are 7,000 acres not sold and 
not located. The right to select and sell this 
Jand is vested in the Board of Regents of the 
University of California. Neither mineral nor 
swamp lands, nor lands within the lGth and 36th 
sections, can be selected under the grant. 
None but vacant unappropriated public land 
can be located. Both surveyed and unsurveyed 
lands can be selected. No scrip is issued, nor 
can any scrip be used in locating California col- 
lege lands. There is no restriction as to the 
number of acres that may be located by an in- 
dividual. The Land Agent simply acts as the 
medium through which selections are made in 
the U. S. Land Office. 

A person desiring to purchase land from the 
University must Jind the land he wishes to lo- 
cate. He must then make application to the 
Land Agent of the University to purchase 
the land, describing it by section, townsihp 
and range, and giving the subdivision of the 
section. The applicant must be able to 
make affidavit in substance "that he is a 
citizen of the United States, of lawful age, 
j and that there are no improvements of any kind 
on the land, other than those owned by him- 
self." 

A persSn desiring to locate unsurveyed land 
must' file with the Land Agent the same appli- 
cation as that required for surveyed lands. The 
township and range in which the land is situ- 
ated must be given, together with a sketch or 
plat describing it as nearly as possible. Upon 
application being made by the Land Agent to 
the United States Surveyor General to survey 
the township in which the land is situated, if 
that officer declines to make the survey for the 
reason that there is no money appropriated for 
that purpose, then, in order to secure the sur- 
vey the applicant will have to advance sufficient 
money to pay for the survey, and the money so 
advanced cannot be refunded. 

Terms of Sale. — If the land sought to be lo- 
cated is inside of a railroad reservation, the 



July 23, 1881.] 



f HE PACIFIC 



RURAL FBESS. 



51 



price is $6.25 per acre; if not included in a rail- 
road reservation it is $5. One dollar per acre 
must be paid at the time the application to lo- 
cate is made, together with a fee of $5 on each 
application. The balance due is payable in five 
years (or sooner, at the option of the purchaser), 
with interest at 7% per annum, payable on or 
before the first of July of each year. Persons 
should be careful not to apply to purchase lands 
to which any adverse right has attached or may 
be set up. The University will not litigate or 
pay for any litigation that may arise in the U. 
S. Land Department or in the courts on account 
of adverse claims to land selected. If there is 
no valid adverse claim to the land at the date 
of location, the right of the University to the 
land attaches the day and hour the application 
to select is filed in the U. S. Land Office. It is 
not necessary for locators to reside or place im- 
provements upon the lands located. The neces- 
sary blanks will be furnished persons desiring 
to make locations, as soon as they have found 
the land that they desire to locate. 



TrfE flELD. 



Pacific Coast Hops. 

Phil. Neis, hop merchant of San Francisco, 
has issued his customary hop circular, as fol- 
lows: 

Our market is bare of choice hops, and not 
one bale is left in growers' hauds. Stock 
in warehouses, 249 bales, all of which are of in- 
ferior quality. Fluctuations of prices during 
the season insignificant. With the exception 
of the Willow Grove, values since September 
ruled from 15 to 20 cents. Last year's crop 
reached in round numbers 15,500 bales, of 
which 8,540 bales were grown in California, 
4,990 in Washington Territory, and 1,935 in 
Oregon. Overland export, to date, 10,310 
bales; by sea to Australia, New Zealand and 
other countries, 573 bales, making 10,883 bales. 

Quality of California hops was mixed; Wash- 
ington Territory, not up to previous years — 
partly frosted; Oregon, better than usual. 

Prospects of thegrowing crops: California crop 
will be shorter than last season. From present 
appearances, the yield will be all the way from 
10 to 50% less than last year's. Yards in Men- 
docino, Lake and Napa counties will produce 
only half a crop. Washington Territory — vines 
look better than for the last two seasons, and 
if nothing interferes 1,000,000 lbs, will be pro- 
duced. Oregon — the crop will exceed last 
year's increase of acreage 10%. The best care 
has been given to the yards, and most of them 
promise a heavy yield. 



Diversifying Crops. 

Editors Press: Shall we continue to raise 
wheat, and only wheat, until all the elements 
which enter into its composition have left the 
soil, and until it is impossible any longer to raise 
wheat? 

This may, at first, seem a foolish question, 
but let us inquire into the matter a little and 
determine, if possible, whether there is any 
danger of this. As I have said before, people 
have not wholly outgrown the idea, prevalent 
in years past among the first-comers to Califor- 
nia, that one must grasp wealth at once; and 
when they find they cannot accomplish this, 
and accomplish itjspeedily in the gold mines, they 
seek to become possessors of wealth by over- 
working the productive soil of our valleys and 
hills, causing it to produce every year a crop of 
wheat, thus changing its very nature, and in 
time rendering it almost entirely worthless. I 
am more and more impressed with the fact that 
some thought must be taken for the future well- 
fare of our land. Ranchers must begin to re- 
alize that they are making homes, not only for 
themselves, but for those who are to come after 
them, and that the land must be managed in 
such a way that it shall be nearly or quite as 
productive in years to come as it now is. I am 
satisfied that throughout a part, at least, of 
the Pacific coast, this thought is entirely ignor- 
ed. The question arises: What shall be done? 
Can we give up the cultivation of wheat for a 
year and try some other crop? By no means; 
there is no cause for so doing. 

Let each man try a few acres of some crop 
other than wheat, and test it each year. I have 
been perfectly astonished to see what California 
land can be made to produce, and land, too, 
much of it, which had been considered worth- 
less, either on . account of its color and gravelly 
nature, or its hills, ravines, etc. 

Flax 

The Pacific coast is so varied in climate, na- 
ture of its soil, etc., that we cannot know, ex- 
cept by experience, what can be produced. I 
shall speak this time of the cultivation of flax, 
as I consider, that, in all parts of the coast, and 
especially of California, this could be success- 
fully and profitably raised, and that it would 
cause the land to be more productive thereafter 
for the cultivation of wheat. 

I see, in passing the ranches here, that more 
and more of this is being raised every year. 
In many respects, it has the advantage of wheat. 
It can be sowed later, will stand more drouth, 
pays better, and is a surer crop. Now let me 
mention some of my reasons for thinking that 
flax could be much more profitably raised in 
California than in Nebraska, where I am now 
visiting. In this climate it has to be harvested 
before it is really matured, on account of the 



fact that the rains, which are sure to come about 
harvest time, cause it to lodge. With us, it 
could be allowed to stand the same as wheat. 

Rain during harvest is a greater injury to it 
than to other grain. It also does best where 
the last few weeks before harvest are without 
rain. Flax seems always to do well where 
other grain will. The only objection is that 
not nearly as much money can be made from 
the raising of it, if the seed has to be exported 
and the straw unused, as could be realized 
therefrom were the facilities close at hand for 
the manufacture of linseed oil from the seed 
and linen and rope from the fibers of the bark. 
This, however, would be obviated, for it 
would soon become apparent to moneyed men 
there, as it does elsewhere, that it pays well to 
manufacture these articles at home. 

The time must aud will come when less cap- 
ital will be lost by speculation in stocks and 
more will be used in home industry. The 
farmers will then save freight on a great many 
goods, both ways, when sent away as raw 
material and when imported again in a manu- 
factured state. 

In one respect only does it cost more to raise 
wheat than flax, viz., it must be threshed more 
slowly. S. A. S. 

Fairmount, Neb. 

[Our readers are already informed on the sub- 
ject of flax. There are large quantities grown 
in the lower coast counties, and we had some 
very practical articles on flax-growing from a 
Pescadero farmer last year. However, the sub- 
ject is a fair one for discussion. — Eds. Press.] 



Arizona Trees. 

Our contributor, Prof. J. G. Lemmon, who, 
as our readers know, passed the early summer 
in Arizona, in the prosecution of botanical 
studies, prepares for the Arizona Journal a val- 
uable statement concerning Arizona trees and 
plants, as learned by his latest researches. He 
writes: Among the most interesting discov- 
eries made this season in the Arizona mount- 
ains are some facts which, though closely con- 
nected interiorly, yet superficially may be put 
into two classes: 

First— Distinct and hence new species of plants derived 
either from extinct families, or else differentiated by ayes 
of isolation from kindred living plants. 

Second— Remarkable varieties, almost amounting to 
specific differences, owing to peculiar local and climatic 
conditions. 

Time will admit of only the merest mention 
of these two propositions, which, with adequate 
ability, might be elaborated into deeply instruc- 
tive essays, perhaps. 

Of New Species, 
Over two dozen have been detected in the 
mountains of Santa Catilina alone. These in- 
clude plants of widely separate orders, from the 
tiny lichens and the useful grasses to the lovely 
ferns and the more consequential shrubs and 
trees. Precise scientific names cannot be given 
to all of these yet, until consultation of the 
authorities is had; but many readers will not 
be sorry to miss the difficult Greek and Latin 
names, notwithstanding their appropriate de- 
scriptive signification to the scientific reader. 
From the standpoint of utility, we would look 
at these discoveries from the bottom of the list 
indicated, that is, take a glance at the trees 
and shrubs first. But one botanical explorer 
has before reported maple trees from within the 
limits of Arizona; yet a 

Fine Grove of Sugar Maple, 
Which may be distinct, is found in the deer 
park included by the higher peaks of the Cat- 
alinas. Also, on the sunny slopes is seen a new 
and beautiful cypress, detected also by Mr. 
Green on the White mountains, northward, I 
believe. A sugar maple is reported by the min- 
ers on the north slope of Dos Cabazes, in the 
Chiricahua mountains, which is perhaps the 
same as this of the Catalina. The writer has 
arranged to have leaves and fruit forwarded to 
him soon, for determination, and may then re- 
port. The maple trees in the Catalinas are 
some of them one and a half ft. in diameter and 
40 to 50 ft. high; of dark smooth bark, and 
long slender limbs. The leaves and flowers 
were just expanding when we first came upon 
the trees, amidst the melting snow banks, on 
April 30th; but the trees had been tapped by 
two adventurous pioneers there, and we had a 
canteen of excellent sap and a fine article of 
syrup given us. This maple strongly resembles 
Acer grand identatum found in Oregon, but if 
it proves to be that species it has made a won- 
derful skip over the States of California and 
Nevada, where it is unkuown. 

Between this class of plants and the next 
stands a large and valuable pine tree,which un- 
til lately was considered a variety of a certain 
white pine found on the Sierra Madre mount- 
ains, Mexico, but of late declared by the high- 
est authority (Dr. Engelmann) to be a distinct 
species. This pine resembles the common sugar 
pine ot California, but the cones are not half so 
long and, even when young, the scales are 
strongly reflected, suggesting the Doctor's new 
name for the species: 

"Pinus Reflexa." 

It is frequently met with in the deer park re- 
ferred to, also on a similar plateau on Mount 
Graham, and is reported also from several other 
ranges. 



Among the second class of plants — the remark- 
able varieties — there is time to mention only 
one pine. In 1875 Dr. Rothrock, of the Wheeler 
survey, discovered on the Santa Rita mount- 
ains a pine tree having a strong resemblance to 
the common yellow pine of California (Pinus 
ponderosa), but having its leaves in fascicles of 
five each, instead of three each, the number in 
the typical species. Coupling this character 
with others, derived from the smallness of the 
cone, etc., Rothrock judged the two to be dis- 
tinct, and gave it the name of 

"Pinus Arlzonica." 
Though admitting that his "data was very 
meager." Last autumn, Dr. Engelmann him- 
self, with Prof. Sargent, visited the Santa Ritas, 
and both became satisfied that the pine was in- 
deed distinct and entitled to be ranked as a new 
species. Now, in the large inclosed forest of 
the Santa Catalina mountains, we find pine trees 
of the appearance and description given for the 
Pinus Arizonica, including the long, slender 
leaves in bundles of five; but, unfortunately for 
the fate of the new species, some of the leaves 
are in fascicles of all numbers from two to seven ! 
On examination of this forest for several days, 
every variety of character distinguishing this 
polymorphous species was noted; the same as in 
the Sierra of California, with the added features 
of many-leaved fascicles and very small cones ; 
so we are compelled to believe that the so-called 
Pinus Arizonica is only a form, or, rather, a 
sport of the Pinus ponderosa, so variable in its 
forms in California as to have received there 
four or five names from the lumbermen, but all 
specifically connected by intermediate forms. 
Of course, we must not deny that the Pinus 
Arizonica may exist in the Santa Rita mountains, 
a range some 50 miles southward of the Santa 
Catalina; but certainly the presumption is 
against it, and the facts presented, we think, 
show the wonderful transformation powers of 
isolation and climatic conditions to which this 
species has been subjected for ages, almost ren- 
dering it a distinct species. Fascicles of these 
pine leaves of different numbers and various 
lengths have been sent, accompanied by the gist 
of the above notes, to Dr. Engelmann, Prof. 
Sargent, Dr. Parry, and to the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, from whom we may expect de- 
cisive reports. 



Timothy on the Pacific Coast. 

Editors Press:— If timothy is not indigenous to this 
country it is making itself quite at home here. It is dis- 
puting the hillsides with the almost ubiquitous fern. I 
send, in a paper box, a few sample heads of timothy, and 
two sample stalks.— .1. Rookks, Walla Walla, W. T. 

This beats all the timothy we over saw. One 
of the stalks is 7 ft. 4 inches long, and of the 
heads, many are lOg inches long, and one is 11^ 
inches. Timothy does not succeed in the greater 
part of California, as the long, dry summer 
is fatal to its bulbous roots; but in some of the 
extreme northern counties, as in Lassen, for in- 
stance, it makes a splendid hay plant, as it does 
at the East. The same is the case in Oregon 
and Washington Territory; and as the land is 
new and rich, the timothy makes a marvelous 
growth as shown by the samples sent by our 
correspondent. 

As this is the case, it may interest some of our 
northern dairy and stock-growing readers to 
have some points on treatment of timothy 
meadows which is the result of the best 
Eastern experience. The National Live Stock 
Journal says: One of our principal meadow 
grasses is timothy, and this forms a tuber or 
bulb just above the surface of the ground, and 
is injured or destroyed when the bulb is cut or 
eaten off. Pasturing meadows of this grass is 
likely greatly to injure these bulbs, and this 
explains the serious injury that occurs when 
these meadows are pastured in the fall. Cut- 
ting too close with mowing machines often in- 
jures it. Timothy is, perhaps, our most valu- 
able meadow grass, as, with proper attention, 
it will easily continue 10 years in succession to 
yield large crops. If our meadows consisted of 
Kentucky blue-grass, wire grass, orchard grass, 
red top, etc., pasturing would not be so fatal, 
although then not advisable except on alluvial 
or overflowed land. 

But let us see what the real value of the after- 
math of timothy meadow is worth. Take the case 
mentionedof 75 acres pastured. Four cents worth 
of wheat middlings and corn meal per day to each 
cow, would have produced more milk and left the 
cows in better condition, during the five or six 
weeks that they were allowed to run a portion 
of the day upon the meadows. This would 
have cost, at the most, only about $1.60 per 
head, whilst the damage to the meadow was at 
least ten times as much. Meadows require 
generous attention, should be top-dressed with 
stable manure in the fall, instead of pasturing 
them, and when this cannot be had, should be 
top-dressed with some commercial fertilizerevery 
few years, and thus kept in full production, and 
your dairy full fed through the winter. 



Keeping Butter for Home Use. — A lady 
reader asks how she shall manage to preserve 
the nice butter made from the family cow for 
use in the late fall. As it is made in small 
churnings, she does not see how she can keep 
these small lots in fine condition for so long a 
time. Our correspondent has, no doubt, the 
best possible means at her hand of doing just 
what she desires. She has some unused fruit 



cans — quart and two-quart — and they offt 
precisely the means she is looking for to 1 
serve her butter. When the butter is worked 
ready for packing (and this should always be 
done the day after churning), let her make a 
small muslin sack, about half an inch smaller 
in diameter, and of the same depth, as the 
glass fruit can she will use. Put this muslin 
sack into the can, and fill it with butter 
through the mouth of the can, using a small 
rammer to press in the butter till the sack is 
full up to the neck of the can. About 3J lbs. 
may be put in the sack for a two-quart can. 
When the sack is filled firmly with butter, fold 
over the upper edges, and place across the top 
of the sack a strip of wood that has been soaked 
in brine. This is to keep the sack from rising 
to the top of the brine. Now pour in strongly 
saturated brine, made from butter salt, and fill 
the jar, over the top of the sack, completely 
full; now screw on the cover, air tight, and it 
is prepared for keeping six months, or a year, 
as completely as you may keep fruit put up in 
the same can. These cans, filled with butter, 
should be set in a dark box in the cellar. This 
butter may be taken out through the neck of 
the can with a tablespoon, and it will be found 
as fresh, rosy and delicious in flavor as when 
first put up. — National Live Stock Journal, 
Chicago. 



Notes on Irrigation.— No. 3. 

Under most favorable circumstances, it is not 
probable that with us more than one-half or two- 
thirds will receive the district benefits at any 
one time. This, at two-thirds, would amount to 
100,000 acres. It may be safe, however, to ven; 
ture the assertion that owing to our general in- 
experience in the science of irrigation, the crude 
and uneven state in which much of our land at 
present lies, that not more than 25,000 acres 
would receive the benefits for the next five 
years, even if we had the works constructed. 
In solving the problem as to the quantity of 
water that will be required, or its duty per 
cubic ft. per second, we must consider the na- 
ture of the soil, the subsoil, crop, climate and 
topography of the district. Confining my 
remarks to the section between the Mokelumne 
and Calaveras, which has been one of the fields 
cf my examinations I find that the soil of the 
Calaveras bottoms which constitute our "black 
lands" is mostly a clay adobe, with an admix- 
ture of about 20% of sand. The land lying be- 
tween the black land and the live oaks contains 
from 20 to 40% 3and; the oaks 50 to 80% sand. 
Soils vary greatly in their power to absorb and 
retain water. This is due to the surface attrac- 
tion of the particles of soil for the water, and 
the finer the particles of soil, the greater will be 
the amount absorbed, because the total surface 
of the particles is greater, and the longer they 
will be retained. A gravelly soil, or a 
soil of pure sand, will absorb but a small 
quantity of water and will soon part with it, 
while a fine alluvial soil, or heavy clay, will ab- 
sorb a large per cent, and retain it for a long 
time. (See Schabler's experiments). 

We thus see that the quality of soil (and I 
may add, its fine surface tilth which acts as a 
mulch), has very much to do with the measure 
of water required, and the engineer must con- 
sider and determine this point before any defi- 
nite estimate of the needed supply can be made. 

The subsoil of the district is similar in charac- 
ter to thesurface soil, but more compact.probably 
from the fact of a smaller admixture of loam. 
This subsoil rests upon a substratum of hardpan 
or clay, at depths varying from 3 to 5 and 8 to 
10 ft. As it is in a degree impervious to water 
and the topographic slope is sufficient, the wa- 
ter is transmitted by gravitation along the su- 
per surface to the lower points where occasion- 
ally it finds a rim forming a basin, and then 
comes to the surface in miniature lagoons or 
waterholes; but in its passage the moisture nat- 
urally rises through the soil by capillary attrac- 
tions toward the surface, where it is eliminated 
as plant food, and gives a rank growth to vege- 
tation. This is practically subaqueous irriga- 
tion, the very best that can be applied, and 
discounts asbestine process in its more general 
and cheaper diffusion. This, then, with us will 
become an important factor in determining the 
water supply. The climate also has an impor- 
tant bearing on our calculations. 

The annual average rainfall for this valley is 
approximately 17 inches, varying between the 
extremes of 4.7 to 36 inches. We know that in 
California a gently falling rain of 3 or 4 inches 
will saturate the ground where dry, prepare it 
for the plow and start vegetation. This rain 
repeated, in less degree, every 20 or 30 days 
during the season, and our crops are assured, 
and the season is considered a good one. While 
often with violent storms and copious rains, 
producing floods, owing to our excessive slope 
but a small amount of water is retained to be 
absorbed and infiltered into the soil, the excess 
passing off in channels of surface drainage. 

In March and April we have our usual north- 
ers, that drink up all surface moisture, which 
are followed by the ardent heats and arid atmos- 
phere of the aummer months. During these 
months evaporation of moisture is excessive. 
Like mother earth, we, too, get dry and want 
libations of lager and "sich like drinks," while 
(Continued on Page 58.) 



52 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PBESS 



[July 23, 1881. 



Correspondence 011 (Jrauge principles and work anil re- 
ports of transactions of sulmrdinate lirangee respectfully 
requested for this department. 



San Luis Obispo Grange and the Trans- 
portation Question. 

The following ib sent to us for publication by 
San Luis Obispo Grange: 

The Sau Luis Obispo Grange send greeting to the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry particularly, and to all shippers of 
the coast, Southern coast counties particularly. 

Fellow Citizens and Grangers: We believe 
the time has arrived when we should carry 
into practice some of the principles of the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry and common sense. We 
ask you one and all to enter into a combination 
for securing to the whole Pacific coast just, 
equitable and lasting rates of freights and fares. 
We invite all who will co-operate with us to 
secure such results to send their names to the 
San Luis Obispo Grange. A committee will 
take charge of them and they will not be di- 
vulged. When a sufficient number of names 
have been obtained, a convention will be called, 
plans matured, and put into operation. We 
invite all of the Granges in the coast counties 
to become the receiver of a similar movement 
and to communicate with us. Send in your 
names ! It will not cost you a cent. We 
are moved by the following considerations: 

If all or a large percentage of the shippers on 
this coast, or the south coast counties will unite 
as one man in a combination to enter into a le- 
gal and biuding contract with some carrying 
corporations or individual capital for a series of 
years, or for an agreed percentage of profit to 
take all the carrying trade of the coast, or south 
coast counties. Such service can be obtained 
at cost with a reasonable percentage of profit 
added. The reasons why we think this can be 
done are: 

L Large amounts of money are already in- 
vested in the carrying trade which ought to be 
and must be satisfied with a business that pays 
reasonable percentage of profit, if they are not 
permitted to make their own prices. 

2. If the people combine they can control 
the carrying trade and force freight 3 and fares 
to an equitable standard. Corporations and 
capital may own their ships and railroads but 
the people can if they will, control the move- 
ment of merchandise of all kinds. The coast 
counties have the ocean for an auxiliary, a high- 
way that cannot be monopolized, a highway 
which is open to the capital and ships of the 
whole world. If we unite and take for our 
motto just and equitable rates of freight and 
fare and that we will have no other rates we 
must succeed. 

Capital is becoming abundant all over the 
world, l'articularly is gold, gold, gold pour- 
ing into our own happy land to pay balances 
due us, in the hands of thousands of emigrants, 
and seeking safe and loug investments at low 
rates of interest or profit. Witness the sales 
of Government, State and county bonds and 
long loans made on first-class security of all 
kinds. Would not a contract made and backed 
by a whole people be the same or as good secur- 
ity as State and county bonds ? 

And are the people so foolish that when the 
unmistakable signs of the times and inarch of 
events and capital shake the co-operative con- 
tract system at them and call in thunder tones 
sign, sign ! give us permanency, give us security 
and surety and we will give yon service and 
money for small percentages of interest or profit, 
that they will not do it, but accept the menaces, 
fhe servitude, the shackles that are day by day 
lining forged for thorn by corporations and ag- 
gregations of capital ! Shall we subject our- 
selves at once to the avarice of corporations, and 
the percentages which they must charge to meet 
the contingencies that are possible and probable 
to them of rival lines and opposition when twice 
the carrying capacity necessary to the country 
shall be struggling for ascendency, causing 
great watte and doubt as to the permanency 
and profitableness of the business and invest- 
ment? If such a state of things is permitted it 
will be charged to the people as a part of the 
cost of the carry iug trade. It has been said 
that we are and always must be dependent upon 
competition for low prices in everything; that 
this is a law which governs trade and commerce. 
It seems to us rather that the cost of anything 
depends upon the economy of its production. 
Shall we then depend alone upon competition, 
war and wa..ic to bring us equitable freights 
and fares ? Are there auy of the elements of 
economy or cheap production in competition by 
rival lines ? No, fellow Patrons and citizens 
we must j jia one and all, heart and hand, con- 
tract for and secure our commerce upon the 
moat economic and equitable principles. Send 
us your names, your confidence will not be vio- 
lated, you will have a voice in what is to be 
done, and it will not cost you a cent if nothing 
is accomplished. 

Signed by the Grange Committee of San Luis 
Obispo Grange, July 11, 1S81. 

IOden Grange, Hay wards, confers the 3d 
and 4th degrees to-day (Saturday) at 10 a. M. 
Worthy Master Dennis, on behalf of his Lodge, 
extends an invitation to Temescal Grange and 
other Patrons to be present and partake of the 
harvest feast. Patrons who have hitherto par- 
taken with the "Sisters of Eden," will not for- 
get it. We are pleased to hear of the contin- 
ued prosperity of Eden Grange. 



Some Significant Facts. 

There are now invested in railroad property 
in this country upward of four and a half bil- 
lions of dollars. Their net earnings for 1S79 
were upward of $200,000,000. 

This immense property is concentrated in 
the bands of a few men. The presidents of 
four roads — the Baltimore & Ohio, the Pennsyl- 
vania, the Central and the Erie— to-day con- 
trol the price of breadstuff's on the Atlantic 
coast. 

It is rapidly increasing. The funded debt 
and stock interest have increased in three years 
over £700,000,000; the milage nearly 20% 

It is exercising an increasing political con- 
trol. The Central exercises an almost irresist- 
ible influence in the New York Legislature; 
the Pennsylvania a controlling influence in 
the Pennsylvania Legislature; the Central Pa- 
cific a despotic control over legislation on the 
Pacific coast. 

It has a powerful if not a dominant represen- 
tation in the United States Senate. Nearly 
every Senator added during the past three years 
is interested in railroad enterprises; and the 
railroad interest is straining every nerve to in- 
crease this railroad representation. 

It controls three leading newspapers in the 
metropolis, one in the capital, and many others 
in different parts of the country. 

The telegraphs of the country are concentrated 
in a single hand, and that the hand of a railroad 
president. 

These facts are worthy of thoughtful consid- 
eration. — Christian U» ion . 

A Pleasant Grange Gathering. 

After conferring the 4th degree at its last 
meeting, Temescal Grange postponed its har- 
vest feast to Saturday, July 18th, at Bro. J. V. 
Webster's beautiful home in Fruitvale. The 
invitation for Eden Grange to participate, 
brought a large delegation of the "fair" and 
"stalwart'' "live Grangers" of Haywards, who 
joined in making a pleasant and profitable day 
of it. The company were cordially met by Bro. 
and Sister Webster, and generously invited to 
make themselves "at home" in their elegant and 
substantial dwelling, and about the well-planned 
and ornamented grounds surrounding. Before 
the examination was completed of all that was 
interesting and instructive for the brothers and 
sisters to see of the thorough work done in the 
construction and improvement of the place, the 
gathering seemed indeed like a large family of 
Grangers, perfectly at home, and happy from 
youngest to oldest. For 20 years or more, Bro. 
Webster has worked his farm. It is now prin- 
cipally in well-advanced orchards. The place 
bears visible marks of the thorough and masterly 
hand of its cultivator. 

Fruitvale is a sheltered nook, about three 
miles east of Oakland. In the well-protected 
grounds fronting the mansion, Bro. Webster is 
successfully growing orange, lemon, olive and 
persimmon trees, with a large variety of flow- 
ering and ornamental plants. 

Being a warm day the sisters spread the har- 
vest feast in the unique summer-house, per- 
fectly formed from base to dome of that beau- 
tiful living evergreen — Monterey cypress. 
Abundance of substantials, cakes, hot coffee, 
lemonade, ice cream, etc., loaded the tables. 
These, surrounded with cheerful Matrons, Pa- 
trons and guests, with a liberal sprinkling of 
bright juveniles, just filled the charming space 
as completely as if all bad been measured out 
for the occasion. 

Repairing to the t .triors, the committee re- 
ported a form of petition to the City Council 
for a free produce market in Oakland, to be 
signed by citizens of Oakland and farmers of 
Alameda and Contra Costa counties. It was 
adopted and signed by many present. Others 
will receive copies and sign wiih their fellow 
Patrons and farmers in other places. Imme- 
diate and persistent action in the matter was 
urged and resolved upon by members. 

Mr. Campbell, by request, recited a thrilling 
incident. 

Bros. Joel Kussell (Chaplain State Grange), 
J. V. Webster (Treasurer State Grange) ad- 
dressed words of wisdom and encouragement 
for the good of the Order. Brief and pertinent 
remarks were made by other brothers and sis- 
ters. Sister Webster rendered several beauti- 
ful songs accompanied by the piano, in an able 
manner. She was well supported in the sing- 
ing of popular Grange songs. And thus the 
"labors ' of the day closed, with pleasant and 
well remembered moments. 

Thanks were voted to Bro. and Sister Web- 
ster for their generous welcome and kind at- 
tentions for the comfort and pleasure of Tem- 
escal Grange and their guests. Following is a 
copy of the above mentioned petition, which 
we trust will be thoroughly circulated and lib- 
erally signed: 

To the Honorable Jlawr anil Citu Council of the Cit'i 
of Oakland: 

We, the undersigned, citizens of Alameda and Contra 
Costa counties, respectfully represent that in our opinion 
it would be greatly to the advantage of the citizens of 
Oakland and the farmers and horticulturists living in the 
counties above named, to allow all farm and garden pro- 
ducts to be sola by the actual producers free from a 
license tax, at some convenient place within the city 
limits to be designated by your honorable body. The 
principle is every where recognized that the more intimate 
the relations existing between the producer and consumer 
the greater arc the direct benefits to both. While a li- 
cense tax is imposed upon the actual producer, he has no 
discretion in the disposition of his products; leaving all 
consumers 00 other alternative than the purchase of their 



supplies from the town huckster or of the Chinaman's 
stale stock in trade, scraped together from tho refuse of 
San Francisco [markets. The farmers or horticulturists 
with a few dollars worth of produce each month ready for 
market cannot afford to get out a license for the privilege 
of disposing of it. and consequently it is allowed to waste 
or be sacrificed to the dealers. It is an axiom well under- 
stood and recognized by business men everywhere that a 
town or city cannot grow and prosper whilo fcctling upon 
its own vitals. That external trade is the life-blood of 
any prosperous community, and while the inhabitants of 
tho rich agricultural regions around about Oakland are 
by virtue of unjust restrictions compelled to send their 
products t<> San Francisco in order to realize a fair return 
for their toil, they wUl not to any considerable extent 
trade with the merchants of this town. So we have a city 
of 10,000 inhabitants depending on San FranciHco for sus- 
tenance, instead of 011 the agricultural regions of one- 
half the State, which legitimately belong to our trade. 
Hence the truthful but opprobrious epithet that Oakland 
is simply a pluce where the people of San Francisco sleep 
and go to church on Sunday. Conscious of theudvantages 
which will ultimately accrue to the inhabitants of Oak- 
land and to all the people living in the rural districts ad- 
jacent thereto, we pray your honorable body may seri- 
ously considei the merits, and act upon the suggestions 
herein contained. 

C. liioiiK, 1 

L. Frisk, .-Com. 

J. V. WrssTis, ) 



CALIFORNIA. 

BUTTE. 

Wb-KAT. — Chico Record, July 10: Owing to 
the late winter rains and the large acreage over- 
flown by the Hoods, much seeding was deferred 
until it was too late for the grain to mature and 
yield a full crop, but as the weather through 
May and June continued cool and favorable for 
filling, ranchers became somewhat sanguine over 
the prospective yield of their crops on late sown 
lands. The harvest has now sufficiently ad- 
vanced for a pretty correct estimate to be 
formed of the yield. Throughout this county 
where threshing has been done, the yield is 
foUDd to be short of the estimate made a month 
or six weeks since. In some localities, especial- 
ly on the higher and earlier land, the shrinkage 
is found to be from 20 to 30% ( while on the 
stronger lands it does not exceed 10 , and a 
few fields show no perceptible falling off. In 
the southern part of Tehama county and the 
northern part of Colusa, on what is known as 
the plains, where the grain was principally 
summer-fallow, and did not suffer from the ex- 
cessive rainfall of December, January and Feb- 
ruary, it is said to be tine, and the yield in a 
number of cases is exceeding the most sanguine 
expectation of competent judges, but in that 
grain belt many fields of volunteer and winter- 
sown are said to be very light, and wherever 
the land shows the presence of alkali a very 
light yield may be expected. 

COLUSA. 

Our Harvest. — Sun, July 10: As our har- 
vest progresses we are confirmed in the esti- 
mate we made of the crop in this county at one- 
half of what it was last year. The strip of 
country along next to the foothills is turning 
out remarkably well, and a first-class article of 
wheat, too, but there was not much land sown. 
Grand Island will not have half as much as last 
year. We spoke of the river lands in our last. 
The quality of our wheat this year will bo 
superb. The cool summer has greatly facili- 
tated harvesting operations, and the headers 
and threshers will be housed much earlier than 
usual this season. 

Peen Too. — L N. Cain, of College City, sent 
us this week a peach shaped like a tomato, 
with a small pit, "flat the other way," which 
was at first a puzzle to us; but we were in- 
formed that it was the Peen Too, or fiat Chi- 
nese peacb. The flavor is a good deal like any 
other peacb. They will not be generally 
grown, as there are so many better varieties. 

FRESNO. 

Grasshoppers. — Bxpoaitor, July 11: The 
grasshoppers are very thick on the plains, and 
are doing considerable damage to fruit trees, 
grapevines, garden sass and growing vegetation 
generally. Some parties have bought turkeys 
and are trying to reduce the pest by gobbler 
power, and they report that the plan works 
very successfully. But everybody cannot 
adopt I'ii- course, as the grasshopper crop is 
more extensive than the turkey crop. Speci- 
mens of the hoppers shown us demonstrate 
that they are not dwarfs, and that they have 
been well fed. 

LAKE. 

Carp. — Democrat, July 10: An item in the 
Rural Press in speaking of the many advan- 
tages of Lake county, and prophesying its future 
reputation as a carp producing section, is not 
at all visionary or inconsistent. It is an unde- 
niable fact that our numberless small streams 
all through the mountains can be formed into 
ponds of any size and number desired and the 
culture of this noted food fish easily promoted 
into a leading industry. Like all other enter- 
prises, it will require some means and some la- 
bor, but in a very few years the product will 
outstrip almost anything else. 

Fair. — Bulletin: L. H. Gruwell, President 
of the Lake county Agricultural fair, informs 
us the second annual fair, which will be held 
here on the 13th, 14th and 15th of September 
next, will undoubtedly surprise its predecessor 
for the extent, variety and valne of its exhibits. 
We hope that the stock -raisers, fruit men, far- 
mers and artisans, generally, of the county 
will not be behind other fairs in their general 
display. The next meeting of the directors 
will be held on August 1st next. 



LOS ANGELES. 

Plums on Alkali.— Commercial: Mr. E. H. 
Boyd, the proprietor of a ranch in Los Nietos, 
and also of the Pacific hotel in this city, has 
shown us the branch of a plnm tree 18 
inches in length containing 131 plums of the 
damsou variety, and weighing three lbs. This 
is the most remarkable specimen of plum 
growth we have ever met, and looks more like 
a bunch of grapes than a branch of a plum tree. 
The soil of I ..is Angeles is especially adapted to 
the growth of plums and pears. These fruits 
seem to relish the soils of the lowlands con- 
taining alkali. When this fact becomes gener- 
ally known, the planting of these fruits will be 
largely increased, with profit to the planters. 

A New Irrigating Enterprise at Orange. 
— Santa Ana Herald; A great enterprise is 
being prosecuted quietly by our neighbors of 
Orange and vicinity, and one that will prove a 
lasting benefit to that beautiful and prosperous 
community. The settlers on the Letspeich, 
Montgomery tract, and the Farmers' and Mer- 
chants' Bank, set to work, a short time since, 
after the necessary surveys and examinations 
had been made, and placed a dam in the Santi- 
ago creek, between two high walls of the 
canyon from whence the water issued, thus rais- 
iug to the surface the whole underground flow. 
There are about 400 inches, or 2^ heads of wa- 
ter running in the Santiago, and it was deter- 
mined to utilize it. To this end 7,300 ft. of 
12-inch cement pipe (inside measurement) is 
being laid, and the work will be finished inside 
of two months and the water be furnished to 
irrigate 1,200 ceres of valuable land. There 
will be no loss by evaporation or seepage, as in 
open ditches. A great deal of money has been 
spent in this undertaking, and the reward will, 
we hope, be commensurate with the enterprise 
of the projectors. 

MONTEREY. 

Salinas Valley Crops. — Democrat, Jnly 
10: Harvesting in this valley is in full blast, 
being more forward by several weeks "than is 
usual with us. Oats have been gathered and 
sold, bafley, likewise, has been harvested, and 
the cutting and threshing of wheat is going on 
briskly. All the grains are unusually bright, 
and, being well tilled as a rule, farmers have 
little difficulty in effecting Bales at current 
prices. It is understood that the quality of all 
the grain grown in our valley, this year, is ex- 
ceptionally bright and good looking, its color 
being attributable, doubtless, to the absence of 
late spring rains, and to the comparative ex- 
emption from fogs customary dnring the seasons 
of ripening and of harvest. 
NAPA. 

IJkkryessa Crops. — Register, July 16: Har- 
vest is well under way, and will be over by the 
last of the present month. Summer-fallowed 
grain is generally very good, but the late-sown 
grain is thin on the ground and in most cases 
shrunken by rust or other causes. The amount 
of grain in the valley will equal about half of 
that raised last year. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

New Mill — Mirror, July 15: A joint Btock 
company, with Steele Bros, at the head, is be- 
ing made up to erf c'. a grand flouring mill at 
this place. The mill is calculated to grind 100 
barrels of flour daily, and will furnish employ- 
ment to a dozen men, and what is best of all, 
it is to be a water-milL Mr. E. Ludham, a 
thorough-going mechanic and engineer, says wc 
have an abundance of water in the arroyo for 
four miles. With Steele Bros., Messrs. Popp, 
Ramsey and Ludham to push, the mill is as- 
sured within the next half year. 

Threshing Outfit. — Cor. Mirror: I wish to 
tell your readers what I saw a few days ago at 
Steele Brothers' ranch. It was, I suppose, the 
largest threshing outfit ever started out by one 
firm, in Southern California, and consisted o 
one large 18-horse power engine, drawn by six 
mules; one large, new Gold Medal separator, 
30-inch cylinder, and one of the largest size 
grain cleaners; then a wagon with a platform, 
I think 10x18 ft., to drop the Btraw on. On 
this platform is securely fastened one of Jack- 
son's derricks, with two of his derrick forks. 
On one end of this same platform is placed the 
end of the elevator that conveys the grain to the 
elevator, where one of Bay ley's feeders feeds the 
straw evenly and uniformly. Then last, but 
not least, comes the huge cook house, on wheels, 
to feed the hands. It does the farmers' wives 
and daughters good to look at this last improve- 
ment — no more worrying, baking, fixing and 
dreading the coming of the thresher. Alto- 
gether, there were six wagons, including the 
engine and cleaner, and IS horses. A few days 
after this immense outfit pulled out, it was fol- 
lowed by another equally large, owned by the 
same parties. They ch.irge for threshing wheat, 
14 cents per hundred tt>s. when not run through 
the cleaner, and 15 cents when run through; 
barley 12 cents per hundred. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Aca-upo* Notes. — Editors Press : Crops are 
turning out very well in this viciuity. Winter 
plowing yields from 10 to 18 bnsbels; summer- 
fallow IS to 30 bushels per acre. We can't cm - 
plain; but most of us got caught on the sack 
ring, and we all feel blue over the price offered 
for our bard labor, but feel in hopes the market 
will improve by the first of November. — A J. 
Woods, Acampo. 

Horticultural Commission. — Stockton In- 
dependent: Saturday, July 9th, the County 
Board of Horticultural Commissioners, consist- 
ing of Ezra Fiak, James Crozier and W. B. 



Jtiiy 23, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



53 



West, met for the purpose of organizing. Mr. 
Fisk was chosen Chairman and W. B. West, 
Secretary. The board intend to proceed im- 
mediately with the examination of the fruit 
and shade trees of the county. Some prelim- 
inary work has been done which has deter- 
mined the fact that outside of the limits of the 
city we are comparatively free from the worst 
enemies of trees— the scale insect— although 



last year. A gentleman who has just been out 
in the country says he never saw finer crops in 
Green valley than they have this season. And 
in this section on uplands we have a few fine 
crops, but on many of the valley farms, particu 
larly on the low, flat adobe lands, there is no 
grain at all. What grain we have, however, it 
is said by farmers will be first-class. Our ware- 
houses still have the bigger part of last year's 



the codling moth has ravaged nearly all the storage on hand, and consequently there will 



■orchards in the county; and the red spider 
aphis and mites are found everywhere. But I 
am sorry to say that in the city the "scale" has 
obtained a foothold, and in many cases has de- 
stroyed the troes. There is to be found upon 
the apple, pear and plum trees the "black 
scale," so destructive in Santa Clara county, 
and another kind upon elms. It is the inten- 
tion of the board to have instructions printed 
for the destruction of these pests, and recipes 
for washes, which have been successful else- 
where, and we hope the public will aid us in 
our work of combatting these pests, for we can- 
not afford to lose our beautiful shade and fruit 
trees.'— W. B. West. 

Roberts Island.— Herald, July 12: Reports 
from the upper division of Roberts Island con- 
cerning the probable yield of wheat are very en- 
couraging. It is estimated that this division 
has about 21,000 acres sowed to wheat and bar- 
ley. The yield of wheat will, it is thought by 
Some, be on an average larger than last year. 
One man who has traveled over the division to- 
day informed a representative of the Herald 
that he thought there wgre at least 5,000 acres 
of wheat in that locality which would give an 
average yield of 50 bushels to the acre, and a 
large portion of the remainder of the tract will 
yield at the rate of 30 bushels per acre. 

The Wheat Crop. — Independent, July 12 
Wheat is not likely to yield as well as was sup 
posed. Even the cool weather did not bring 
the crop up as was expected. Many farmers are 
inclined to put the yield at less than half of last 
year. None place it above half of last year for 
any extended tracts. J. M. Garwood and Wm 
Snow state that around Collegeville the average 
yield will be about nine bushels per acre. Mr. 
Garwood has some on fallow land that runs 16 
bushels. Here and there a fallow will run 20 
bushels, but the average is much less. Dr. 
Grattan puts his, east of this city, at nine bushels, 
Roberts Island Fire. — Herald, July 15: At 
two o'clock in the afternoon a fire was dis- 
covered by T. J. Stephens in a stack of grain 



be more than enough to supply the probable de 
mand boi,h at home and abroad. Hay is abun- 
dant and cheap. About one-half of the ground 
planted in potatoes last year has been planted 
this season, at least this is the estimate of farm- 
ers in this section and between here and the 
coast. The crop looks fine and promising. Ow- 
ing to partial failure of the grain crops, farm- 
ers have planted more corn than usual, and the 
crop is looking fine. The dairy season is about 
over, and it has been one of the best we have 
ever had. The fruit crop is very promising; it 
will bo of good quality, and the yield of most 
varieties large. Reports from the vineyards of 
the county are very flattering, and the wine 
interests will get a regular boom. The wool 
clip has been heavy and of fine quality, and 
sheep and stock of all kinds are in good condi- 
tion. More improvements have been made in 
town and country than «for several years past, 
all of which indicate prosperity among the peo- 
ple. The good citizens of old Sonoma have real 
cause for gratitude. 

Fruit Works. — Santa Rosa Democrat: Last 
Saturday we paid a visit to the fruit drying 
and canning establishment of Joseph Black. 
The season having hardly commenced, things 
yet are not quite in running order. Four 
men are employed in making cans, each com- 
pleting about 600 per day. On last Saturday 
evening there were on hand 30,000 cans. 
Apples and blackberries are already arriving in 
large quantities and work will begin next week. 
Mr. Black has erected a large Plummer drier 
:ind proposes to turn out nothing but the very 
best articles. 

RACES, — The next meeting of the Agricultu- 
ral Park Association of this county, at the tine 
grounds of the association near Santa Rosa, 
will take place the last week of August. At 
present every stable is occupied, and, besides 
the racers and trotters already on the ground 
there in training, assurance is given of the ad- 
ditional attendance and entry of other noted 
horses and promising colts in training at Pet- 



belonging" to JesBie Lewis, two miles southwest I aluma and other points. Mr. James McM. 
of Lindstrom's ferry, on Roberts island. As Shatter's tine stock is in training on his own 
soon as it broke out, a force of men gathered to ranch, and will be brought here in due time, 
fight the flames, which rapidly extended to the STJTTER 

ranch of C. W. Bidwell, where about 10 acres Movements <»' Wheat.— Marys ville Appeal; 
were burned, thence to Samuel Peter s ranch, j The ware hou8es at Yuba City still contain a 



where 70 acres of fine standing grain were 
burned before the flames were extinguished. 
The wind suddenly changed at this time, and 
the men, to the number of 300, became masters 
of the situation. The grain was very high and 
the men fought it by rushing in and beating it 
down with sacks and shovels. The heat was 
intense, and often the vigilant farmers became 
exhausted and had to be carried off by their 
comrades. Samuel Peter's crop would have 
averaged 40 bushels to the acre, and it is safe to 
say that he lost about 3,000 bushels, all of 
which was fully insured. In the stack where 
the fire originated there were from 1,000 to 
1,200 bushels. The origin of the fire is un- 
known, as there had been no one about the 
stack since early in the morning. The night 
before a tramp slept there and it might be that 
either he or some other tramp dropped some 
matches there which were ignited by the heat 
of the sun. The loss is estimated at §3,000, 
fully insured. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Squirrels and Grain. — San Mateo Journal. 



large quantity of old wheat. The steamer 
Knight is making two trips a week down the 
Feather to the Sacramento, taking about 150 
tons to a load. The Buckeye mills have had 
nearly all their wheat in store at Yuba City 
moved to their warehouse in this city. Sheriff 
Harkoy, of Sutter county, is sending new wheat 
from his ranch direct to the Buckeye mills. 
Little new wheat has arrived at the ware- 
houses in Yuba City. Heading is mostly com- 
pleted, and threshing is actively under way. 
The wheat crop of Sutter this year is turning 
out very light. The grain is of first-rate quality, 
but much of it is foul from the effects of last 
winter's floods. One grower reports that he 
has only harvested 1,700 sacks off of 600 acres, 
and from 100 of those acres the yield was only 
150 sacks. 

TULARE. 

Swamp Lands. — Lemoore Advertiser, July 2: 
The U. S. Surveyor is revealing to us the as- 
tounding fact that Lemoore has in its immedi 
ate vicinity thousands of acres of the most val- 
uable farming lands in this or any other county 



TUOLUMNE. 

Editors Press: — Wheat is being secured all 
over our broad domain. Short crop and low 
prices is the general outcry. But when we 
make calculations on the reserve crop on hand, 
there need be no fears of a scarcity, either for 
export or home use. The weather has been fa- 
vorable for field labor. We have suffered only 
a few days of extra heat. The glass ranges 
from 78 D to 98° in the shade, at noon. A cool- 
ing shower of rain passed over the foothills a 
few nights ago, giving us an evening rainbow 
of prismatic splendor; Eighteen hundred and 
eighty one is passing away, as vanishes all the 
fearful, fanciful predictions ascribed to its pro- 
phetic traditions. Nature is ever true to laws 
eternal, and they are filled with "peace and 
plenty" when man obeys them. The earth is 
ever fruitful to science and industry. The 
fruit crop is earlier than usual. With the ex- 
ception of occasional patches of mildew on 
grapes, and codling moth operations on apples, 
the fruit crop will be abundant. The best of 
the peach crop has not yet appeared in the mar- 
ket. A few more weeks will be required to 
bring them to maturity. Blackberries are plenty, 
prices ranging from 5 to 8 cents per pound. 
One thing surprises those who take an interest 
in horticulture and its products. Canneries 
seem to be plentiful in and around the Bay city, 
while the very best centers for fruit, and that 
of the freshest and best, is left out in the cold. 
Much fruit superior to that up in the city, goes 
to waste for the lack of a market. You may 
have strawberries in richer abundance, and 
also currants; but for all other staple fruits, 
the world cannot beat us for flavor and variety. 
It will not do to send our fruit below to be 
canned up. It loses flavor by being picked 
comparatively green for transportation. The 
only true method is to establish canneries in the 
midst of bur foothill gardens, and such fruit 
will command a ready sale, and the highest 
market price. The reputation gained would 
soon make California occupy the front ranks in 
canned productions. Enterprise and capital are 
necessary to success. It is only a matter of 
time. The demands of trade will send us can- 
neries and wine manufacturers, also a railroad 
to distribute our splendid horticultural products 
all over our vast and varied domain. — John 
Taylor, Mt. Pleasant. 

WASHINGTON. 

BlueMountain Foothills. — Editors Press: 
I have been three months on the foothills of the 
Blue mountains, about 13 miles northeast from 
Walla Walla. I like residence here better than 
in any other place I have tried in the Territory 
A great portion of these hills are covered now 
with waving grain, wheat, barley and oats, or 
summer-fallow, whenever the grade will allow 
of tillage. Prospects very flattering. — J.Rooers, 
Walla Walla. 



A squirrel was killed at Los Gatos the other 1 . 

day? in whose pouches 1,078 grains of chevalier I m this State-a soil for productiveness that is 
barley were said to have been found. Although 



this number is probably about 78 too high, still 
the matter is worth thinking about. To com- 
pute how much grain the squirrels on a ranch 
consume in a year, count the number of holes, 
allow 10, old and young, to each hole, multiply 
this by 1,000 for each day the harvest is ripe 
and within their reach — say 60 days — and we 
have 600,000 kernels for each family. It is a 
poor ranch that can't support 500 holes. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Insects Scarce. — Courier- Item, July 12: On 
his return from his visit to this county. Chief 
Horticultural officer Cook reports that he found 
the orchards of this county remarkably free 
from injurious insects. He, however, found 
some eggs and other signs of the tent caterpillar, 
the same worm that was so plentiful in the 
orchard of Mr. Delong, of Marin county. The 
woolly aphis had done considerable damage in 
one or two orchards visited. The Pacific scale, 
of Prof. Comstock, has made its appearance, 
though not to any great extent. The Tussock 
caterpillars are also in some of the orchards, but 
the codling moth was only found to have been 
on one apple tree. Some pupas of the codling 
moth were, however, found in some boxes that 
had been returned from San Francisco. This 
may prove the first introduction of the codling 
moth into the orchards of this section. He ad- 
vises that orchardists of this county should look 



unparalleled in the world, Egypt on the Nile 
not excepted. Immense tracts of these lands 
have been claimed by parties whose avarice ex 
ceeded their honesty, under pretense of having 
reclaimed them, when, in fact, they never 
needed reclaiming. A report to the proper au- 
thorities at Washington, by the surveyor who 
is now surveying them, will set this matter all 
right, when these lands will be open for entry 
and will naturally place Lemoore in the center 
of the Mussel Slough country. Lemoore neces 
sarily will become the center of trade and 
business. 

Wheat Crop. — Delta, July 15: Enough of 
the wheat crop of Tulare county has now been 
threshed to enable the Delta to form, with 
some accuracy, an idea of the yield this season, 
as compared with last. As a general result, it 
may be stated that the number of sacks or 
bushels is, as a general rule, in the chief wheat 
districts of the county, less than last year, 
while it is also true that the general weight per 
sack is heavier, by four to nine lbs., than it was 
last season. Yet, this increase in weight per 
sack will not prove sufficient to prevent the 
yield in Tulare county from being considerably 
less than it was in the harvest of 1880. Even 
a slight increase in the acreage sown this year 
will not prevent the wheat crop from falling 
short of the standard of last year in quantity. 
In quality, however, it can safely be asserted that 
the wheat of Tulare county has never surpassed 



The State Fair of 1881. 

Preparations for the State fair at Sacramento, 
September 24th, are going forward, and the 
outlook for a fine exhibition is good. The pre- 
mium list has already been issued, and can be 
had by addressing the Secretary, E. F. Smith, 
Sacramento. It should be consulted by all 
producers, and the best things in each depart- 
ment of production and manufacture selected 
to represent the industries of the State. For 
the coming session the Central Pacific railroad 
company will carry all articles and animals ex- 
hibited at the fair, over its respective routes, 
free of charge, and the same company will issue 
excursion tickets to all parties going to the fair 
and returning, at about half price. Over $20,- 
000 has been appropriated by the officers of the 
society as premiums for the best exhibits in the 
several departments of live stock, machinery im- 
plements, textile fabrics (mill and domestic pro- 
ducts), and juvenile department, mechanical 
products, and California inventions, designs, 
etc., agricultural products, horticultural pro- 
ducts and fine arts. Liberal special premiums 
will be given for all worthy articles exhibited, 
not mentioned in the schedule. Also, in addi- 
tion to the premiums named, the society will 
give a gold medal to the most meritorious ex- 
hibition in each of the departments. Those 
who desire to compete for the gold medal in 
any department should make special entrieB for 
that purpose at the time of entering their goods 
for general premiums, so that the Gold Medal 
Committee may examine them more closely 
The preparations being made for the fair are of 
a good character, and the season probably will 
be one of mutual profit for both the society and 
the public. 

A new feature this year, and one which should 
attract the attention of California girls, is in the 
fact that J. McM. Shatter, President of the 
State Agricultural Society, offers a premium of 
$50 in plate, to the Miss under 18 who, unaided, 
makes the best loaf of white bread and the best 
loaf of brown bread. This practical contest 
should wiu many contestants. 



sharp to their return boxes and other modes of tn i 8 year's crop, if, indeed, it has ever equalled 

bringing the codling moth among them. i t . The wheat this year is very plump, and no 

SONOMA. wheat in the State can be justly called superior 

Farming Interests. — Petaluma Courier, July to it. Sacks range this year in weight from 

14: Since our last report, farm prospects have 138 to 149 lbs. An odd fact this year is that 

not materially changed. Our wheat crop will volunteer shows more smut— though slight — 
be about one-third as compared with that of ' than winter sown. 



"Lemoors Advertiser." — We have received 
early copies of a neat little local paper entitled 
the Lemoore Advertiser, of Lemoore, Tulare 
county. It is owned by Dr. B. Hamlin, and 
edited by John Boor. Lemoore is a growing 
town, and the Advertiser will, we hope, 
vance with it. I 



ad 



News In BrM 



Dean Stanley is dead. 

Both London and Paris are at present afflioted 
with a bad hot spell. 

Three comets are said to be visible every 
night at Guaymas, Mexico. 

Salmon are now running in all the rivers of 
British Columbia in large numbers. 

Sib Evelyn Wood is to be raised to the 
peerage for his services in the Transvaal. 

Samuel Brannan is having trouble with the 
Mexican authorities in regard to his land grant. 

Hessy Helitoann's death sentence has beeu 
commuted to imprisonment, for what term is 
not stated. 

The President continues to improve, and it is 
now confidently believed that the danger line 
has been crossed. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has presented 
Ida Lewis with the gold life saving medal, 
authorized by act of Congress. 

The different Atlantic cable companies have 
given notice that they will reduce their rate to 
25 cents per word after August 1st next. 

A London, Ontario, dispatch says the Cap- 
tain and Superintendent of the ill-fated Vic- 
toria have been committed for trial at the As- 
sizes. 

Fifteen hundred laboring men in the log- 
ging camps of Wisconsin are out on a strike 
for 10 hours, instead of 11 and 12 hours service 
per day. 

A St. Petersburg dispatch says: General 
Ignatieff recently received several threaten- 
ing letters, purporting to come from the Nihi- 
lists. 

Martin Mukthy and wife, who came to Cal- 
ifornia in 1844, on Monday celebrated their 
golden wedding at Mountain View, Santa Clara 
county, in grand style. 

The track of the recent cyclone in Minne- 
sota is 40 miles long by one mile wide Several 
lives were lost, and the property damage is 
estimated at $300,000. 

The London Morning Post hints that the pro- 
tective tariff of the United States and other 
countries renders retaliation duties necessary 
on the part of England. 

A large meeting of Turkish bondholders in 
London has formally requested the former 
Under Foreign Secretary (Bourke) to go to Con- 
stantinople to arrange the Turkish debt. 

A Vienna dispatch says: Chimerical as it 
may seem, the Berlin and Vienna foreign offi- 
cers are seeking to effect a political and trade 
alliance between France, Austria and Germany. 

In the rifle match at Wimbledon between the 
Lords and the Commons, at a single range of 
50 yards, the Lords scored 440 and the Com- 
mons 393. 

In shooting for the international trophy on 
Saturday, at Wimbledon, the grand total scores 
were as follows: Scotland, 1,774; Wales, 1,086; 
Ireland, 1,642. Twenty competitors were in 
each team. 

Billy the Kid, the notorious murderer and 
outlaw, who for several years has been the ter- 
ror of New Mexico cattle men, was on the 14th 
inst. killed by Patrick Garrell, Sheriff of Lin- 
coln county. 

Several Mexican Custom-House officers in 
attempting to arrest some smugglers were dis- 
armed" and tied to trees, where they remained 
for two days, until rescued by some friendly 
Papagos. 

After two years' labor, the fire in the Stan- 
ton shaft, Wilkesbare, Penn., has been subdued. 
The work of repairing the immense destruction 
caused by the water and flames is now being 
vigorously pushed forward. 

Don Carlos, the Spanish pretender, has been 
ordered to quit France. It is stated that he 
has been engaged in certain proceedings which 
are regarded as a manifestation against the pre- 
sent form of government in France. 

A law student in the University of Bonn has 
just been killed in a duel, and another student 
is in the hospital hopelessly wounded. A stu- 
dent in Berlin a few days ago had ^his <nose 
slashed nearly off. Scarcely a week passes but 
we hear of some such brutality. 

The agricultural laborers in many parts of 
Cork are dissatisfied at deriving no benefit from 
the improved circumstances of farmers conse- 
quent on the payment of reduced rents, and 
contemplate striking for higher wages dur- 
ing the harvest. The movement is fast gaining 
ground. 

Statistics published by the Hamburg police 
authorities, show the number of German emi- 
grants passing through Hamburg alone to 
America, from January 1, 1881, to June 30th, 
1881, amounted to 74,633. If emigration pro- 
ceeded in the same proportion the government 
will find that, reckoning fugitives by other 
channels, it has lost in 1881 about a quarter of 
a million of its subjects. 

It is stated that France has made a treaty 
with the chief of the Amados in Senegal for the 
exclusive right to found and open roads to the 
Niger. Segoo will be placed under a French 
protectorate, and a French resident will be 
stationed there. It is intended to build a 
railway up the valley of the Senegal tow- 
ard Bamakoo on the Niger, in order to estab- 
lish communication with Upper Soudan. 

The latest estimates of the harvest in Hun- 
gary agree that the yield of wheat will be 
much larger and of better quality than last 
year. Reports from Russia state that the 
yield will be excellent. Roumanian grain 
crops are much damaged by spring rains and 
storms. Reports from France show that the 
harvest, with few exceptions, will be excellent. 



54 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July 23, 1881. 




The Lender's Dream. 



(The following touching lines are sent to us by an 
Eastern friend who writes feelingly of investment in 
mortgages on farms in the grasshopper and cyclone re- 
gions, be cause he had some on 'em himself.— Eds. I'kfss. J 

The lender sits in his down-east shade, 
And dreams of the freaks by fortune played; 
Of the blooming West, and the twelve-percent. 
That promised bread, and a sweet content. 

He dreams of the incomes o'er and o'er, 
That came as prompt as the tide to shore; 
Of the blessings breathed on the brawny arms, 
That cradled gold from his mortgaged farms. 

He dreams of the drouth and a draining purse, 
Where his income flowed like a footless verse; 
Of the locust clouds that settled down, 
And sacked the fields as a foe a town. 

He dreams of the blight and the blizzards' wrath, 
And the scattered homes in the cyclone's path; 
Of the vanished fruits of the toiler's hand, 
And a fortune lent on a faith of Band. 

Anon he dreams with a startled sigh, 

Of the fickle past, and the by-and-by; 

Of the by-and-by with its calm and gale, 

And his loan-bought lands by the league fOt sale. 



Mountain Top Letters— No, 15. 

[Written for the Rural Prrss by Jpwbll.] 
This is the third attempt at No. 15 since the 
last part of a letter appeared, aud I, like the 
busy editor, rind them out of date, after a few 
weeks. Your "Home Circle" is so well filled'of 
late that I have felt it impossible to aid it any, 
so have kept silent, while my tired body and 
brain enjoyed the treat. 

Two columns of poetry, by our much valued 
friend, G. W. McGrew, were indeed gems, and 
shall find a place in my scrapbonk, much as I 
dislike mutilating my Rural. How rare do we 
find youthful feelings mingling with ripe age. 
To grow old gracefully is a charm so few pos- 
sess, or care to cultivate. Life, with its cares, 
duties, disappointments and sorrows are so apt 
to make us selfish, morbid and dead to the joy- 
ousness of youth and the beauties of nature that 
when one rinds it in such poetry it is refresh- 
ing, and I trust you may yet publish a poem of 
praise on the 50th wedding anniversary of 
friend McGrew, written by th« same pen. 

Will it ever be summer ? is a question often 
asked this year. What is the matter with Old 
Sol? Has the "perihelion" anything to do with 
it, or the comet, or both, or neither ? Who can 
tell? My "gude mon" and myself feel like 
emigrating to some warmer climate, if there is 
such a spot. Uur corn and beans stand shiver- 
ing, and our squash vines don't know which 
way to run to get warm; while the melon vines 
wonder whether it is worth while fruiting, as it 
is too cool to be a luxury. Meantime the weeds 
keep apace, and our song is hoe, hoe, hoe, from 
morning until m_lit; hoe, hoe, hoe, till there's 
not a weed in sight, and will be all the season 
I fear, as late showers make weeds a veritable 
fact. 

How swiftly flies a city-bred woman's ideal 
thoughts of fanning when brought face to face 
with the actual employment ! To plow, plant 
and harvest was in my ignorant brain the sum 
t ital of farming — and enough, too, I thought. 
Cut here comes the actual items: Plow twice; 
harrow four times, and plant; cultivate, hoe all 
the time until harvest. Meantime, there are 
squirrels, gophers, beetles, worms, slugs, bird 
and beast that require poison, trap, gun and 
fence to tight and kill, until a peace icoman like 
myself is quite disgusted at the amount of de- 
struction to life required in the peaceful farm 
life you read about ! 

Shall I dare touch upon a pet hobby of mine 
in our "circle" without bringing upon myself 
the odium of "reformer?" — and a wonder from 
the sisterhood, if I act up to my opinions, etc., 
which is of little importance to any one but 
myself. 

The Dress of Women and Children, 

Especially girls. Since the reform underwear 
for ladies and children has come into use, there 
is a slight under-current of common sense creep- 
ing into the mind of the average woman. They 
follow the style, and make outer gar- 
ments higher in the neck, longer in 
the sleeve and skirt than formerly. But the 
limbs of both women and girls are insufficiently 
clad, and not kept warm, as men's and boys' 
are, and consequently there is entailed a list of 
diseases and weaknesses that are usually laid at 
the door of sex, when all physicians know and 
proclaim that the female sex is by far the hard- 
iest, enduring more privations, discomforts and 
abuses than the male sex, with less fatal re- 
sults. More male children died, according to 
New York statistics some years ago, than fe- 
males, in proportion. While few men could 
undergo the tight lacing, cramped feet and 
hands, cold extremities and the uncomfortable 
fashions of women's wear, without being, like 
her (provided they live through it), victims to 
"general debility," "nervous prostration," and 



a host of general ailments which now appar- 
ently belong to the female sex — produced by 
improper dressing from youth up. Do you 
doubt it, my sisters? 

I lately saw in the paper that a Paris doctor 
gives it as his opinion that thousands of child- 
ren die in Paris annually from "bare arms, 
necks and legs." A London physician told the 
same story, viz., "improper dressing of child- 
ren," as the cause of great mortality among 
them, blaming the mothers for not using more 
sense in such matters— instead of following 
fashion they should make it; while the Scientific 
American, in a little article headed "Hogs vs. 
Babies," thinks it is a pity that babies have 
not a market value, like hogs. "A death rate 
among the pigs, less than one-third the death 
rate among children, in our large cities, moves 
the Government to costly investigations of the 
cause and to diplomatic correspondence with 
foreign nations; while produce exchanges get 
excited on the subject, and all the newspapers 
join in the discussion. The babies die by the 
thousand in New York and other overcrowded 
cities, and all over the country, and scarcely 
any notice is taken of the fact." 

I believe it is time for the mothers of our 
land to try to solve the great question, "How 
to save our children from disease and death," 
and bring them into healthy competition with 
hogs. 

Deer Ridge Farm, July 2, 1881. 



How Simon Peveritt Got Married at 
Last 

Master Westley, clerk aud sexton iu the 
.-•mall village of Woodham, was one winter's 
morning sitting by his cheery fireside, watching 
alternately the rain, fiercely beating against 
the latticed window panes, and the brisk move- 
ments of his active little daughter, as she moved 
to and fro, busy about her household work. 
Presently she came in, bringing a hat, great- 
coat, and umbrella, observing: "You will be 
wanting these soon, father. It is nearly 11 
o'clock." She had hardly said this, when a 
loud knocking was heard at the outer door, 
followed by the abrupt entrance of a little 
middle-aged man in a Btate of great excite- 
ment, his face red, his hair rumpled, his boots 
splashed with mud, and his coat dripping with 
wet. 

"Why, Simon, what on earth's the matter?" 
said the clerk. "You don't look much like a 
bridegroom." 

"Bridegroom! No!" the little man exclaimed 
with bitter emphasis. "Master Westley, you'll 
hev to tell parson I can't get married to-day." 

"Why, how is that?" asked the clerk. 

"I can't get Mary up," quoth the indignant 
and disappointed lover. "I've been rattliu' 
at her door, and throwin' stones at the winder, 
and shoutin' till I'm as hoarse as a rook ; and 
I'm nearly wet through with the drippings 
from the husens [the eaves of the house]; but I 
can't get she up. She only jest put her head 
out of the winder for a minute, to tell me 'twor 
no good for me to stand hocketting [making a 
great noise] there; for she'd never take the 
trouble to put on her best things, and go out in 
that powerin' rain jest to marry me." 

"Why, Sim! this is rather a bad beginning 
for people about to marry — isn't it? I'm afraid 
the gray mare will be the best horse in your 
team — won't she?" Baid the kindly old clerk, 
with a merry twinkle in his knowing brown 
eyes. "However, I'd better go and tell Mr. 
Howard, or he will be putting his surplice on 
for nothing. Shall I say to him that perhaps 
the wedding will come off to-morrow, if the 
weather is finer, Mary will get up in time?" 

"If she don't," vowed Sim, glaring venge- 
fully, "she shall never hev another chance. 
I'm fairly sick of her tricks. We've been 
keeping company this 20 year and more, and 
now she don't know her own mind a bit better 
than a mawtner [young girl] in her teens. But 
I won't stand it no longer. She ain't going to 
treat me like a dog, or a mat for her to wipe 
her feet on. There's Widow Biggs would hev 
me any day, and glad; and a nice comfortable 
woman she is too. The wedding-ring shan't 
lie long in my pocket for want of a wearer. 
And there. Master Westley," said poor Sim, 
almost in tears over his frustrated plans and 
disappointed hopes, "I'd meant this to hev 
been a reg'lar jolly day. I'd got in a barrel of 
beer, and a spare-rib of pork, and we wor going 
to hev parsties and frawns [pancakes], and a 
mort of good things beside, to make a reg'lar 
spree of it; and now, it's all knocked on the 
head, and everybody knows I'm made a fool of 
into the bargain." 

"Cheer up, Sim?" said Master Westley. "It 
is aggravating, I'll own; but Mary isn't a bad 
sort, though she has rather a cruggy (crusty) 
temper. She has been very true to you; and it 
would be a pitty for two such faithful lovers 
as you've been, to part over a little tiff at last. 
I believe Mary is jealous of the little widow. 
You know people did say once you were rather 
soft 'on her." 

"It was a big story, " burst out Sim. "She 
tried to hook me, but I never gave her no en- 
couragement." 

"Didn't you walk with her from church last 
Sunday ? I heard that you did and car- 
ried little Joey all the way home; and kissed 
him when you put him down at his mother's 
door. " 

"Well, he axed me to give him a kis, so I 
couldn't do no other wise. There was no harm 
in that, sewerly." 

"Certainly not. Only, you see, as Mary 



lives just opposite, and saw it all, she vary 
likely thought you'd be better engaged kiss- 
ing her, instead of hanging round the widow's 
door. Depend upon it, she's jealous; and 
she's got a highfui spirit of her own, and is 
acting like this to make you think she doesn't 
care whether she has you or no. If she 
thought there was real danger of losing you, 
she'd come round in a minute, as tractable as 
you like." 

"But how can I make her think so ?" 
"Well, you won't be doing any work to-day, 
and it's dull titiling [idling] about doing nothing. 
Take and brush yourself up smart, and go and 
have a chat with Mrs. Biggs. Take some or- 
anges and sweets for Joey. Don't look at 
Mary's house; and mind and make a grand 
show of petting and kissing the boy in front of 
the window, where she can see it all. She'll 
be more jealous than ever. But if she doesn't 
marry you to-morrow, I'll eat my head." 

"Ah, Master Westley, you're a deep one, 
you are I" said Simon, regarding his astute ad- 
viser with admiration. "But it don't fare to 
beezackerly jonnick [straightforward] to dew so; 
and I ain't fond of smarmin' babies over with 
kisses. Still, if you think it will bring Mary 
up to the scratch, I'll e'en try it. If it don't, 
marry Sukey, I will, without any more shilly- 
shallying." 

Master Westley then started for the rectory; 
and Sim paid his visit to the widow. He re- 
mained in her snug little house Borne time, and 
must have acted his part uncommonly well, 
for he had hardly reached home again, when he 
was visited by his old sweetheart. That eccen- 
tric spinster, ignoring her own wayward con- 
duct that day, attacked Sim with a storm of 
reproaches, accusing him of fickleness and 
falsehood in forsaking her for "that sly, car- 
neying, little widder; and after keeping com- 
pany with me for so many years !" she plain- 
tively added. 

"No," said Sim, stoutly; "'twor no fault 'o 
mine. I was ready to do my part this morn- 
ing. It was you as run word. But I'll eat 
humble-pie no longer. If you don't want to 
hev me, I know one as does. I'll marry you 
to-morrow, if you like. If you don't, I'll never 
ax you again I 

Mary was a tall, black-eyed, comely looking 
spinster of 40 or more, reputed to have a hot 
temper and shrewish tongue; but for once she 
kept both in check. It was evident that Simon 
meant to be trilled with no longer. Moreover, 
she could not help secretly admitting that he 
was right, and admired his spirit and manly 
determination. It would never do to let bo 
good a fellow and so faithful a lover fall a prey 
to a designing widow — not to mention the hu- 
miliation she would have to endnre ! 

Next morning, the rain-clouds had all cleared 
off, and a bright sun poured its rays through 
the old church windows on Mr. arid Mrs. Simon 
Peveritt as they walked from the altar-rails 
into the vestry, to enter their names in the par- 
ish register. Sim, with a broad grin on his 
face, laboriously executed a big black X as "his 
mark," informing the rector that he was "a 
sawyer by trade" and that his "owd gal had 
been of age this 20 years I" after which he 
turned to his friend the clerk, with a knowing 
wink, and said in an under-tone "We did it 
well between us, didn't we ? Mary was up 
at six this morning, and hed to wait for me ! 
I've got the whip-hand, to begin with; and I 
promise you I won't give up the reins again." 
Then he added in a louder tone, as they were 
about to leave: "Now, Master Westley, you 
must come and help we eat the wedding-dinner. 
The pork and apple-sass will be none the worse 
for waiting a day; and my Missus and me'ull 
make you as welcome as flowers in May. 
There won't be happier folks in Woodham. 
And, Master Westley, you shall have some of 
the finest logs in my timber-yard, to keep up 
your fires this winter. I am not the man to 
forget a good turn or an old friend. " 

A Farming Woman In Tulare County. — 
A very remarkable example of prudence, fore- 
sight and continuity, has recently developed in 
the southern part of this county. The more so 
in that the subject is a woman. And in com- 
parison with the conduct of so many men who 
become easily discouraged and "tramp" as the 
more praiseworthy, this young lady had started 
with nothing but her education; taught school 
a few terms and acquired a little ready money. 
The occasion for its use speedly arrived, which 
she was not slow to perceive. A young man 
in the neighborhood had taken up 160 acres of 
land, built a house upon it, a barn, bored wells, 
dug ditches, sown it in wheat, and in all spent 
hundreds of dollars upon it. It happened to be 
a dry season, and the crop failed. He became 
discouraged, and like many desired to leave, 
and offered his claim and improvements at a 
sacrifice, for means to get away. The young 
lady alluded to gave him 8100 for his right, ti- 
tle, and interest in the land and everything on 
it. She let it lie. She need do nothing more. 
She sold jthe insufficient crop for hog feed. 
The hogs rooted aud scattered it. The winter 
rains came, and with them came the volunteer 
crop, which matured and has just been cut, 
yielding 12 bushels per acre on 120 acres. She 
will clear at least $1,500, besides having the 
land and improvements. So much for adhe- 
sion — and the girls. — Visalia Delta. 

A tainter who was well acquainted with the 
dire effects of the law had to represent two 
men — one who had gained a lawsuit and an- 
other who had lost one. He painted the former 
with a shirt on and the latter naked. 



Water for Babies. 

I was one day called upon to visit a sick lit- 
tle one in a family residing near my office. The 
babe I found in apparent good health, but cry- 
ing and struggling in its mother's arms as 
though suffering from excruciating pains. 

The mother informed me that the child seemed 
desirous of nursing continually; and that to 
quiet it, Bhe had given it "the breast as 
often as the crying commenced. When 
that did not soothe the little one, a dose of 
Mother Somebody's cordial had been adminis- 
tered. 

"My good woman," I inquired, "when did 
you last give your baby a drink of water?" 

"I don't remember," replied the lady; "I 
seldom let him drink water. Does he need it?" 

"Need it? Why shouldn't he need it as much 
as you? This child is suffering from thirst — 
nothing more." 

I called for cold water, gave the infant a few 
teaspoonfuls, aud it was relieved of all its trou- 
ble-, stopped crying and sank peacefully to sleep 
in its mother's arms. 

Let this be a reminder to mothers and nurses. 
Infants who nurse at the breast may often suf- 
fer as much for want of water as adults who eat 
more solid food. Often when he cries, it is only 
thirst which causes it. 

Do not, then, dose it with the poisonous 
"soothing syrups" or nursing cordials, or press 
it to the breast, which it will eagerly grasp, ex- 
pecting to satiate its burning thirst; but, filled 
to the brim with its natural food, it cries on 
harder than ever. 

Use a little discretion. The poor little one 
cannot tell its wants; if it could, it would often 
cry: "Water! water!" — Exchange. 

Safety Lamps. 

Editors Prkss: - A writer in the last issue of your paper 
attributes the invention of the safety lamp to George 
Stephenson. This is a mistake. Sir Humohrev Davy 
invented the safety lamp. Young persons may think that 
statements made in the Rural must be correct, hence the 
necessity of correcting the above. -Mrs. J. B. Boody, 
Stockton, July 14th. 

In 1815 Stephenson devised a miners' safety 
lamp, for which a large prize had been offered 
by colliery owners; but Sir Humphrey Davy 
having simultaneously invented his safety lamp, 
this prize, valued at €2,000, was awarded to 
him; £100 being awarded to Stephenson by the 
committee; a separate subscription ;of £1,000 
was raised in 1817, which was presented to 
Stephenson, and his lamp is still in use in some 
English collerics. — Johnson's Universal Cyclo- 
padia. 



Blonde Hair Changed to Black.— At a 
meeting of the Biological Society, held at the 
Smithsonian Institution last evening, Dr. D. 
W. Prentiss read a paper entitled, "Notes on 
the Action of Pelocarpus pennatifolius in Chang- 
ing the Color of Human Hair." Prof. Pren- 
tiss' paper recorded a very remarkable case of 
the change in color of the hair of a lady patient 
in this city who had been treated several 
months for blood poisoning with jaborandi, a 
Brazilian plant used in medicine. This medi- 
cine, which is given to produce sweating in 
certain rare cases, was first given to the patient 
in subcutaneous injections in December last. 
At that time, and previously, her hair was a 
light blonde, but within about two weeks a 
change toward a darker color was perceptible, 
which increased until, in the middle of Jan- 
ary, the hair became of a chestnut brown color. 
In May the color was nearly a pure black, 
which it still retains, although there is slightly 
apparent tendency to return again to a lighter 
color. As this is the only recorded case of 
this plant (which is not, however, in common 
use) having produced any perceptible change in 
the color of human hair, it becomes a matter of 
interest to know how this change was brought 
abont and how often it might accompany the 
use of this remedy. A microscopic examina- 
tion shows the hair to contain a greatly in- 
creased quantity of pigment matter, and scien- 
tists now await with interest the results of fu- 
ture growths to ascertain whether they will re- 
tain their old color or retain that newly ac- 
quired. — Washington Post, June 4th. 



Compressed Gunpowder. — Some interesting 
experiments with Messrs. France & Baker's 
compressed gunpowder have been made at 
Messrs. Pease's mines, in Skinningrove, Cleve- 
land. The powder, says the London Mining 
Journal, which was Curtis & Harvey's, had 
been compressed into a triangular form, so as to 
fit the drill-hole, and cut in short lengths, some 
weighing 2 to 3 ozs. each. The holes were 
drilled in the same way as if they were about to 
be charged with loose powder, the triangular 
blocks were placed in and exploded in the or- 
dinary manner, but more than the usual quan- 
tity of stone was brought away. In all, 11 boles 
were charged, requiring altogether 1 <:•_•; ozs. of 
the compressed powder, whereas with the 
powder loose it would have required, in the 
judgment of the miners themselves, no less than 
207 ozs. This shows in powder alone a saving of 
just 40%, to say nothing of the advantage in 
charging and the diminution of danger. 

Magazine for Jolly People. — Dr. Dio 
Lewis, the well-known apostle of hygiene, has 
begun a new literary venture entitled Dr. Dio 
Lewis' Monthly J'or Jolly People. Edited by Dr. 
Lewis, and published by the Eastern Book Co., 
Boston, Mass. , at $1 per year. It is copiously 
illustrated and the articles are entertaining and 
mirth provoking. 



July 23, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC 1UB1L PRESS. 



55 



Chaff. 

"My wife," remarked Fitznoodle, "is fairly 
crazy over the spring fashions. She's got the 
delirium trimmins." 

The Graphics farm editor says: "Soak cats 
well in a bag tied at the mouth and plant them 
deep to prevent their scratching up the seed." 

The mad dog which jumped over a six-ft. 
fence to bite a man's leg must have felt terribly 
mortified and disgusted when he found it was 
wooden. 

Why is a cow's tail like the letter F ? Be- 
cause it is the end of beef. Here's another 
quite as bad. Why is an egg like a colt ? Be- 
cause it is not tit to use until it is broken. 

Choice brands of French wines are now 
largely made from glucose and beets, and some 
of the best French brandy is made from grain 
and potatoes. Hoopskirts and oyster cans are 
said to make a very superior article of cider. 

The Shepaug railway has finally succeeded in 
killing a man. The theory is advanced, that he 
was walking on the track behind the "lightning 
"express," and caught his foot in the weeds and 
stumbled, striking his head against the bumper 
of the rear car. 

An Oil City man who suspected that his ser- 
vant girl was in the habit of using kerosene for 
kindling, put just a taste of nitro-glycerine in 
the oil-can as a test. Contrary to expectation, 
nothing happened, but a day or two later the 
girl came around and asked him to subscribe 
something towards buying a new stove for her 
poor old mother, as the old one had fallen to 
pieces. 

A grandfather, coming to read his paper, 
found that he had mislaid his spectacles, and 
thereupon declared: "I have left my glasses 
somewhere and can't read the paper. " A little 
three and a half years old girl, desiring to assist 
him, answered: "G'an'pa, you go outside and 
look froo ze window, and 1 will hold ze paper 
up so that you can read it. " 

Originating New Ideas. — The most diffi- 
cult mental or material operation in the uni- 
verse is that of originating an entire new idea. 
Many philosophers deny the possibility. An 
important thought in the youthful mind, is ma- 
tured by reflections on the more simple medita- 
tions and ideas of childhood, and these are, ob- 
viously, begotton by what is seen and heard in 
the still more early dawn of mental receptive- 
ness. First words and ideas, then, are the seeds 
of germs of thought and they are planted by our 
early teachers. This being conceded our origi- 
nality can consist only in the new arrangement 
of words and ideas. To illustrate: We cannot 
form in our minds even an original animal. 
We may fancy a living creature with the body 
of a horse, the head of a lion, the face of a man, 
the scales of a fish aud the feet of a cangaroo; 
but this would' not be originating anything. 
It might be a combination not before dreamed 
of, but no proof of genius. So with the work- 
ing of all powers. We cannot create anything. 
The most original thinkers and workers are 
those who are able to form the moat beautiful 
and useful combination. 



Why Woolen Fabrics Shrink. — The fibers 
of wool and certain kinds of hairs, are toothed 
or jagged at the edges, the teeth (or imbrica- 
tions) pointing upward— that is, from the root 
to the point. When subjected, therefore, to 
compression or friction these fibers, being free 
to move only in one direction by reason of these 
asperities of surface, have a great tendency to 
unite and lock together. This explains the pe- 
culiar capability possessed by wool, of felting, 
and also the shrinking of fabrics of wool. In 
the latter case, the excessive rubbing to which 
they are subjected causes a matting or binding 
together of the ultimate fibers, which causes 
shrinkage ; and this is intensified by changing 
the goods from hot to cold water, which is 
usually practiced, as the contraction of the 
fibers which this causes is itself a felting pro- 
cess. For washing woolen articles, it is recom- 
mended to place them in warm water, never in 
cold; and if changed from one water to another, 
they should go from hot to hotter. They should 
be cleansed with as little and as gentle friction 
as possible. The fibers of cotton and linen are 
straight and smooth, and possess none of the 
surface roughnesses that characterize the struct- 
ure of wool, hence they do not shrink in wash- 
ing. — Manufacturer arid Builder. 

Discolored Brick Walls.— The white sa- 
line substance that "comes out" upon brick 
walls, and which has been a source of annoy- 
ance to a great many, may, according to the 
American Architect, be remedied. In reply to 
a query on the subject, it says: The "saltpeter- 
iug" of brick- work can generally be prevented 
by adding oil to the mortar at the rate of a gal- 
lon to the cask of lime. If cement is used in 
the mortar, an additional gallon of oil must be 
allowed for each cask of cement. Linseed oil 
is generally employed, but any kind that does 
not contain salt will answer. The incrustation, 
once formed, can be removed with hot^water, 
or by the muriatic acid generally used for clean- 
ing down brickwork, but it will reappear again 
by exudation from the interior of the wall, and 
usually leaves a permanent black, or brown 
stain. 

A remarkable worm has been deposited in 
the library, Santa Barbara, by Henry Cooper. 
It has alternate sections of^transparent emerald, 
and shines in a dark room like an electric jewel 



Yodfjq f ©Lies' C©nJ|«. 



Our Puzzle Box. 

Numerical Enigma. 
I am composed of 50 letters. 
My 12, 42, 35, 24, 52 is a journal. 
My 20, 2, 36, 46, 10, 48 ia to waver. 
My 1, 44, 56, 17, 39, 16, 19 is a town in Maine. 
My 5, 50, 13, 40, 43 is to insult. 
My 38, 11, 39, 9, 55 is a fabled being. 
My 53, 28, 47, 33, 25 is a garment. 
My 18, 54, 20, 4, 34, 31, 48, 51 is a bush. 
My 49, 27, 32, 22, 30 ia a part of the head. 
My 3, 7, 8, 42, 30 ia a propheteaa. 
My 45, 21, 39, 29, 6 is confidence. • 
My 14, 23, 41, 48, 15 ia a Spanish name. 
My 37, 27 is a preposition. 

My whole ia good advice. Cepha. 

Cross-word Enigma. 
My firat is in west but not in east; 
My second is in lion, but not in beaet; 
My third ia in low but not in high; 
My fourth ia in live, but not in die; 
My fifth ia in lie, but not in truth; 
My sixth is in Jane, but not in Kuth; 
My seventh ia in much, alao in mauy; 
My eighth ia in aome, but not in any; 
My ninth ia in have, but not in will; 
My tenth ia in farm, but not in till; 
My eleventh is in king, but not in queen; 
My twelfth ia in scarlet, but not in green; 
My thirteenth ia in pen, but not in ink; 
My fourteenth is in red, but not in pink; 
My fifteenth ia in bay, but not in bight; 
My sixteenth ia in dark, but not in light; 
My seventeenth ia in cent, also, in dime; 
My whole was a well-known bard of olden time. 

Mblancthon. 

Curtailments. 

1. Curtail an outbuilding and leave a personal pronoun- 

2. Curtail a place where hay ia kept and leave a tri- 
bunal. 

3. Curtail to moi8ten and leave a plural pronoun. 

4. Curtail to ask earnestly and leave to perceive. 

5. Curtail benevolent and leave relativea. 

Aunt Sarah. 

Charade. 

A pronoun always meaning me; 

A verb that signifies to sever; 
Another verb who;e meaning ia 

To join or link, or bring together; 
These words together rightly placed 

Will form a widly-famous river. 

A farmer bought a drove of cattle for §180. After giving 
away two of them, he sold the reat for the same amount 
— $180. He now finda hia gain on each to be one-third 
more per cent, than the cost price of each. How many 
did he buy 1 Uncle Jamrs. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Numerical Enioma. — "Re it eve* ao humble there is- 
no place like home." 
Problbm.— 3, 9 and 30. 
Cross- Word Enigma.— Mountain. 
Kiddle. — New, full and old moon. 

Nambs ok Authors.— 1. Byron (buy-run). 2 Shakes- 
peare (shako speajr). 3 Milton (mill-ton). 4. Emerson 
(emma-son). 6. Whittier (whit-tear). 6. Mooro (more). 
7. Cowper (cow-per). 8. Hart (heart). 9. Read(e). 



Boys Who Were Housekeepers. 

Do not be afraid of a little house-work boys, 
if there is a need-be for it. It will never hurt 
your manliness in the least and may be 
almost a life-preserver to a weary, feeble 
mother. 

Willie Radcliffe's mother, up in Maine, was 
taken sick in harvest time. He was but 12, and 
there were three little ones younger still. Mother 
was sick some six weeks, and Willie did 
all the house work. He made the butter, 
baked the bread, and even went into pies, and 
cooked for a lot of threshers, and farmer's 
folks tell me that they have wonderful capaci- 
ties in the way of eating. But Willie carried 
the ship through safely, until mother was at 
the helm, and I know you will vote him a brave 
little boy. 

I knew another young man whose mother 
was feeble, who had to mix up her bread and 
sweep out the house, when he came in from his 
regular work, and thought nothing of making 
his own coffee and cooking his steak in the 
morning before he went out. He has been mar- 
ried these 10 years and the folks tell me that 
Lizzie has the nicest, kindest husband to be 
found anywhere. He makes a good living, too, 
at his trade, and they are a very happy little 
household. House-work did not make him in 
the least effeminate. He is a man among men, 
and never paraded his domestic attainments, 
though not at all ashamed of them. 

"It is not pleasant, in general, to have a man 
fussing about the kitchen-work when there is 
no need of it. Most women can work better 
without such help; but it is an excellent thing 
in a man to know when his strength would be 
of service, and then have the willing heart and 
hand to render it. 



A Cat's Long Journey. — A gentleman in 
this city had presented to him a Maltese cat 
with four young nursing kittens, by a former 
friend, living 14 miles out in the country. This 
cat and her kittens were placed in a close-cov- 
ered basket inside of which was a blanket in 
which they were wrapped, and the whole then 
covered with a thick rug. The basket and its 
contents were then brought in a wagon to this 
city, the distance stated. The cat and her 
kittens were kept in a room in their new home, 
and carefully watched, fed and petted for seven 
days she appearing to be wonted and content. 
On the morning of the seventh day she and her 
kittens were seen at their new home for the 
last time, and were missed very soon after. 
The following day she appeared at her old home 
with all her kittens. She did not return by the 



road, the way she came, as she was seen by sev- 
eral persons going through the field with a 
kitten in her mouth. Allowing 30 hours to 
have elapsed between the time she was last 
seen at her new home and the time she was 
first seen at her old home, she must have trav- 
eled a distance of 112 miles carrying a kitten 
one-half the same distance. — Bangor Letter to 
Forest and Stream. 




Water as a Part of Diet. 

Many persons drink ordinarily as little water 
as possible, and none at all at meal times, be- 
cause they suppose that water dilutes the gas- 
tric juice. Experiments, however, show that 
dilution does not diminish the digestive power 
of the gastric juice, and further, that water 
alone, as well as solid food, awakens its secre- 
tion. 

A paper, read by Dr. Webber, of Boston, at 
a meeting of a learned medical society, took the 
ground that water, used moderately at meals, 
is beneficial, and that a large class of people 
drink too little. 

The result is, if too little water is drank — es- 
pecially if the person eats heartily — the per- 
spiration and the kidney secretions are dimin- 
ished. Not only they, but the waste of the 
system which can be removed only in a state of 
solution, is not eliminated with sufficient regu- 
larity and fullness, and the system becomes 
gradually clogged by it. The accumulation is 
slight from day to day, but in time unpleasant 
symptoms are developed. 

These symptoms are of an indefinite charac- 
ter — discomfort, even pain, sometimes in one 
place and sometimes in another, constipation and 
unhealthy hue of the skin. 

"Patients," says Dr. Webber, "who drank 
no more than a pint of water a day, have told 
me that they were not thirsty. They were sur- 
prised when told to drink more. Those who 
have followed this suggestion, in the course of 
a week have developed thirst, and drank as 
many as three pints of water a day." 

We may add that water taken into the stom- 
ach is at once rapidly absorbed by the blood 
vessels. A bowl of well-seasoned broth as a 
first course is specially helpful to the above class 
of patieuts. A large quantity of ice-cold water 
is harmful to any one. 

Dr. T. C. Duncan, in his book entitled "How 
to Get Plump," shows the necessity to the hu- 
man system of frequent draughts of water. 
The Doctor says that "few people appreciate 
the fact that water constitutes in the normal 
human subject about 70% of the entire weight 
of the body. The water which thus forms a 
part of the animal frame is derived mainly from 
without. It is taken in the different kinds of 
drink, and also forms an abundant ingredient 
in the various articles of food. Water is abun- 
dant in the blood aud secretions, where its pres- 
ence is indispensable in order to give them the 
fluidity which is necessary to the performance 
of their functions. Water is therefore an es- 
sential ingredient of the fluids, for it holds these 
solid materials in solution and enables them to 
pass and repass through the animal frame. Wa- 
ter is also an ingredient of the solids — muscles, 
tendons, cartilages, bones, teeth, glands, skin, 
etc. If the water of tendons, skin, etc., be 
evaporated they become yellowish in color, 
shriveled and unfit for performing their func- 
tions. This accounts for the sallow appearance 
of lean people. With these fact3 before us, 
continues Dr. Duncan, we can readily under- 
stand why a person who does not take much 
water except in food is lean. Lacking the ne- 
cessary fluidity, the functions are all performed 
with difficulty. Many cases of dyspepsia are 
due to lack of water. Many cases of headache 
can be relieved by increasing the fluidity of the 
blood. Many a case of functional palpitation 
of the heart can be mitigated by increasing the 
volume of the circulating fluid with an extra 
pond of water. I generally order a half- pint of 
water to be taken four times a day, early in the 
morning, about 10 A. m., about 4 p. m. and be 
fore rotiring. I forbid cold water to be taken 
at meals, for the reason that the stomach is then 
at its highest functional activity, and cold low- 
ers its temperature and retards digestion. 
Warm fluids, like milk and water, facilitate di- 
gestion. 

Help The Children Grow Erect. — Wil- 
liam Blaikie, the author of "How to Grow Strong 
and How to Stay So," spoke before the Brook 
lyn Teachers' Association recently on "Physical 
Education." "I want" said he, "to see if in an 
informal talk we can't hit upon some way in 
which we can bring the physical education of 
school children down to a practical basis. Our 
children who are healthy and buxom when they 
begin school work, comeout pale, sickly, and with 
round shoulders. If you require the children 
under you to sit far back on a chair and to hold 
their chins up you will cura them of being round 
shouldered, and the lungs and other vital or 
gans will have free and healthy play. Another 
sample plan is to have the children bend over 
backwards until they can see the ceiling. This 
exercises for a few minutes each day will work 
a wonderful transformation. If a well- qualified 
teacher could be employed to superintend the 
physical development oi the children the best 
results would be seen. 



Esyic Ec@fi@^y. 



Curing Hams. 

The last report of the Oregon State Agricul- 
tural Society gives the following methods of 
sugar curing hams as practiced by those who 
took the premiums for hams at the fair of 1880: 

Hams lie 15 days in common Liverpool salt; 
then put on about seven lbs. of sugar to the 
hundred lbs. of pork; let all lie about 10 days; 
then take up and soak over night in fresh wa- 
ter; then hang up and smoke well 10 to 20 
days. — D. C. Howard. 

For 100 lbs. of ham, 6 ounces of saltpeter, 12 
lbs. of fine salt, 1 quart of molasses and six lbs. of 
brown sugar; mix saltpeter, salt and sugar; 
then add the molasses; the mixture to be well 
rubbed on the hams; at the end of one week rub 
them again; at the end of the third week to be 
rubbed again, adding a little salt each time; 
at the end of the fourth week rub them again, 
and then hang them up to smoke. — George H. 
Riddell. 

Birthday Cake. 

Editors Press :— Will some of the correspondents of 
your valuable paper pleaae give a recipe for making a nice 
birthday cake, and oblige? — Nina, Bear Valley, San Diego 
Co., Cal. 



Soap Bark for Cleaning Black Goods. — 
For removing spots and dust from black goods 
of all kinds, a decoction of soap bark has given 
the best satisfaction of anything we have tried. 
In fact, we would not be without it. Buy a 
a few cents worth — to be had of any druggist — 
break into bits, steep a while in a little more 
than water enough to cover, strain, and it is 
ready for use. Brush the goods free from dust, 
dip a piece of blach cloth into the decoction, 
squeeze out and rub the soiled parts. If a thor- 
ough renovation of the article is desired, rip 
apart, brush from it every particle of dust, and 
with a cloth dipped into the decoction wipe off 
each piece, folding it up as you proceed. Then 
with moderately heated irons, smooth and press 
the goods upon the wrong side until dry. As 
for silk, we perfer to fold it and place under a 
heavy weight until dry instead of ironing. Of 
course, the goods should be but dampened with 
the liquid. — R. New Yorker. 

Stewed Steak. —Take a clean, well-tinned 
stewpan, which is much better for the purpose 
than an ordinary saucepan; put in a little butter 
or dripping, and melt it; then place in the steak, 
cut into conveniently sized pieces, and fry each 
of a very light brown, frying a sliced onion at 
the same time; when sufficiently fried, add the 
seasoning, such as pepper and salt. The salt 
must not be added at first, as it would draw out 
the gravy and prevent the meat browning. The 
meat should then be barely covered with cold 
water and allowed to stew slowly for four or 
five hours, the greatest care being taken that it 
does not boil. The vegetables, such as turnip, 
carrot, celery, etc., should be cut up and boiled 
in a separate saucepan of water until tender, 
and then added to the stewed meat. The ob- 
ject of cooking the vegetables separately is to 
prevent the necessity of boiling the meat, which 
would harden it. Half an hour before serving, 
add a little flour and water, mixed into a very 
thin paste, and let the stew just simmer so as 
to thicken the gravy. 

Croq'jettes of Turkey. — To each half-pound 
of meat allow two ounces of ham or bacon, one 
ounce of butter, one tablespoonful of flour, the 
yelks of two eggs and some bread crumbs. The 
smaller pieces of turkey, that will not do for a 
fricassee, answer very well for this dish. Mince 
the meat tine with ham or bacon in the above 
proportions; make a gravy of the bones and 
trimmings, seasoning it well. Mince some pars- 
ley, put it into a stevpan with some butter, 
add the flour, mix well, then put in the mince 
and about half a pint of gravy made from the 
bones. When just boiled, add the yelks of 
two eggs. Cool the mixture, then shape it in a 
wineglass. Cover the croquettes with bread 
crumbs and fry them a delicate brown. Put 
small pieces of parsley stems for stalks, and 
serve with rolled bacon cut very thin. 



Macaroni Pudding. — Take two and a half 
ounces of macaroni with a pint of milk and the 
rind of half a lemon in a saucepan. Let it sim- 
mer gently, until the macaroni is tender. Then 
put it in a pie dish, leaving out the peel. Mix 
a pint of milk with three eggs; stir them well 
together, adding two tablespoon fuls of brandy, 
and sugar to taste. Pour the mixture over the 
macaroni; grate a little nutmeg over the top. 
Bake in a moderate oven for half an hour. To 
make this pudding look nice a paste should be 
laid around the edges of the dish, or a layer of 
preserves or marmalade may be placed on the 
macaroni. When this is done omit the brandy. 

Impromptu Shortcake. — These delicious, 
easily made shortcakes are especial favorites. 
Take 1^ cupfuls of sour milk, adding salt, and 
soda to neuralize the acidity. Stir with a spoon, 
adding enough flour to make a batter that will 
easily run, but considerably thicker than batter 
for buckwheat cakes. Then stir in four table- 
spoonfuls of drippings. Bake 10 minutes in a 
long pie tin with a brisk fire. Split and spread 
with some kind of canned fruit or preserves, 
and eat with plenty of cream, flavored with nut- 
meg. — Gussie Thomas, in Country Gentleman. 



56 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



[July 23, 1881. 



punt 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWEB. 

Office, 202SansomeSt., N. E. Cor. Pine St., S. F. 

Address editorial and business letters to the firm. In- 
dividuals are liable to be absent. 

Ahnual Subscriptions, 84; six months, 82; three 
mouths, $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No nbw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances' by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Auvbrtisino Kirns. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 25 .80 $2.00 $ 5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. 81. 00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

Largo advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisememts, notices appearing 
on e*:raordinary typo or in particular parts of the paper 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month 



Entered at San Francisco P. O. as second-class matter 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DBWBT. W. B. BWBB. 8. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 23, 1881. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS — The New Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture; Horses for East India, 49 The Week; The State 
University; CheeBe Factory Keports; State Fa:r of 1831; 
Birds and Worms; Overlaud Wheat Shipments, 56. 
The Olive in Italy— No. 6; A New California Chum, 57. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Dr. Geo. B. Loring, Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture, 49- Freeman's Combined 
Churn and butter Worker— The Dairy Queen, 57. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— A Ranch ou the Moke- 
lumue Kiver, 60. , _ 

THE STOCK YARD.— Notes on California Breed- 
ing, 50. 

THE PUBLIC LANDS. — Available University 
Lands, 50. 

THE FIELD. — Pacific Coast Hops; Diversifying 
Crops, 51. 

FORESTRY.— Arizona Trees, 51. 

XHti DAIRY.— Timothv on the Pacific Coast, 51. 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER. — Notes on Irri- 
gation, No. 3. 61-58. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— San Luis Obispo 
Gruugc and the Transportation Question; A Pleasant 
Grange Gathering, 52, 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 52-3. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on pag<? 53 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— The Lender's Dream (Poetry); 
Mountain Top Letters, No. 15; How Simon PeverittGot 
Married at Lost; A Farming Woman In Tulare County; 
Water for Babies; Safety Lamps; Blonde Hair Changed 
to Black; Compressed Gunpowder; Magazine for Jolly 
People, 54. Chaff; Originating New Ideas, 55. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Our Puzze Box; 
Boys who Were Housekeepers; A Cat's Long Journey, 
65. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Water as a Part of Diet; Help 

the Children Crow Erect, 55. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. —Curing nams; Birthday 

Cake; Slewed Steak; Croquettes of Turkey; Macaroni 

Pudding; Impromptu Shortcake, 56. 
MISCELLANEOUS— A Gift to the University; 

California Pioneer*; Wooden Boilers for Steam; Ele- 

phant's Milk, 58. 

Business Announcements. 

Petaluma Fruit Drier— J. W. Cassidy, Petaluma, Cal. 
Buhach Producing and Manufacturing Co— Stockton, Cal. 
Furniture and Bedding— W. D. Comstock, Sacramento. 
For Sale— C 11. Hall, Soquel, Cal 
Fruit and Alfalfa Farm— McAfee Brothers, S. F. 



The Week. 

The telegrams still come at intervals of a few 
hours announcing the progress of the wounded 
President toward recovery. If all goes .well 
another week will release him from his chamber 
and see him carried to the better air of the sea- 
shore for the regaining of full strength. It will 
be a day for demonstrations, no doubt, when 
the President rises from the stroke of the assas- 
sin. 

Threshing is in full swing now in the great 
grain-growing counties, and in the earlier lo- 
calities the cutting is finally complete. Ac- 
counts agree that the outcome from the separa- 
tor is comparatively small in amount, but of un- 
usually good quality. This is fortunate, for 
many growers will not think of selling at pres- 
ent. Since our last note fires have broken out 
in several fields and destroyed grain in stack 
and standing, but, fortunately, the most of the 
property was insured. 

The fruit market continues to rejoice the or- 
chardist. Canners have paid as high as $1. 15 per 
basket for yellow peaches, and the city dweller 
will hardly know what peaches are this year, 
for receivers find it more profitable to close out 
the fruit at once on the wharf to the canners 
tbau to haul it up to stores for small custom- 
ers. This is indeed quite a change for San 
Franciscans, who for years have been used to 
carrying off luscious peaches at nominal prices, 
and seeing what they did not want thrown into 
the bay. This is a better day for all concerned, 
for the high price means a foreign demand, 
which will bring in gold; and general prosperity 
will yield plums of content to those who are 
now robbed of cheap peaches. The world is full 
•f compensations. 



The State University 

We have refrained from comment upon the 
condition of affairs at the State University, be- 
cause, in the excitement of changes of various 
kinds, it is seldom one can speak wisely and 
disinterestedly. It is true that these changes 
are not yet fully made, but it is plain that the 
fever of revolution has well nigh passed away 
and the immediate future will be calm, and, we 
trust, productive of benefit to the institution. 
The gift of Mr. Mills was most timely. It be- 
spoke confidence and trust on the part of one 
who is known as a man who does not put his 
money in poor places, and his thousands have 
done more to give people a belief that there is a 
future for the University than the same number 
of most eloquent orations. Sometimes a sum of 
money is weightier than argument, and in this 
case, as too seldom occurs, the sum of the 
money was thrown on the right side of the bal- 
ance. Mr. Mills is entitled to the approval 
which greets him from all parts of the State. 

The almost universally popular feeling against 
the selection of Mr. Reid for President, has 
happily calmed down. There was most excel- 
lent a priori grounds for the protests against 
the selection made by the Regents. It is nat- 
ural that the people should cry aloud when 
their ideals were about to be dashed to pieces by 
what seemed to be a few men's idol. But since 
the crash has come, all are now looking with 
interest upon the figure, hoping that it may in- 
deed spring forth full of life and action, will- 
ingly waiting to acknowledge that they erred 
through their inability to fathom the unknown. 
It is certain that the new president will come 
upon the scene with the best wishes of his as- 
sociates and the public generally. If he prove 
master of the situation, if he have indeed that 
breadth of view, coupled with a grasp of detail, 
that ready wisdom and firmness in the right, 
and those qualities of head and heart which 
will lead people irresistibly to united efforts for 
the upbuilding of the institution with the be- 
stowal of their sons, their daughters and their 
surplus funds, then his victory will be great, 
and the people of California will rejoice with 
him and in him. Such a chance as lies before 
the new president is enough to cause the 
strength and nerve of any able and sincere 
young man to grow within him and compel him 
to rise with the occasion and surmount it. 

It is becoming more and more apparent that 
the reduction of salaries of professors and other 
members of the working force of the institution 
is a matter of necessity in the present condition 
of the University funds. So far as we are 
aware, those who find their incomes lessened 
are accepting the disagreeable fact with becom- 
ing spirit, and it does not appear that the effi- 
ciency of the institution will be decreased. As 
a rule, it is a fact that men whose minds are 
filled with the consciousness that their calling 
is high and their work of benefit to thoue who 
come to them to be fitted for their life work, 
are not turned from their course by considera- 
tions which influence more sordid natures. If 
the true scholar can live and find modest com- 
fort for his family he clings to his work until 
death sets him free. We do not cite this as a 
reason why these noble, self-sacrificing men 
should be pinched; far from it. It is the greater 
reason why the people should be generous with 
those so devoted to all interests but their own. 
We mention it as praise justly due to the Uni- 
versity professors, and as surety to the people 
that their sons will be just as zealously and con- 
scientiously taught as though the professors had 
a few more dollars for their disinterested labors. 

We are glad to assure our readers that the 
College of Agriculture, in which they are espe- 
cially interested, bids fair to be brought into 
greater prominence and its just claims to be 
more generally recognized than heretofore. It 
is true that its operations are restricted and its 
efforts crippled by a lack of funds which should 
not appear, but we trust that time and a gener- 
ous people will remedy the evil. It is true that 
our friends have been prone to grow indignant 
in their letters that a position which the law 
says shall be given to one thoroughly identified 
with agriculture, has been otherwise bestowed, 
but that is a small matter if the interests of 
agriculture in the University should be other- 
wise conserved and advanced. 

We base our chief hope for the agricultural 
future of the institution upon the manner in 
which the work of the College of Agriculture 
has been shown forth to the popnlar mind dur- 
ing the general scrutiny which has been turned 
upon the University. Whatever has been crit- 
icised and whatever condemned, there has been 
a general disposition to approve the work which 
Prof. Hilgard has carried forward dur- 
ing the last six years. There has been a general 
demand that the College of Agriculture be given 
means and opportunity to carry forward and 
increase its instructive and experimental work. 
It is true that in the present condition of the 
finances of the institution it does not appear 
how this can be done, but a way must sooner or 
later appear, for the disposition of those|engaged 
in our leading producing interests seems unmis- 
takable, and their ability to finally secure their 
ends cannot be doubted. There is imperative 
call that our varied agricultural interests should 
enjoy the full light of scientific research and ex- 
perimentation which many of their practices 
and processes so greatly require. The College 
of Agriculture is naturally looked to as the 
source from which this light should emanate. 



This was the original design in its creation, and 
the clearer perception of the need and the de- 
sign is but the forerunner of realization. 

The promoters of a new career for the Uni- 
versity can build strongly if they give the Col- 
lege of Agriculture due consideration. It is 
firm in the popular esteem and oontidenoe. If 
the impression should go forth that its growth 
and advancement are to be received with due 
pride and care by the rulers of the institution, 
we do not believe that funds will be long with- 
held. The agriculturists of the State would 
rally around it, and it should not be overlooked 
that they are now achieving more solid and 
general prosperity than any other class of our 
population. Our orchard, vineyard, dairy and 
live stock are all'yielding immense aggregate 
values, and have wider margins of profit than 
the old staple cereal products. There is a large 
amount of generosity lying in the hearts of pro- 
ducers waiting the concentrator. They can 
easily furnish the means to supply their own 
needs of information, and for the education of 
their children in the arts which have made 
them prosperous. We have uncovered a mine. 
Only well known and trusted hands can work it. 



Cheese Factory Reports. 

The dairyman has much to learn from correct 
statistics. They can tell him whether his cows 
are worth keeping, whether the churn or cheese 
vat is doing the fair thing with his milk, and a 
score of other things which enter into the ques- 
tion of profit and loss in dairying. In the East, 
era States there is a great deal of figuring done 
on the season's average yield of milk for the 
dairy, the milk of individual cows, the amount 
of milk required to make a pound of butter or 
of cheese, the price obtained for the product as 
compared with the prices of other producers, 
etc. There is something of this done in this 
State, also, but not nearly to the extent it should 
be. 

We shall be glad to receive and publish well- 
certified milk records, product from specified 
numbers of cows, and other trustworthy da\ of 
that kind. We believe that a large collection 
of such statistics will show dairy advantages in 
California which have not yet been made prom- 
inent, and cannot be claimed with any force un- 
less the statistics can be had. We believe that 
the average milk per cow through the dairies of 
the State will be much higher than the Eastern 
average, and we also believe that less milk is 
required, as a rule, to turn out a certain amount 
of the finished product. These are but impres- 
sions gained from limited observations, and can- 
not be firmly claimed unless wide-reaching fig- 
ures should be gained. * 

We notice, in the Santa Clara Journal, a re- 
port of the work of the cheese factory at that 
place for the year which closed July 9th. The 
summary of the season's work is as follows: 

Pounds of milk received from patron stockholders dur- 
ing the year, 1,108,514; pounds received from outside 
patronB, 165,770; total pounds of milk received, 1,274,284; 
pounds of cheese made during the year, 124,385; gross 
sales of cheese, 116,680, 19; average price per pound, 1261 
cents; pounds of milk to one pound of cheese, 10.16; div- 
idends paid on milk, 813,290.31; amount expended in per- 
manent improvements, 8228.98. 

The report shows a fine average price for the 
year, but gives rather a large amount of milk 
to the pound of cheese, unless the patrons have 
been making some butter at home. It is not 
very high, as 10 lbs. is what is usually calculated 
in the rough, at the East, but we expected to 
see a lower figure out here. This might be so 
if the cheese were weighed as near the hoop as 
they are in New York. But one cannot argue 
much from a report unless he knows more about 
the circumstances which may affect its state- 
ments. Let us have more facts and figures about 
the dairy in California. 



Birds and Worms. 

The beneficial deeds of insect-eating birds 
are everywhere recorded and have entered into 
nearly everyone's experience, and they are con- 
stantly recurring, Mr. Blowers dates the in- 
road of leaf-eating caterpillars upon his vine- 
yard from the year when there was no water 
for irrigation, the alfalfa fields were killed out 
and the birds finding no green thing flew the 
neighborhood. Since then the insects gained 
such a start that he has had to fight the insects 
himself, instead of trusting to friendly birds as 
formerly. We notice by the Dixon Tribune 
that the birds have returned because of the 
abundance of insect food, and are doing much 
service for Mr. Briggs. He has discharged most 
of the 150 Chinamen whom he had employed to 
pick the green worms off his vines, because he 
has secured the unpaid services of a better in- 
sect destroyer than human hands, viz: An im- 
mense flock of crows that come every morning 
and settle in the vineyard, diligently searching 
for and devouring the worms. The existence 
of the worms in this vineyard seems to have 
been made known to all the corvine species in 
that part of the State, and they are nothing 
loth to take advantage of such an unusual op- 
portunity for a feast. When the Chinamen 
were working at the job they went over the 
vines several times, snipping the worms in 
two with scissors, but could not seem to exter- 
minate the insects, who are very voracious and 
can eat up a leaf in five minutes. They do 



their work of destruction in the morning hours, 
crawling down the stalk as the hot weather 

comes on. 

Such service as this gives new force to the 
old injunction, "Don't kill the birds." But 
this, like other general commands, must be in- 
telligently obeyed. The character of a bird is 
as distinctive as that of the larger animals, and 
it is necessary to observe the food of the bird in 
order to determine whether he can be spared or 
not. The study of birds, with a view to learn 
their injurious or beneficial character, is pro- 
ceeding rapidly at the East, especially in Illi- 
nois, by Prof. Forbes and Mr. Carman, and 
great numbers of dissections are made to learn 
the character of the food taken into the stom- 
ach. In a report made by the latter on a visit 
to an orchard overrun with canker worms, we 
find an interesting paragraph. He found that 
the number of birds in the infested orchard 
was very great, altogether in excess of that 
usually Been. There were also a number of 
species which are seldom met with in that sec- 
tion. These were all drawn together by the 
banquet of canker worms. There were 30 dif- 
ferent kinds of birds observed in the single 
orchard of lb' acres, while neighboring orchards 
not visited by worms were also neglected by the 
birds. 



Overland Fruit Shipment 

This promising branch of our horticultural in- 
dustry is showing unusual life this year, and is 
far outdoing the achievements of all former 
years. It is a neat trade, and it ascend? to high 
figures. It will bring into the State this year a 
large sum of clean coin, and will exert indirect 
benefits by relieving the pressure on our looal 
markets and thus enable much more material 
to be turned into money. The trade over the 
northern overland line is centered in Sacra- 
mento, and the Bee states that the shipments 
this year have been largely in excess, if not 
double those of any previous year. The Bee 
gives items in this connection which are of gen- 
eral interest : 

The steamer Apache, which came up from San Fran- 
cisco this morning, brought up 1,983 boxes of fruit from 
points between Kercheval's and this city, in Sacramento 
county, all of which is for shipment East. This is the 
largest consignment ever brought to Sacramento on a 
river steamer, and attests to the excellence and plenteous- 
ness of the fruit crop in this county this season. M. T. 
Brewer & Co. last week shipped East 23 car-loads of fruit 
and vegetables, and have already orders to forward 16 
car-loads this week. Gregory & Co. ship eastward, on an 
average, from one to three car-loads per day Strong & 
Co. and D. DeBernardi & Co. also send Urge quantities 
forward each week, and such a "boom" as now prevails in 
the fruit and vegetable shipping business was never be- 
fore known in Sacramento. In addition to these heavy 
shipments to the East, fully as much is seut to Nevada 
and the Territories northward. 

There has also been active work done in the 
southern counties over the new southern over- 
land route. The well-known firms of Wood- 
head & Gay and E Germain and others in Los 
Angeles have been busy forwarding all kinds of 
produce to Arizona, New Mexico and beyond. 
Shippers are also operating at other points, as 
for example, the purchase of Riverside apricots 
for the overland trade. The new outlets for 
perishable products are stimulating producers 
both in northern and southern counties, and the 
result is satisfactory to contemplate. 

The details of the Eastern trade in fruits are 
of interest, as there are many methods and appli- 
ances employed in so novel a business which 
have not been required in the ordinary fruit 
trade. We have given items relating to this 
matter from time to time. There is special 
preparation at nearly every point, and it reaches 
back even to the orchard, although, in most 
cases, there has usually been a re-packing at 
Sacramento. The Chico Record of last week 
says: 

At the R&ncho Chico orchards this morning an addi- 
tional force of 40 hands was put on to pack plums for the 
Chicago market. The fruit is shipped by T. Earl, of Sau 
Francisco, to W. H. Peacock tt Co., of Chicago. Each 
plum is wrapped in a separate piece of paper before it 1* 
racked in the box. The boxes are 12 inches wide, 16 
nches long and 4 inches deep, and hold about 20 lbs. of 
fruit. The car will be loaded this evening and will leave 
with the express train to-morrow morning for Chicago. 
The amount of fruit shipped will be about 10 tons, or as 
much as can be placed in the car. The plums are of the 
Purple Duaine variety and are of fine size, much larger 
than the average size shipped, and the regulation box is 
too shallow and has to he made larger by the addition of 
small cleats on the end to prevent maiblng. The car is 
well ventilated and built expressly for the shipment of 
fruit. 

The trade for this year, although it has been 
very active, is but just approaching its hight, 
for the grape is one of the greatest items, and 
grape ripening haa hardly begun. Our Eastern 
friends will have plenty of California grapes 
this year, and they will be of exceptionally fine 
qnality. 



A New Paper. — We have received the first 
copy of a new paper entitled the Women's 
Herald of Industry and Social Science Co-oper- 
ator. It is published by Mrs. J. W. Stow, nnder 
the auspices of the California Women's Social 
Science Association, organized in San Francisco, 
August 7, 1880. It is a large, eight-page jour- 
nal, full of well-written notes and essay* on 
fresh themes relating to the work of the Social 
Science Association, and women's progress in 
arts and industries generally. It has also vig- 
orous descriptions of the wrongs and indignities 
which the editor affirms have been visited upon 
her by those in authority. The Women's Her- 
ald is wide awake and aggressive, and bids fair 
to reach a wide circle of readers, 



July 23, 1881.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PEES 



57 



The Olive in Italy —No. 6. 

[Translated for the Kural Press from L'ltalia Agricola, 
by Dr. J. I. Uleasbale J 



Oil Maklns In the District of Albenga. 

The cultivation of the olive tree in this dis- 
trict, and indeed in the greater part of the Com- 
munes, may be said to be our most important 
industry, and that from which the best remun- 
eration is obtained. 

The serious attention of our agriculturists 
has been directed again, as it ought to be, to 
this tree, which was called by the ancients, "the 
first among the first." But the intelligent 
farmer ought not to stop at the cultivation of 
the tree; for, if so, he would stop half way, but 
should have a bright eye to the fruit in order 
to get the largest profit from the oil. The study, 
then, of the extracting of the oil is as profitable 
as that of the cultivation of the tree, for, with- 
out it, the tree is of secondary consideration. 

At present, the producers of olive oil have to 
contend with a terrible competition with the 
producers of oil from seeds ; and in order to 
come off victorious, it is clear they must not 
only bring the trees into highest productive 
cultivation, but know how to extract the largest 
possible quantity of oil, and of the finest qual- 
ity. It is true that the quality and condition 
of the olives have as great an influence on the 
oil as the methods of extracting it, but it is also 
true that from good and sound olives indifferent 
oil is obtained. 

The olive tree which gives the best fruit for 
oil is that called taggiaseo, which our forefathers 
did not introduce into this district, though they 
could not help knowing it, as it was cultivated 
in the bordering Province of Porto Maurizio. 

Whatever their reasons may have been is not 
now worth the trouble of inquiring. Neverthe- 
less, our olive trees are capable of yielding good, 
fine oil ; hence, it seems opportune to inquire 
into our methods of extracting it, and to indi- 
cate in our own case the causes which may im- 
prove a less perfect extraction. Thirty or forty 
years ago, in my opinion, the farmers understood 
the extracting of oil, whether as to quantity or 
quality, inasmuch as everyone grew olives and 
made oil. Many, especially in the villages, had 
oil mills, which were worked by horse-power; 
and in a calm and careful way attended to the 
oil, securing a larger amount of pressure with 
greater cleanliness of their utensils. But at the 
present day this system, for economical reasons, 
has fallen into disuse, and but few turn their 
attention, even under special circumstances, to 
manufacture oil by animal power; yet, when 
they do so, with olives of equal goodness, they 
obtain oil of a far higher quality than that 
made by water-power machinery. On the other 
hand, such a system might be compared to that 
of grinding wheat with a hand-mill, and econ- 
omy has irrevocably condemned that. So now, 
oil is manufactured by water-power, and it is 
directed by speculators, who buy the olives from 
the growers, extract the oil for sale to merchants 
in the great centers. 

We will take a look at the establishment. It 
consists of a basin with a millstone set in mo- 
tion by a water-wheel; of from four to six oil- 
presses made of wood, according to the amount 
of motive power, and of all the utensils and ap- 
pliances requisite for obtaining and storing the 
oil. The building, which includes the whole, 
is for the most part rectangular and somewhat 
narrow. 

The contractor takes care to provide olives to 
keep the hands employed, who in ordinary 
times may number six, and he sells the oil 
gradually as the price in the market suits him. 
His aim and endeavor are principally not to pay 
too much for the olives, that he may be safe 
against loss in the sale of the oil; and as he is 
frequently in communication with the traders, 
who know every day the variations in prices on 
the markets, so when he receives commissions 
under favorable conditions, he sets himself to 
make all the provision in his power to, and 
above the full power of his machinery. He 
heaps up all his purchases in one room without 
the least discrimination, and before they are 
crushed, always 10 or 15 days pass, during 
which time anyone may guess what sort of 
fermentation will have set in. Under circum- 
stances like these, the work is hurried along, 
relays of workmen are arranged, and the chief 
scope and aim of all is to get on with the crush 
ing, and if everything proceeds most favorably, 
the press of labor is not forced, and the distinc- 
tion is made between the first and second-class 
qualities. In this way he measures out the work 
during the year, with no other intent or interest 
than to regulate the price of buying by that of 
selling. 

He deposits the crushed matter in tanks dug 
in the ground, and close to his mill, to keep it 
for washing afterward, the last process it is sub' 
jected to. 

The washing establishment consists of another 
basin, where a small oil-mill, assisted by a little 
drain of water, softens the murk and causes it 
to pass into another basin or trough, where the 
washing is finished with the help of appropriate 
iron implements for stirring it; of troughs for 
holding the pellicles of oil which rise to the sur 
face, which are afterward put in a caldron 
fixed in one corner, to undergo the requisite 
boiling; of wooden oil presses moved by long 
levers, with the assistance of a windlass, and al I 
the other utensils necessary for collecting and 
storing the oil. 

Such are the establishments in this district, 
and I believe there are few as good in all 



Liguria; and such are the systems in use, and 
such the speculators who manage this important 
industry, which yields to Italy an average an- 
nual value of 400,000,000 of lire (Livres). 

The district council of Liguria [i Coraizi Li- 
guri), with the view of promoting, as far as they 
could, the